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  • Introduction
  • Finding sources

Evaluating sources

  • Integrating sources

Citing sources

Tools and resources, a quick guide to working with sources.

Working with sources is an important skill that you’ll need throughout your academic career.

It includes knowing how to find relevant sources, assessing their authority and credibility, and understanding how to integrate sources into your work with proper referencing.

This quick guide will help you get started!

Finding relevant sources

Sources commonly used in academic writing include academic journals, scholarly books, websites, newspapers, and encyclopedias. There are three main places to look for such sources:

  • Research databases: Databases can be general or subject-specific. To get started, check out this list of databases by academic discipline . Another good starting point is Google Scholar .
  • Your institution’s library: Use your library’s database to narrow down your search using keywords to find relevant articles, books, and newspapers matching your topic.
  • Other online resources: Consult popular online sources like websites, blogs, or Wikipedia to find background information. Be sure to carefully evaluate the credibility of those online sources.

When using academic databases or search engines, you can use Boolean operators to refine your results.

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In academic writing, your sources should be credible, up to date, and relevant to your research topic. Useful approaches to evaluating sources include the CRAAP test and lateral reading.

CRAAP is an abbreviation that reminds you of a set of questions to ask yourself when evaluating information.

  • Currency: Does the source reflect recent research?
  • Relevance: Is the source related to your research topic?
  • Authority: Is it a respected publication? Is the author an expert in their field?
  • Accuracy: Does the source support its arguments and conclusions with evidence?
  • Purpose: What is the author’s intention?

Lateral reading

Lateral reading means comparing your source to other sources. This allows you to:

  • Verify evidence
  • Contextualize information
  • Find potential weaknesses

If a source is using methods or drawing conclusions that are incompatible with other research in its field, it may not be reliable.

Integrating sources into your work

Once you have found information that you want to include in your paper, signal phrases can help you to introduce it. Here are a few examples:

Following the signal phrase, you can choose to quote, paraphrase or summarize the source.

  • Quoting : This means including the exact words of another source in your paper. The quoted text must be enclosed in quotation marks or (for longer quotes) presented as a block quote . Quote a source when the meaning is difficult to convey in different words or when you want to analyze the language itself.
  • Paraphrasing : This means putting another person’s ideas into your own words. It allows you to integrate sources more smoothly into your text, maintaining a consistent voice. It also shows that you have understood the meaning of the source.
  • Summarizing : This means giving an overview of the essential points of a source. Summaries should be much shorter than the original text. You should describe the key points in your own words and not quote from the original text.

Whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize a source, you must include a citation crediting the original author.

Citing your sources is important because it:

  • Allows you to avoid plagiarism
  • Establishes the credentials of your sources
  • Backs up your arguments with evidence
  • Allows your reader to verify the legitimacy of your conclusions

The most common citation styles are APA, MLA, and Chicago style. Each citation style has specific rules for formatting citations.

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Cite a Website in MLA

Don't let plagiarism errors spoil your paper, citing a website in mla, how to create an mla website citation:.

When citing a website, you’re often actually citing a specific page on a website. You’re not actually citing the entire website.

Here is the most common way to cite a page on a website:

  • Start the citation with the name of the author who wrote the information on the page. If there isn’t an author listed, do not include this information in the citation. Start the citation with the title.
  • The title of the individual page is placed in quotation marks, followed by a period.
  • Next, place the name of the website in italics, followed by a comma.
  • If the name of the publisher matches the name of the author or the name of the title, do not include the publisher’s information in the citation.
  • The date the page or website was published comes next.
  • End the citation with the URL or DOI. When including the URL, copy the URL directly from the address bar or link in your browser window.

Last name, First name of author. “Title of Web Page.” Title of Website , Publisher, Date published, URL.

Rothfeld, Lindsay. “Smarter Education: The Rise of Big Data in the Classroom.” Mashable, 3 Sept. 2014, mashable.com/2014/09/03/education-data-video/#hViqdPbFbgqH.

You can usually leave out http:// or https:// from URLs unless you want to hyperlink them. For DOIs, use http:// or https:// before the DOI: https://doi.org/xx.xxxx/xxx.xxxx.xxxx.

If you’re still confused and feeling the urge to type “How to cite a website MLA” into Google, try out our free generator at the top of this page. Our citation generator MLA site is easy to use!

