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An Analysis of Reading Comprehension Questions in English Textbooks for SMAN Kota Padang: HOTS

by Rusdi Noor Rosa

Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Languages and Arts (ICLA-2019)

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Yetti Zainil

This paper presents the discussion on the teachers' reading comprehension questions in EFL classrooms of Senior High Schools in Padang. Higher-order thinking skill has become a significant theme in education. However, to what extent EFL teachers have applied it, does not clearly define yet. In the English language learning process, the students are encouraged to think critically. Therefore, teachers are required to provide the students with higher-order thinking skill, especially in reading comprehension. The higher level of reading comprehension questions can facilitate students' higher-order thinking skills. Many studies have revealed that the level of teacher questions determines the level of thinking of students. However, until now, most of the questions asked by teachers in the context of English as a foreign language (EFL) were low-level questions. Those questions were not as effective as high-level questions in helping students develop high-level thinking skills. Ther...

Levels of reading comprehension questions in EFL classroom: higher order thinking skills (HOTS)

Ervina Juli Aryani

2020, Language Circle: Journal of Language and Literature

The significance of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) has led many educational stakeholders to include the skill in educational curriculum and more specifically in the subjects that students learn. In the context of learning English, HOTS should be instilled in four language skills, especially reading skill. This skill is vital since students are demanded to be critical of what they read. Therefore, this research aimed at investigating how the reading comprehension questions in English textbooks for three different grades (X, XI, and XII) published by the Ministry of Education and Culture facilitate HOTS. By employing cognitive level of Bloom’s revised taxonomy (2001) and critical thinking task type of Numrich’s sequence (Beaumont, 2010), the questions are analyzed qualitatively. The results reveal that HOTS are realized adequately in the textbook for grade XI. In the textbooks for grade X and XII, HOTS are found in small quantity. Besides, based on Numrich’s sequence, the majorit...

An Analysis of Higher Order Thinking Skills Realization in Reading Comprehension Questions

Kurnia Atiullah

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Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) has been widely recognized as a set of important devices of cognitive development. The research was conducted to evaluate the availability of higher order thinking skills in reading comprehension questions of the English textbook for Year X of high school published by ministry of education. There are 158 reading comprehension questions from 15 reading texts which are analyzed using revised Bloom’s taxonomy. An intuitive approach to the analysis of qualitative data is taken for the study in which an individual researcher intuitively relates data from various instruments to each other (Smaling, 1987) in Meijer, et al (2002, p. 146). The data were analyzed qualitatively to determine the cognitive level of each questions according to revised Bloom’s taxonomy, Question types based on which cognitive process is required to answer and forms of questions. The result shows that majority of reading comprehension questions in the textbook being studied i...

Using Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy to Evaluate Higher Order Thinking Skills (Hots) in Reading Comprehension Questions of English Textbook for Year X of High School

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Oqlah Smadi , Nasser Freahat

The purpose of this study was to analyze thinking levels of the reading comprehension questions in Action Pack 11 (hereafter AP 11) which is taught for grade 11, Action Pack 12 (hereafter AP 12) that is taught for grade 12 at the schools of The Jordanian Ministry of Education and New Headway Plus Pre-intermediate (hereafter NHWP) that is taught for the first English language course taught at Yarmouk University. All WH-questions in the three textbooks analyzed according to Bloom’s Taxonomy. The researchers calculated the percentages and frequencies of the cognitive levels of the questions in the three textbooks. Chi square (χ2) was used to draw comparisons between the cognitive levels of the questions. The results indicated that low-level questions are dominant in the three. It was also found that low-level questions were dominant in both stages. An interesting conclusion was that the reading material of the university textbook does not show a higher level of thinking. On the contrary, the reading content in the high school textbooks revealed more concentration on higher-level thinking questions. As a result, the study recommended that there should be more communication between secondary schools and universities to bridge the gap between them.

