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What Is a Case Study?

When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to learn all about case studies.

Deep Dive into a Topic

At face value, a case study is a deep dive into a topic. Case studies can be found in many fields, particularly across the social sciences and medicine. When you conduct a case study, you create a body of research based on an inquiry and related data from analysis of a group, individual or controlled research environment.

As a researcher, you can benefit from the analysis of case studies similar to inquiries you’re currently studying. Researchers often rely on case studies to answer questions that basic information and standard diagnostics cannot address.

Study a Pattern

One of the main objectives of a case study is to find a pattern that answers whatever the initial inquiry seeks to find. This might be a question about why college students are prone to certain eating habits or what mental health problems afflict house fire survivors. The researcher then collects data, either through observation or data research, and starts connecting the dots to find underlying behaviors or impacts of the sample group’s behavior.

Gather Evidence

During the study period, the researcher gathers evidence to back the observed patterns and future claims that’ll be derived from the data. Since case studies are usually presented in the professional environment, it’s not enough to simply have a theory and observational notes to back up a claim. Instead, the researcher must provide evidence to support the body of study and the resulting conclusions.

Present Findings

As the study progresses, the researcher develops a solid case to present to peers or a governing body. Case study presentation is important because it legitimizes the body of research and opens the findings to a broader analysis that may end up drawing a conclusion that’s more true to the data than what one or two researchers might establish. The presentation might be formal or casual, depending on the case study itself.

Draw Conclusions

Once the body of research is established, it’s time to draw conclusions from the case study. As with all social sciences studies, conclusions from one researcher shouldn’t necessarily be taken as gospel, but they’re helpful for advancing the body of knowledge in a given field. For that purpose, they’re an invaluable way of gathering new material and presenting ideas that others in the field can learn from and expand upon.


the impact of change management on service quality case study for lebanese municipalities

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Lebanon + 2 more

Lebanon Crisis Response Plan 2023 - Social Stability Sector

  • Govt. Lebanon


Preview of 2023 Social Stability Update.pdf


Strengthen municipalities, national and local institutions’ ability to alleviate resource pressure, reduce resentment, and build peace

INDICATORS - Percentage of people reporting positive impact of municipalities on their lives - Percentage of people reporting competition for services and utilities as source of tension - Percentage of people who feel that they can voice concern with authorities in case of dissatisfaction

Strengthen municipal and local community capacity to foster dialogue and address sources of tensions and conflicts

  • Percentage of people able to identify conflict resolution mechanisms/actors in their community they would turn to - Percentage of people identifying factors that could improve inter-community relationships - Percentage of people displaying propensity for violence

Enhance the LCRP’s capacities on tensions monitoring and conflict sensitivity

  • Percentage of partners reporting that they have their own mechanisms to ensure conflict sensitivity - Number of LCRP sectors taking steps to ensure conflict sensitivity in their strategy and delivery of work plans


The multiple crises in Lebanon are continuing to drive tensions which are exacerbated by the loss of jobs and rising poverty as well as by the deterioration of services, including municipal services such as solid waste management, community security and wastewater. In this context, communal relations are deteriorating at all levels, increasingly leading to incidents and escalations.