Social media:

If the user’s handle and real name are similar, you may include the real name and leave out the handle as long as a URL is also included. If the user’s real name and handle are different, include the hand in brackets after the real name.

Gates, Melinda. “Today, Bill and I were deeply humbled to accept France’s Legion of Honour award on behalf of all our foundation’s partners and grantees.” Twitter, 21 Apr. 2017, twitter.com/melindagates/status/855535625713459200.

Sandler, Adam. “California Strong celebrity softball game this Sunday at Pepperdine. All proceeds go to the victims of the wildfires and shooting in Thousand Oaks.” Facebook, 11 Jan. 2019, www.facebook.com/Sandler/.

Mizuhara, Kiko [@I_am_kiko]. “@vivi_mag_official shot by my sis @ashley_yuka.” Instagram, 25 June 2020, www.instagram.com/p/CB27SYahBpo.

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

MLA Formatting and Style Guide

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

The following overview should help you better understand how to cite sources using MLA  9 th edition, including how to format the Works Cited page and in-text citations.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. See also our MLA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel .

Creating a Works Cited list using the ninth edition

MLA is a style of documentation that may be applied to many different types of writing. Since texts have become increasingly digital, and the same document may often be found in several different sources, following a set of rigid rules no longer suffices.

Thus, the current system is based on a few guiding principles, rather than an extensive list of specific rules. While the handbook still describes how to cite sources, it is organized according to the process of documentation, rather than by the sources themselves. This gives writers a flexible method that is near-universally applicable.

Once you are familiar with the method, you can use it to document any type of source, for any type of paper, in any field.

Here is an overview of the process:

When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements. These are the general pieces of information that MLA suggests including in each Works Cited entry. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:

  • Title of source.
  • Title of container,
  • Other contributors,
  • Publication date,

Each element should be followed by the corresponding punctuation mark shown above. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation (such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers) depending on the type of source. In the current version, punctuation is simpler (only commas and periods separate the elements), and information about the source is kept to the basics.

Begin the entry with the author’s last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name, as presented in the work. End this element with a period.

Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. Routledge, 1994.

Title of source

The title of the source should follow the author’s name. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks.

A book should be in italics:

Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House . MacMurray, 1999.

An individual webpage should be in quotation marks. The name of the parent website, which MLA treats as a "container," should follow in italics:

Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html.*

A periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper) article should be in quotation marks:

Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature , vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

A song or piece of music on an album should be in quotation marks. The name of the album should then follow in italics:

Beyoncé. "Pray You Catch Me." Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.

*The MLA handbook recommends including URLs when citing online sources. For more information, see the “Optional Elements” section below.

Title of container

The eighth edition of the MLA handbook introduced what are referred to as "containers," which are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.

Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories, edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07.

The container may also be a television series, which is made up of episodes.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

The container may also be a website, which contains articles, postings, and other works.

Wise, DeWanda. “Why TV Shows Make Me Feel Less Alone.”  NAMI,  31 May 2019,  www.nami.org/Blogs/NAMI-Blog/May-2019/How-TV-Shows-Make-Me-Feel-Less-Alone . Accessed 3 June 2019.

In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books , or watched a television series on Netflix . You might have found the electronic version of a journal on JSTOR. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation , season 2, episode 21, NBC , 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/70152031?trackId=200256157&tctx=0%2C20%2C0974d361-27cd-44de-9c2a-2d9d868b9f64-12120962.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal , vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.

Other contributors

In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc. If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation.

Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard , Vintage-Random House, 1988.

Woolf, Virginia. Jacob’s Room . Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc., 2008.

If a source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in your citation.

The Bible . Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.

Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. 3rd ed., Pearson, 2004.

If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.

The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. If there is more than one publisher, and they are all are relevant to your research, list them in your citation, separated by a forward slash (/).

Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive, www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.

Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System . American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006.

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation . Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

Note : The publisher’s name need not be included in the following sources: periodicals, works published by their author or editor, websites whose titles are the same name as their publisher, websites that make works available but do not actually publish them (such as  YouTube ,  WordPress , or  JSTOR ).

Publication date

The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on  Netflix  on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your writing. If you’re unsure about which date to use, go with the date of the source’s original publication.