Lower-order and Higher-order Reading Questions in Secondary and University Level EFL Textbooks in Jordan

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The level of reading comprehension questions in the textbook, particularly essay items, is thought to be important because previous research has shown that they can improve students' critical thinking skills in reading and help students learn English. The goal of this study was to look at the level of questions in an English course reading for high school seniors' reading comprehension questions. Anderson's taxonomy, which was used to analyze the level of reading comprehension questions, divides thinking skills into two categories: low order thinking skills (remembering, understanding, and applying) and high order thinking skills (remembering, understanding, and applying) (analyzing, evaluating, creating).The data were gathered and then calculated into percentages and frequencies that corresponded to each level of thinking within the questions. It appears that 77% of questions emphasize low-level questions, while 23% emphasize high-level questions (high order thinking sk...

Higher Order Thinking Skill (Hots) in English Language Textbook in Senior High School

Nani Ronsani Thamrin

Thinking capability is the most significant aspect in educational process and as every students has their own distinctive method in thinking will posses their learning concepts. Being a critical thinker means they have to be able to think more critical than any other people, by practicing their skills through comprehending the material and the content of the text. Therefore, This paper discussed the phenomenon of conceptual variations on reading comprehension through Higher Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) strategy in Kuningan University and describes how the HOTS strategy improve the students’ skills in comprehending the academic reading text. The data collected by using a classroom observation and interview with students, were analyzed qualitatively by using categories formulated based on theories related HOTS stategy. As a result, the author obtains the various concepts on reading comprehension seen from the C1-C6 phase of HOTS strategy and critical reading. This indicates that the mo...

Conceptual Variations on Reading Comprehension Through Higher Order Thinking Skills (Hots) Strategy

Hariharan NKrishnasmy

2016, Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research

The purpose of this study is to investigate the Thai students’ L2 reading comprehension level for lower order thinking skills (LOTS) and higher order thinking skills (HOTS) questions. This study seeks to compare the scores between LOTS questions, HOTS questions and overall questions. The participants of this study were 60 first year students from a college in Pattani province, south of Thailand. The instruments used in this study are six reading comprehension passages. Each passage consists of six multiple choice questions (four questions for LOTS and two questions for HOTS). The findings indicated that Thai students’ mean scores for the overall achievement in comprehension are only at average level. The findings from paired sample t-test indicate that students mean scores for LOTS questions is significantly higher than HOTS questions. This study has crucial pedagogical implication to Ministry of Education and Teacher Training Division because serious planning and implementations ar...

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2019, JET (Journal of English Teaching)

The 2013 curriculum in Indonesia mandates that teachers should develop students� Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). One of the learning goals through HOTS is to make sure that students can analyze, evaluate, and create their knowledge. However, studies on HOTS issues in English learning, particularly in reading skills, are still very limited. Therefore, this study aimed at describing the teachers� strategies in developing HOTS in teaching reading skills. The researcher used a mixed-method, as it is relevant to the methodology needed in this study. The participants were 22 English teachers of Junior High Schools in Yogyakarta. The data were collected through questionnaires, observations, and interviews. The findings indicated that the strategies by the teachers to develop HOTS were as follows: (1) asking divergent questions to the students, (2) using group discussions, (3) informing learning objectives to the students, (3) giving feedback to invite the students to review, refine, a...

Developing Students� Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) in Reading: English Teachers� Strategies in Selected Junior High Schools

The research was triggered by several problems. First, Some sources book are not presenting HOTS model in several part of the book. Second, students have difficulty understanding questions in textbook. Third, The teacher does not provide teaching of Higher Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) while teaching process in order to maximize students higher order thinking skills. This research used quantitative research method. The subject was the questions in the textbook Bahasa Inggris X grade curriculum 2013 revisi 2017 written by Utami Widiati, Zuliati Rahmah, and Furaidah, which published Pusat Kurikulum dan Perbukuan, Balitbang, Kemendikbud. The researcher used items questions as the observation sheet of document for collecting and analyzing the data to find out the result of the research. This research found that the questions in the textbook did not include create of the cognitive process, based on bloom taxonomy revision. After doing analysis of the data, the researcher finds that the hig...