The relations between displaced Syrians and host community members remain strained, driven by different factors, including cultural differences, but mainly driven by economic factors. Through the UNDP/ARK Regular Perception Survey, Wave XIV, the ranking of tension factors has remained approximately constant over recent waves. In August 2022, 50 per cent of those surveyed named ‘competition for lower-skilled jobs’ as the main tension driver. Over all waves of the survey, since 2017, ‘competition for lower skilled jobs’ has remained the mostfrequently cited source of inter-communal tensions, as reported by both Lebanese and Syrians. Other frequently cited tension factors include ‘competition for services and utilities’ (30%), ‘competition for the establishment of businesses’ (18%), ‘the political situation regionally and nationally’ (17%), and ‘cultural differences’ (9%). Overall, some 37 per cent of respondents reported in 2022 negative inter-communal relations, as compared to 21 per cent in July 2018. Relations are most fragile in Beqaa, Akkar and the South.[1] Negative sentiments continue to manifest themselves on social media with inflammatory messages, accusing and blaming displaced Syrians for being the main cause behind community insecurity incidents and the economic crisis, negatively affecting inter-communal relations. These negative sentiments are also impacting the protection space. 2022 witnessed a rise in restrictive measures by municipalities, particularly curfews[2] and other movement restrictions,[3] economically imposed restrictive measures, self-movements restrictions – particularly at informal settlements – collective evictions,[4] etc. Restrictive measures grew alongside these rising social tensions. The number of displaced Syrians who reported living under restrictive measures grew by 29 per cent, when compared to quarter 2 of the previous year, in Beirut and Mount Lebanon and 167 per cent in the South and Nabatiyeh. UNHCR’s monitoring shows a sharp increase in movement restrictions recorded in quarter 3: with 61 new measures recorded compared to 22 in the second quarter and 8 during the first.

Correspondingly, the majority of these new movement restrictions were implemented in the South and Nabatiyeh (61%), as well as in Beirut and Mount Lebanon (18%). Over half (56%) of the movement restrictions implemented in quarter 3 were temporary measures surrounding Ashura celebrations.

While the remainder measures were mostly introduced in response to security incidents committed by any population groups occurring in the community.[5] Simultaneously, over the last three years, intra-Lebanese relations, which were previously very positive, have been deteriorating. In 2018, 4 per cent of Lebanese described the quality of relations as negative relations between different Lebanese groups. As of August 2022, 39 per cent of respondents now report negative relations. Accordingly, when comparing data from the UNDP/ARK Regular Perception Survey, Wave XIV, the quality of relations between Lebanese groups are now at similarly negative levels as the quality of Syrian - Lebanese relations tension levels and are increasingly resulting in various incidents.

For intra-Lebanese tensions, the trajectory and drivers are often more political in nature. In July 2022, 58 per cent of the Lebanese cited political differences as the main tension driver compared to 33 per cent in July 2019. The second most reported driver of intra-Lebanese tensions is differences in socio-economic status, where 38 per cent cited ‘inflation or lack of access to cash’ as tension driver in Wave XIV (August 2022). The deteriorating intraLebanese relations are mirrored in social media with polarised rhetoric and increasing tensions.

The sustained deterioration in the economy, high levels of political instability, persistent concerns about access to food, clean water, electricity, and medical care as well as the strained capacity of security institutions to respond, coupled with increased crime rates, have also contributed to worsening perceptions of physical safety and security, nationwide. Despite some minor improvements in perceptions of safety and security survey, 53 per cent Lebanese and 64 per cent of displaced Syrians report feeling unsafe in their area or neighbourhood at night.

Prior to the parliamentary elections in 2022, 58 per cent of Lebanese were concerned about violence related to elections. However, no major incidents materialised. In August 2022, 40 per cent of the population believed that violence is sometimes necessary when interests are being threatened and 75 per cent worried about the threat of crime sometimes, often or all the time.

These factors will remain threats to Lebanon’s stability in 2023, where inter and intra-communal tensions are likely to persist and will potentially escalate.

In terms of the gender aspect, as per consultations with partners during the LCRP Inter-Agency situation analysis workshops in October 2022, men commonly respond to perceived or real inter-communal tensions by restricting women’s movement and access to public space. Such patterns have been observed between displaced Syrians and the Lebanese host communities. As a result of such tensions, women are less likely to work and to participate in the workforce and in public life, fostering dependency on men and/or the humanitarian system. At the same time, a little under half of households reported that women and girls feel very unsafe walking alone at night.

