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Ristiawansyah, Milna. "Literature Review: the Influence of Work Appraisal on Employee Performance in A Company." West Science Business and Management , vol. 1, no. 01, 2023, pp. 17-30.
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Employees are important assets for the company, because the roles and functions of employees aim to help expedite productivity and maximize performance and use time effectively and efficiently. This study aims to determine the effect of work assessment to performance employee in something company and also aim for review the effect of performance appraisal on employees in an organization or company. This study uses the Literature Review method or literature review. Performance appraisal is also known as a performance review, performance evaluation, or employee appraisal which aims to increase employee productivity in a company. The purpose of performance appraisal is as follows: (1) As a basis for decision making. (2) As a basis foresee or estimate performance with method correlate results test with rating result performance. (3) Give bait come back to employee, so that evaluation performance can function as a vehicle for self-development and employee career development. (4) Performance appraisal can help determine the objectives of the training program. (5) Performance appraisal can help diagnose organizational problems. The function of performance appraisal is to encourage performance improvement. Performance appraisal is used as a means of communicating with employees regarding how they work and what means are needed to change behavior and attitudes, as well as a means of developing their skills and knowledge. Good job evaluation is very closely used to evaluate employee performance in accordance with the components of the job evaluation being assessed, for example, attendance, honesty, responsibility, work ability, loyalty, obedience, leadership and cooperation, as well as employee initiatives or ideas. Good, effective and clear performance appraisals will make employees more motivated to continue working diligently, and good work appraisals will have an impact on the enthusiasm of employees in doing work.
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Literature review to study effects of performance appraisal
to study effects of eprforamnce appraisal on professional developemnt
Performance appraisal and performance management were one of the emerging issues since last decade. Many organizations have shifted from employee's performance appraisal system to employee's performance management system. This paper has focused to study the evolution of employee's performance appraisal system, critics the system suffered and how the performance management system came to the practice. The main purpose of this paper is to differentiate these two systems, employee's performance appraisal and management system. This paper uses a review of the literature to evaluate the development of appraisal system and argues the critic areas of appraisal system. The review identified as advancement in the management field and growing complexity in corporate sectors demand more capable HR, so mare appraisal of employee's performance is not sufficient. Employee's contribution should be aligned with organizational objectives and strategy. Performance management eliminates the shortcomings of performance appraisal system to the some extent.
Performance Management has been one of the most criticized yet widely implemented HR functional strategy that serves the sole purpose of ensuring the achievement of organizational objectives through the inimitable asset of an organization i.e. Human Resources. This study encompasses the case of National Bank of Pakistan (NBP) with regard to its performance management system called " Annual Performance Appraisal " (APA); detailing its initiation objectives back in 2000; how it evolves through the last decade; operational minutiae of its implementation while identifying the loopholes in the system. Going through the history of APA in NBP and perceptual opinions of our interviewees, distinct and unusually hyped non-popularity of the system is apparent; which was then explored through a data-collection instrument i.e. open-ended face-to-face/telephonic interview in terms of identifying most apparent reasons for this dislike of appraisals prevalent among the employed masses of the Bank, regardless of their position and performance. It has been seen that the system is plagued by different nature of problems ranging from Rater's related problems like biasness (both at conscious & unconscious level), psychological blocks and rating errors to System and Format related issues like criterion problems and lack of proper training and guidance about the system itself, all of which leaves the performance management at the Bank ineffective and unpopular with the employees. Through the conducted interviews and application of concepts of Performance Management, different remedies are being suggested for the Bank to solve the identified issues like planning a frequent feedback providence program, trainings, format and generic system related changes etc. which can lead NBP to build up on an effective linkage between individual performance and the overall strategy of the organization through translating these individual performance data into meaningful signals of performance of the Bank (Smith & Goddard, 2002).