The Classification of Reading Text Questions in English Class at Tenth Grade of MAS Taman Raya Balingka

Husein As Sabiq

2020, Tarling : Journal of Language Education

The Ministry of Education and Culture has directed the assessment model at Higher-order Thinking Skills (HOTS), but in reality, students are less trained in solving the model of this assessment. This cause the learning outcomes of students tend to be less by the teachers. Therefore, the assessments made by teachers should be on the basis of HOTS. This study aimed to find out the assessment level of reading comprehension formative assessment administered by the English teachers in reference to HOTS. This research is classified as quantitative descriptive research involving two English teachers in SMA 2 Brebes. The items of formative assessment are analyzed using the cognitive level of the revised Bloom. As a result, the researchers find that the questions categorized as HOTS level obtain 18 out of 91 questions or (19.78%). Meanwhile, 73 out of 91 questions or (80.22%) are categorized as LOTS level. It can be implied that HOTS based questions are not at the dominant level. However, th...

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This research aimed to investigate the composition of higher order thinking skill (HOTS) in language tasks of the English textbook “Bahasa Inggris SMA/MA/SMK/MAK kelas XII Edisi revisi 2018”; and to explain the dominant cognitive dimension used in this textbook. The design of this research was descriptive quantitative. Instruments of data collection were a table checklist and an analysis card. This research classified used content analysis. The researcher separated all the tasks in the textbook depending on the topics. The researcher read all the textbook tasks to find out which tasks are the results. The table form was used to identify all the tasks. The researcher identified the higher order thinking skill contained in the table form. The analysis card was used as the guideline to bring the instruction questions into an acceptable portion of higher order thinking capacity. The results showed that the composition of Higher Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) presented in the language skill...

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RINGKASAN- This study aims to determine the development, validity and effectiveness ofdevelopment of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) teaching materials in reading comprehension. This research is a research and development (R&D) using the ADDIE model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation). The instrument used is a questionnaire for expert lecturers and students, interviews with teachers, and the results of the last test given to students. The test results from the validator through media design as a whole get very feasible criteria (88.33%) so that teaching materials can be used as teaching materials for students in the learning process. The results of the assessment of English Teaching Materials by experts on the substance of the material as a whole from the aspects that are considered to have received appropriate criteria (90%) so that the Teaching Materials can be used in the learning process.Keyword: Teaching Materials, High Order Thinking Skills, Dev...

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Learning will be effective if the teacher understands the needs of learning well. The purpose of this study was to explore the needs of teachers in literacy learning on reading comprehension competence in elementary schools. The method used in this research is exploratory qualitative which was conducted at the State Elementary School in Central Magelang Sub-District, Magelang City, Central Java Province, Indonesia. The results of the study indicate that there are several problems in literacy learning of reading comprehension competence so teachers need several learning innovations as solutions, namely in the learning model by combining problem-based learning models with the SQ3R model, in teaching materials by developing integrated teaching materials with innovative learning models, and on the assessment instrument by developing an assessment instrument oriented towards high order thinking skills (HOTS). The results of this needs analysis will be used to conduct further research as ...

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This study aimed to ascertain proportion of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) based on the revised edition of Bloom’s Taxonomy in the language skills and language knowledge of tasks in the textbook of “Bahasa Inggris of class ten employed in senior, vocational and Islamic senior high schools published by the Ministry of Education of the republic of Indonesia and its relevancy to the 2013 curriculum. By employing a content analysis research design, this study employed content cards as the instrument for analysing the textbook, in which two techniques were used to administer the data, namely content analysis and documentation. The data were analysed qualitatively using Brookhart including compiling, disassembling, reassembling, interpreting and concluding. Results turned out that the proportion of HOTS in language skills is integrated well. In addition, the content of higher-order thinking skills in tasks of the compulsory English textbook of “Bahasa Inggris of class ten employed in...