Markets (58%) and streets/neighbourhoods (66%) are the places most avoided by women and girls due to lack of safety in Lebanon. At least one in ten Lebanese and Syrian households report that female household members avoid certain areas because they are unsafe. For Palestine refugees in Lebanon, this rises to 1 in 3 households. Sixteen per cent of households felt that the school the children attend is unsafe, due mainly to discrimination, including verbal harassment against students. This was highest in the Akkar governorate at 29 per cent.

On the situation of municipalities in 2022, many are now unable to deliver basic services under their mandates and are at risk of collapse due to limited funds. Requests to LCRP partners for support have increased and are often centred around operation and management mostly e.g. fuel provision and/or solar energy provision to operate services, support in maintenance of vehicles, and other direct support (cash etc.), have progressively increased. The extent of the needs is now impacting the ability of municipalities to engage in partners’ projects, hence affecting the operational environment for LCRP partners that are increasingly under pressure to support municipalities. Lebanese and Syrians alike remain extremely concerned about access to essential goods and services, such as food, fuel, water, medicine, and medical care. The electricity crisis has had a lasting impact on quality of life and other areas of need, such as access to safe drinking water. Moreover, public institutions, including social development centres, Governorate offices, etc. are facing challenges in operation and management and are at risk of being paralysed if the economic situation continues. Key challenges for municipalities include the delayed independent Municipal Fund that, if disbursed, will not be enough due to depreciation of LBP currency against the USD, reduced tax collection and its depreciated value, weak infrastructure and lack of personnel and capacity, including municipal police. This is leading to gaps in security control and in the ability to cover maintenance and operational costs, severely affecting services delivery, particularly solid waste management,[6] with an increase of irregular dumping, accumulation and burning of waste in the streets, issues with access to water[7] and a shortage of wastewater discharge and treatment with spillover effects.

This is leading to further pressure on public and natural health and environmental hazards, leading to increased tensions, issues with some organisations’ access to certain areas and shrinking the protection space.

Women’s participation in local and national governance and decision-making structures as well as leadership and mediation and peace building mechanisms, remains low. Women are under-represented in the security forces, including municipal police, a shortage exacerbated by the non-employment governmental policy. Only 5 per cent of women are represented in the Lebanese Armed Forces (UNSC July 2022).[8] In addition, the country has witnessed a series of onward movements, irregular immigration vessels attempting to escape the deteriorating economic circumstances by sea.

Related Content

Syria: nes needs assessment report 2023, unhcr global report 2022, rapport global 2022.

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Mise en œuvre d’un appui intégré, cohérent et coordonné au Soudan du Sud et à la région du Sahel par les organismes des Nations Unies - Rapport du Secrétaire général (E/2023/92) no longer supports Internet Explorer.

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Chief Editor , Oduor Joseph , Zimulinda Mulinda


Chief Editor


wanderi ephantus , Oduor Joseph

The role of construction quality and continuous improvement is vital in the development of construction industry of growing nations. Construction quality and regular improvement is linked with the adoption of quality management systems in construction companies. It is therefore important that adequate measures are put in place to ensure quality in the sector. Total Quality Management (TQM) is considered as one of the most important approaches to achieve quality in construction Industry not only in Rwanda but the world over. This study sought to determine the factors influencing implementation of TQM in construction companies in Rwanda. Kigali province was used as a case for the study. The literature for this study was reviewed basing on the following factors; Top management commitment, Employees’ training, organization culture and communication. The study adopted a descriptive research design. Stratified random sampling was used to determine the sample size. Primary data for the study was collected using structured questionnaires that were administered to the respondents. A Cronbach alpha coefficient was computed using SPSS and generated the value of 0.843. Comparing this value with the threshold of 0.7 ensured reliability of the questionnaire. Data collected was analyzed through SPSS version 21. The study revealed that Top Management Commitment, Employee’s Training, organizational culture and Communication are critical factors in implementation of TQM in Construction Companies in Rwanda. The study recommends that construction companies as well as other organizations who are implementing TQM take strategic measures in ensuring top management participation and commitment to quality initiatives.