CHALLENGES IN TEACHER APPRAISAL
OKRONIPA Ahiadorme Gabriel
International Journal of Human Resource Management
Appraisee's perception of appraisal politics (APAP) is conceptualized to be formed by three perceptual dimensions. First is appraiser's manipulation of ratings to achieve their self-serving ends such as own reputation, maintaining good relationships, building in-groups, and handling dependency threats from appraisees. Second dimension constitutes fellow appraisees' upward influence behaviors to get higher ratings and rewards. Third dimension relates to the outcome of appraisal, i.e. pay and promotion decisions that can be discriminatory when performance is ignored. Such actions are detrimental for good performers and performance culture. Drawing from the organizational justice theories, it is proposed that APAP can be mitigated by those appraisal-related structural (e.g. criteria), process (e.g. voice) and contextual antecedents (e.g. relation with appraiser) that enhance appraisee's perceived control, understanding, and prediction of appraisal decision and process. These hypotheses were tested in the Indian family-owned organizations. The data were collected using survey questionnaire method from six organizations. Multivariate and structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses revealed that overall APAP had significant negative correlation with downward communication, and appraiser–appraisee relations. Importantly, these are appraiser-centric or appraiser-driven variables, thus implying appraiser's criticality in influencing perceptions. Post hoc SEM analysis revealed that communication processes (such as feedback) mediated effect of structural variables (such as criteria relevance), implying criticality of procedures over structural variables. The significance of communication processes implemented by appraiser implies that understanding cultural context is important when studying perceptual reactions such as APAP. Interestingly, post hoc analysis revealed that downward communication mediated the effect of voice on APAP, a result that may be idiosyncratic to the Indian cultural context. Specifically, higher appraiser–appraisee power distance in the Indian context may influence the perceived relevance and utility of processes such as voice (e.g. appeal), which may put appraisee in a slightly adversarial situation with appraiser. Further, higher paternalistic orientation may make processes like downward communication more desired by appraisee because these processes project superior as a guide and a coach, who is keen to handhold and support their subordinates. The implications of these results for practitioners are discussed.
Euro Asia International Journals
In this dynamic and ever exponentially changing global market, nothing can be measured with accuracy because business world made market attributes volatile. In the complex business world, human beings are the most valuable assets. Human resources attitude is also volatile as subjected to many experiences and situations. In such scenario, one needs to measure how Human Resources perform for the purpose of reward, assessment and knowledge. The tools & techniques innovated for measuring human productivity and performance with respect to the required capability, intellect and experience is under an umbrella named Performance Appraisal System. No single Performance Appraisal system can assure the reliability of its results. PAS can only be performed as impartial as possible by choosing the best fit method out of trending ones. Performance appraisal process is a continuous process to monitor the actual performance of the employee i,e the work done by the employees throughout the year. In this stage careful selection of the appropriate techniques of measurement such as personal observation, statistical reports, and written reports for measuring the performance is needed. This paper attempts to explain PAS followed in Indian IT companies.
British Academy of Management
The performance appraisal (PA) is one of the performance management tools that is widely used to measure the productivity of academic employees in different contexts. Therefore, this paper has two main objectives. Firstly, it critically reviews the extant literature on performance management, including; Kaplan and Norton’s Balanced Scorecard Approach, among others. Secondly, it presents a qualitative research that explores the performance appraisal system in a higher education institution. The researcher has conducted semi-structured interview sessions with academic employees to analyse their opinions and perceptions toward their annual PA. The research participants revealed the costs and benefits of their PA exercise. They were aware that their educational leaders could pragmatically employ the PA’s metrics to improve their performance outcomes, in terms of stakeholder engagement, internal processes, organisational capacity and innovation, among other areas. This research implies that the PA instrument could lead to significant benefits for both the institution as well as for the personal development of individual academics.