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This research identifies the distribution of reading exercise questions based on the cognitive domains in the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy. It also attempts to change the reading exercise questions from the Lower-order Thinking Skills (LOTS) items into Higher-order Thinking Skills (HOTS) items. Content analysis was used as the research methodology. The subject of the study was the English textbook ‘Bahasa Inggris SMA/MA/SMK/MAK’ for year X high school students published by the Ministry of Education and Culture. Documentation was employed to collect data. The data were analyzed by using an interactive mood technique. Results of the study revealed that the lower-order thinking skills were distributed within 183 items, while that of the higher-order thinking skills were within 63 items. Specifically, the lower order thinking skills items were distributed as follows: Remembering skill with 100 questions, or 41%, understanding skill with 31 items, or 13%, and applying skill with 52 readi...

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Sirhajwan Idek

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Kea Leng Ngo

This study concerns the issues of a large number of Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Jengka undergraduates not obtaining strong bands in the MUET paper, which relates to their inability to answer correctly reading comprehension questions in the MUET paper. This research intends to provide educators about the level of thought processes of questions designed by the Malaysian Examination Council (Maljis Peperiksaan Malaysia) in the reading comprehension passages of the MUET paper and therefore equipping them with the necessary skills to perform tasks with regard to tackling reading comprehension questions. The findings indicate that the level of questions designed according to the level of thought processes advocated by the Bloom taxonomy has a bearing on the performance of the students in the MUET paper. It seems that the students face difficulties when answering higher order questions especially questions at the level of analysis, synthesis and evaluation. It also has an influence on the students' ability to answer higher order questions as compared to lower order questions. The findings conclude that there is a relationship between the level of thought processes on questions formation and the students' ability to answer them correctly. Such findings has provided a common base for further discussions and debate about our undergraduates competence in the English Language as well as the recommendations on the techniques that could be used to handle higher order level questions.


El Hassan Rouijel


This study investigates whether the explicit instruction of critical thinking skills can impact students' ability to use higher-order thinking skills in reading comprehension. It particularly focuses on the instruction of critical thinking in its evaluative dimension and measures the impact on the development of three thinking skills, namely understanding, analyzing and evaluating. The EFL preparatory class students in the experimental group (n=27) were trained in using two of these skills for reading comprehension whereas those in the control group (n=29) took their normal classes. The results show that the experimental group significantly improved between the pre-and post-tests and outperformed their control counterparts. These results confirm the hypothesis claiming that high-order thinking skills are teachable. However, the results report that higher-order thinking skills develop independently of lower-order ones.


irLIT2016 Conf. , Amir Mazinani

Nowadays, with the interests in the role of learners in the field of second/foreign language learning and teaching, the search for how students become critical thinker in intensive reading comprehension has attracted researchers. The present study was an attempt to investigate whether there is any relationship between critical thinking ability and intensive reading comprehension among Iranian intermediate EFL learners. Therefore, in order to collect the related data, reading section in preliminary English test (PET) published by the Council of Europe was administrated to 90 students to establish the homogeneity of them in terms of their reading comprehension knowledge and 60 participants were selected. Next, the Persian translation for Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (W-GCTA) 2012 test, was administrated to the selected participants in order to specify the critical thinking ability in intensive reading comprehension among Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To achieve the objectives of the study, some statistical techniques such as Pearson Product Moment Correlation, and Analysis of Variance were conducted. The results of analyses showed that there is a high correlation between critical thinking ability and intensive reading comprehension among Iranian intermediate EFL learners. Keywords: Critical Thinking Ability, Intensive Reading Comprehension, Significant Relationship, Strategy

The Relationship between Critical Thinking Ability and Intensive Reading Comprehension among Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

Husni Sorong


sri wiyanah

2020, ELTICS : Journal of English Language Teaching and English Linguistics

The research aims to improve the level thinking qualities toward students in Reading III using students‘ responses text. The research applied descriptive qualitative method. It described about the students‘ responses text that produced by students in reading novel to improve students‘ higher order based on their own perspective. The participants of this research were nine students of the semester III, A3 class, English Education Program of PGRI University of Yogyakarta. Data were got through observation, interview, document analysis and questionaire. Qualitative data were anayzed through coding data, explanation, or data presenting and conclusion. The findings showed that using students‘ responses text in Reading III learning process that focus on novel significantly improve the students‘higher order thinking level. The first activities, students‘order thinking level still in the lower category i.e., remember and understand. The precentage is only 25%. The second activities, student...