In the following example, Mutant Enemy is the primary production company, and “Hush” was released in 1999. Below is a general citation for this television episode:

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer , created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, Mutant Enemy, 1999 .

However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date. Because you are specifying the date of airing, you would then use WB Television Network (rather than Mutant Enemy), because it was the network (rather than the production company) that aired the episode on the date you’re citing.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, WB Television Network, 14 Dec. 1999 .

You should be as specific as possible in identifying a work’s location.

An essay in a book or an article in a journal should include page numbers.

Adiche, Chimamanda Ngozi. “On Monday of Last Week.” The Thing around Your Neck, Alfred A. Knopf, 2009, pp. 74-94 .

The location of an online work should include a URL.  Remove any "http://" or "https://" tag from the beginning of the URL.

Wheelis, Mark. "Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention." Emerging Infectious Diseases , vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.

When citing a physical object that you experienced firsthand, identify the place of location.

Matisse, Henri. The Swimming Pool. 1952, Museum of Modern Art, New York .

Optional elements

The ninth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting. The following is a list of optional elements that can be included in a documented source at the writer’s discretion.

Date of original publication:

If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.

Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine. 1984. Perennial-Harper, 1993.

City of publication:

The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before 1900. Since pre-1900 works were usually associated with the city in which they were published, your documentation may substitute the city name for the publisher’s name.

Thoreau, Henry David. Excursions . Boston, 1863.

Date of access:

When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time.

Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.

As mentioned above, while the MLA handbook recommends including URLs when you cite online sources, you should always check with your instructor or editor and include URLs at their discretion.

A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that leads to the location of an online source. Articles in journals are often assigned DOIs to ensure that the source is locatable, even if the URL changes. If your source is listed with a DOI, use that instead of a URL.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. "Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates." Environmental Toxicology , vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi: 10.1002/tox.20155.

Creating in-text citations using the previous (eighth) edition

Although the MLA handbook is currently in its ninth edition, some information about citing in the text using the older (eighth) edition is being retained. The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source, and should direct readers to the entry in the Works Cited list. For the most part, an in-text citation is the  author’s name and the page number (or just the page number, if the author is named in the sentence) in parentheses :

When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: (00:02:15-00:02:35).

Again, your goal is to attribute your source and provide a reference without interrupting your text. Your readers should be able to follow the flow of your argument without becoming distracted by extra information.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in MLA

Entire Website

The Purdue OWL . Purdue U Writing Lab, 2019.

Individual Resources

Contributors' names. "Title of Resource." The Purdue OWL , Purdue U Writing Lab, Last edited date.

The new OWL no longer lists most pages' authors or publication dates. Thus, in most cases, citations will begin with the title of the resource, rather than the developer's name.

"MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL, Purdue U Writing Lab. Accessed 18 Jun. 2018.

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  • Bibliography

If you are using Chicago style footnotes or endnotes, you should include a bibliography at the end of your paper that provides complete citation information for all of the sources you cite in your paper. Bibliography entries are formatted differently from notes. For bibliography entries, you list the sources alphabetically by last name, so you will list the last name of the author or creator first in each entry. You should single-space within a bibliography entry and double-space between them. When an entry goes longer than one line, use a hanging indent of .5 inches for subsequent lines. Here’s a link to a sample bibliography that shows layout and spacing . You can find a sample of note format here .

Complete note vs. shortened note

Here’s an example of a complete note and a shortened version of a note for a book:

1. Karen Ho, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), 27-35.

1. Karen Ho, Liquidated , 27-35.

Note vs. Bibliography entry

The bibliography entry that corresponds with each note is very similar to the longer version of the note, except that the author’s last and first name are reversed in the bibliography entry. To see differences between note and bibliography entries for different types of sources, check this section of the Chicago Manual of Style .

For Liquidated , the bibliography entry would look like this:

Ho, Karen, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street . Durham: Duke University Press, 2009.

Citing a source with two or three authors

If you are citing a source with two or three authors, list their names in your note in the order they appear in the original source. In the bibliography, invert only the name of the first author and use “and” before the last named author.

1. Melissa Borja and Jacob Gibson, “Internationalism with Evangelical Characteristics: The Case of Evangelical Responses to Southeast Asian Refugees,” The Review of Faith & International Affairs 17, no. 3 (2019): 80-81, https://doi.org/10.1080/15570274.2019.1643983 .