Hussin Hejase


Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a field concerned with interpersonal communication to enhance individual as well as group dynamics. Consequently, new patterns of behavior and communication are developed and applied in many fields including the business field. Patterns encompass not only observable actions, but also the thinking processes and the organization of people’s states-of-mind, including their emotions and how all senses are used to reach a point of attention or concentration. With the focus on creating models of human excellence, many applications of NLP have been developed including leadership related applications. A need to explore and assess NLP in the Lebanese work environment has been raised in order to define the workplace dynamics between leaders and subordinates as gleaned from data gathered from several Lebanese companies. Accordingly, the main purpose of this paper is to assess NLP patterns and behaviors, as practiced by a sample of Lebanese employees and managers, in order to shed light on current leadership practices in the Lebanese workplace and the consequences of such a practice on the organization’s objectives. This research is exploratory, descriptive and quantitative using a survey questionnaire. Results are expected to assess the workplace environment by defining the dynamics of the relationships between employees and managers that are believed to play a significant role in the assessment of the organization’s health.


Eduardo Fernandez

Journal European 2015 Salvatierra

The issue of migrant remittances and investment raises transcendental theoretical and methodological challenges. Depending on the scope of the research and analysis, whether global, regional, local, urban, or rural, if certain epistemological models and paths are taken, the results will yield different conclusions. Although researchers have discussed the positive and adverse effects for years, the controversy is still recent enough to review much of the current literature on the subject. We conducted a comparative analysis to deepen our understanding of differences in terms of both theoretical approaches and an evaluation of the impact on the communities, regions, and countries involved. For the state of Guanajuato, this is no small matter. International migration to the United States has a long history in Guanajuato. Therefore, many towns and municipalities in the state have been impacted in different ways, without a doubt, the social and economic remittances, and entrepreneurship have disrupted the heartstrings of individuals in the region. For public policy purposes, systematic, holistic, and comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon of migration, and particularly of migrant investment, merits a more targeted analysis and an understanding of the context beyond shortsighted triumphalism. We infer from this comparative reflection that the remittance investor and the return migrant investor overcome the volatile and subjective factors of potential entrepreneurs. The interweaving of the macro-, meso-, and micro-structural conditions are essential to understanding projects of this nature

Migrant investment in Salvatierra, Guanajuato, Mexico: Causes and consequences of return migrant investors and remittance based businesses

Chief Editor , Graziela Graziano


Chief Editor , Africa Makasi


wanderi ephantus

he adoption and continued use of improved biomass stoves in developing countries is of social, economic and environmental concern. Many of rural households use traditional stoves which have low energy efficiency leading to using more wood fuel, increase in indoor air pollution and also putting a lot of pressure on biomass resources. There have been efforts to promote use of efficient wood fuel technologies; this program has been spearheaded by the Ministry of Infrastructure and Nongovernmental Organizations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the determinants of adoption of improved biomass stoves among rural household in Rwamagana District. To achieve this, the study was guided by the following objectives; to assess the social factors determining the adoption of the improved biomass stoves, assess the level at which the economic status of the household influences the adoption of the improved biomass stoves, examine how cultural beliefs and practices influence the adoption of improved biomass stoves and investigate the level at which sensitization of the rural households influence the adoption of improved biomass stoves in Rwamagana District. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population comprised 350 households from Rwamagana District. The sample size of 187 households from Rwamagana was determined using Slovin's formula. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select Rwamagana District as the study site since the improved biomass stoves programme was present in the area. To determine the sample size to consider in each Cell, stratified random sampling technique was used whereby a random sample from each stratum (Cell) was taken in a number proportional to the stratum size when compared to the target population. The study utilized questionnaires as an instrument for data collection. Data collected was analyzed through SPSS version 23. Data analysis involved statistical computations for averages, percentages, and correlation and regression analysis. Findings of the study were presented using frequency distribution tables. From the correlation analysis, it was found that social status, economic level, cultural beliefs and sensitization of households had a significant positive influence on the adoption of improved biomass stoves in Rwamagana District with (0.902, 0.989, 0.852, and 0.941) respectively. From the study, it is concluded that there is a positive relationship between social status, economic level, cultural beliefs, sensitization of households and adoption of improved biomass stove. The four determinants had a significant positive influence on the adoption of improved biomass stoves in Rwamagana District with all the determinants contributing 98% to adoption. Using linear regression analysis, the significance values for relationship of Social status, Economic status, Cultural beliefs and Sensitization of rural households on adoption were 0.056, 0.000, 0.717 and 0.015 respectively. Through the study findings, it is recommended that more strength should be put on Economic status and sensitization of rural households to have a successful adoption and use of improved biomass stove because these are the factors that highly contributed in Rwamagana.