The Improvement of Students’ Higher Order Thinking in Reading Class Using Students’ Responses Texts in the Third Semester of English Education Program Pgri University of Yogyakarta

yahya che lah

2014, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Acquisition of Comprehension Skills among High and Low Achievers of Year 4 to 6 Students in Primary School

JEELS (Journal of English Education and Linguistics Studies)

2017, JEELS (Journal of English Education and Linguistics Studies)

Recently, developing students' thinking, especially critical thinking (CT), has become a hot issue. Critical thinking has been claimed to have an important impact on learners' reading comprehension because it can help them analyze, evaluate, construct their thinking, solving problems and reasoning (Ennis, 1989). However, the extent that teachers' classroom activities contribute to developing students' critical thinking has rarely been researched. The current case study was conducted with six EFL high school teachers and 10 reading lessons in Vietnam to explore the teachers' use of questions and to analyze if these questions could facilitate the students' critical thinking. Classroom observations and the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy were adapted as the research instruments. The study results reveal common types of questions are often used by high school teachers in their reading lessons. Suggestions are made on types of questions that teachers should function more in their class in order to enhance students' critical thinking.


Jurnal Humaniora

2019, Humaniora Vol 31, No 1, February

Critical thinking is explicitly mentioned in many school and university curricula around the world including in the Indonesian education curriculum but it is rarely promoted inside the classrooms. Lack of agreement on its definition and clarity of instruction in the curriculum, the unfavourable culture and the teacher-centred teaching arguably prevent critical thinking to grow. Therefore, more research needs to be undertaken on students' understanding of and engagement in critical thinking in reading. To fill the gap, this study was conducted, which aimed to investigate Indonesian learners' critical thinking in reading. One research question was postulated, i.e., How critical are Indonesian EFL learners' thinking in reading? To answer the question, a mixed method approach was undertaken. The participants of this study were 55 semester four students enrolled in two classes of Critical Reading and Writing II (CRW2) of the English Education Study Program, Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta in the even semester of 2014. The instruments employed were a Likert-scale questionnaire and students' reflections. Results from both quantitative and qualitative data analyses suggest that most of the students had sufficient declarative knowledge of critical thinking in reading. However, their procedural and conditional knowledge about critical thinking in reading were insufficient. Overall, students indicated some level of critical thinking in reading, but to become critical, they need to be in a learning environment where their critical thinking in reading could be regularly and intensively nurtured. The findings of the research are expected to inform English teachers, lecturers and researchers in Indonesia and other parts of the world about the importance of designing and carrying out the teaching learning processes that can enhance learners' declarative, procedural and conditional knowledge about critical thinking in reading.

Indonesian EFL Learners' Critical Thinking in Reading: Bridging the Gap between Declarative, Procedural and Conditional Knowledge


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    level of low order thinking skills (LOTS) exist in the reading comprehension questions of. English textbook for senior high school (2) To find

  10. (PDF) An Analysis of Reading Comprehension ...

    Higher-order thinking skills have become a major theme in


    ABSTRACT This report describes the rationale and procedures for a series of studies related to reading tasks and reading texts. Children's reading tasks are

  12. an analysis of reading materials on the quality of

    It means that if the reader read more, they get better reading or comprehension. Most of students face difficulties in reading English text due to the different

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    Retrieved from: Pesut, D., & Zivkovic, D. (2016). Students' academic reading format preferences in Croatia.


    tion underlying any estimation methods used in the analysis. (Bagozzi and Yi, 1988, p. 76). Is there an easy way to read analytically? No. It can great time