Politics is a trouble of administrative systems such as performance appraisals. It not only debilitates the system " s credibility in the eyes of various stakeholders, but also negatively affects the employees " morale and the organizational effectiveness. While admitting that rooting it out completely is impossible, it is in the organizational interest that it is mitigated to a large extent. In case of performance appraisals, appraisee and appraisers, both try to influence appraiser " s performance rating to advance self-interests. This research aims to investigate the link among anterior of appraisal politics and appraisee perception of appraisal politics. This study is primarily centered on empirically investigating the issue: influence of appraisal politics in organization and business performance for Bangladeshi company. Regression analysis, beta coefficient would be employed to analyze the data collected and it is envisaged that there would be a significant link between anterior of appraisal politics, appraisee perception of appraisal politics, and the organization " s performance. The reliability test expressed how much reliable each of the variable is. And finally spearman hypothesis testing had tried to find out the state of relation for each variable.
This study seeks to investigate the assertion that staff performance appraisal was not being effectively implemented in the Local Government Service of Ghana. The East Mamprusi District Assembly was used for the case study. The rationale was to ascertain the truth or otherwise of this assertion and to make appropriate recommendations where necessary since it is believed that there is some correlation between staff performance appraisal and productivity. The data for the investigation was collected using questionnaire and interviews. Two sets of questionnaire were used, one for the appraisers and the other for the appraisees. The data obtained from the questionnaire was analysed using percentages because it lends itself to easy interpretation and also because figures can easily be presented either graphically or in percentiles. The study found out that generally, staff performance appraisal was not done regularly and systematically as should be the case at the Assembly. This was because while some members of staff were appraised in a particular year, others were not. According to the findings, only the members of staff, especially the senior staff, who were due for promotion interviews, were those who initiated appraisal for the purpose of the promotion interviews. Purposes such as target setting, performance review, training and rewards were all virtually ignored. The study recommends that management of District Assemblies, Organisations, Decentralised Departments and Institutions should effectively administer and appraise employees regularly. Key words: Performance appraisal system (PAS), appraisers, appraisees, productivity
IJMSBR Open Access Journal
mohamad mehdi karimpour
Texas State PA Applied Research Projects
NANA BOAKYE ANIM A H
Akintoye Akamoh , Toye Akamoh
OLUBIYI OLAYIWOLA S
Khalil Al-Jammal (Professeur Titre)
Dr. Nalla Bala Kalyan
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Purposes of Performance Appraisal: A Systematic Review and Agenda for Future Research
- Ivan do Carmo Lameque https://orcid.org/0009-0006-9849-568X
- Maria João Perdigão Velez https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9220-8524
- Carlos Manuel Demony Almeida Botelho https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9171-4273
Purpose : This study expands the knowledge on theoretical and practical performance appraisal purposes (PAPs) explanations.
Theoretical framework : Performance Appraisal (PA) has already demonstrated its peculiar characteristic of being the foundation on which decision-making on other Human Resource (HR) policies is based, such as salary increase, training, identification and separation of poor performance. Despite that, there is a general understanding that among the criteria for measuring performance appraisal effectiveness, PAPs have been little explored by academics and researchers. However, the importance of PAPS in employees' reactions is recognized.
Design/methodology/approach : Based on a systematic literature review, we synthesized 24 peer-reviewed journal papers published in the last ten years: 2012-2022.
Findings : The descriptive results suggest that there has been a decrease in interest in researching on PAPs. At some time, the thematic results suggest that PAPs have been operationalized as an independent variable.
Research, Practical & Social implications : Our findings broaden the understanding on PAPs in different cultural and organizational contexts, especially in Asia and Africa. On the other hand, this article can help to improve the perception of appraisers and appraisees on the usefulness of the appraisal system. This way, helping to reduce the prevailing perception that RH practices are not efficient and effective.
Originality/value: The line of investigation on PAPs is aligned with previous research whose prevailing domain of administrative and development purposes is still a reality in studies on the topic. However, the novelty in this study is the growing concern with the accuracy and reliability dimension of PAPs.
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