Chief Editor , Mariadaconceicao Marques


Hussin Hejase , Bassam Hamdar , Ghada Chehimi

Violence against women is a violation of the basic human rights. Yet it is a recurring problem causing millions of women and girls to suffer disproportionately from violence in war and in peace, at home and in the community. The paper investigates the awareness level within the Lebanese society of the different types of violence exerted on women, the latter reaction and attitude to this violence, whether as a watcher or a participant, as well as the level of trust in the Lebanese authorities as supporters of victimized women. This paper defines what violence is, explains its process, components, impact, as well as its applications. With 121 valid questionnaires, a quantitative analysis is performed to support the objectives of the research. Results are interesting; the awareness level of the society outperforms the pessimistic expectations of a third world country. Yet, societal and legal Lebanese norms remain a challenge to resolve.


Meshach Awuah , Emelia Darko Adzimah

assessment of health commodities management

Hussin Hejase , Chief Editor


Daniela Cialfi , E. Colantonio

Regional performance currently seems to depend not only on the city's combination of hard infrastructure (physical capital), but also on the availability and quality of knowledge and social infrastructure (human and social capital), according to the recent concept of the " smart region ". The present paper aims to shed light on whether Italian regions can be called " smart ". It provides a focused and operational definition of this concept and presents consistent evidence on the geography of smart regions in Italy. The statistical and graphical analyses, based on a non-linear clustering with Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) neural networks, were carried out in order to analyse the factors determining the performance of smart regions between 2009-2013. This study found that only regions of northern Italy could be defined as " smart " according to the selected " smartness " performance indicators. This result prompts the formulation of a new strategic agenda for smart regions in Italy.


Oluwaseun Oke-Dansu


Ata Özdemirci


Although entrepreneurship field can be considered partially as a habitat or cultural phenomenon, most of the studies in the area focus on individual entrepreneur and his/her personality characteristics and demographics. The main logic behind this tendency is that the individual entrepreneur has unique traits than the rest of the population. This trait approach is called " personality traits theory " and assumes that entrepreneurs are born with certain qualities that naturally make them entrepreneurs (Gartner 1988; Koh, 1996; Littunen, 2000; Simpeh 2011). However the trait model is still not acceptable and completely supported by research evidence (Simpeh 2011). Therefore it still remains as a valuable and promising research domain because identifying these unique personality traits may let us identify successful entrepreneur candidates especially at business schools. Once these candidates are recognized they may be guided and encouraged to start a new venture. Accordingly it is crucial that we have robust tools to identify those capable of starting a new business. With this purpose we find it necessary to create a new personality scale based on DISC scale's dimensions which will help us measure entrepreneurial personality. The main purpose of this research is to create a valid scale to assess entrepreneurial personality and to investigate personality's effects on business plan. Another purpose of this study is to reveal the type of personality which is more prone to create successful ventures. We also aim to investigate that similarities and differences between business plans prepared by same personality types. Last but not least we evaluated the probability of success of business plans and we assume that success is predictable through personality.



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