Shortened note:

1. Borja and Gibson, “Internationalism with Evangelical Characteristics,” 80-81.

Bibliography:

Borja, Melissa, and Jacob Gibson. “Internationalism with Evangelical Characteristics: The Case of Evangelical Responses to Southeast Asian Refugees.” The Review of Faith & International Affairs 17. no. 3 (2019): 80–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/15570274.2019.1643983 .

Citing a source with more than three authors

If you are citing a source with more than three authors, include all of them in the bibliography, but only include the first one in the note, followed by et al. ( et al. is the shortened form of the Latin et alia , which means “and others”).

1. Justine M. Nagurney, et al., “Risk Factors for Disability After Emergency Department Discharge in Older Adults,” Academic Emergency Medicine 27, no. 12 (2020): 1271.

Short version of note:

1. Justine M. Nagurney, et al., “Risk Factors for Disability,” 1271.

Nagurney, Justine M., Ling Han, Linda Leo‐Summers, Heather G. Allore, Thomas M. Gill, and Ula Hwang. “Risk Factors for Disability After Emergency Department Discharge in Older Adults.” Academic Emergency Medicine 27, no. 12 (2020): 1270–78. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.14088 .

Citing a book consulted online

If you are citing a book you consulted online, you should include a URL, DOI, or the name of the database where you found the book.

1. Karen Ho, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), 27-35, https://doi-org.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/10.1215/9780822391371 .

Bibliography entry:

Ho, Karen. Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street . Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. https://doi-org.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/10.1215/9780822391371 .

Citing an e-book consulted outside of a database

If you are citing an e-book that you accessed outside of a database, you should indicate the format. If you read the book in a format without fixed page numbers (like Kindle, for example), you should not include the page numbers that you saw as you read. Instead, include chapter or section numbers, if possible.

1. Karen Ho, Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009), chap. 2, Kindle.

Ho, Karen. Liquidated: An Ethnography of Wall Street . Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. Kindle.

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How to Write a Bibliography in APA Format

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity, Study.com, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell.

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  • APA Bibliography
  • How to Create One
  • Why You Need It

Sample Bibliography

An APA format bibliography lists all of the sources that might be used in a paper. A bibliography can be a great tool to help you keep track of information during the research and writing process. In some cases, your instructor may require you to include a bibliography as part of your assignment.

At a Glance

A well-written APA format bibliography can help you keep track of information and sources as you research and write your psychology paper. To create a bibliography, gather up all of the sources that you might use in your paper. Create an APA format reference for each source and then write a brief annotation. Your annotation should be a brief summary of what each reference is about. You can quickly refer to these annotations When writing your paper and determine which to include.

What Is an APA Format Bibliography?

An APA format bibliography is an alphabetical listing of all sources that might be used to write an academic paper, essay, article, or research paper—particularly work that is covering psychology or psychology-related topics. APA format is the official style of the American Psychological Association (APA). This format is used by many psychology professors, students, and researchers.

Even if it is not a required part of your assignment, writing a bibliography can help you keep track of your sources and make it much easier to create your final reference page in proper APA format.

Creating an APA Bibliography

A bibliography is similar in many ways to a reference section , but there are some important differences. While a reference section includes every source that was actually used in your paper, a bibliography may include sources that you considered using but may have dismissed because they were irrelevant or outdated.

Bibliographies can be a great way to keep track of information you might want to use in your paper and to organize the information that you find in different sources. The following are four steps you can follow to create your APA format bibliography.

Start on a New Page

Your working bibliography should be kept separate from the rest of your paper. Start it on a new page, with the title "Bibliography" centered at the top and in bold text. Some people use the title "References" instead, so it's best to check with your professor or instructor about which they prefer you to use.

Gather Your Sources

Compile all the sources you might possibly use in your paper. While you might not use all of these sources in your paper, having a complete list will make it easier later on when you prepare your reference section.

Gathering your sources can be particularly helpful when outlining and writing your paper.

By quickly glancing through your working bibliography, you will be able to get a better idea of which sources will be the most appropriate to support your thesis and main points.

Reference Each Source

Your references should be listed alphabetically by the author’s last name, and they should be double-spaced. The first line of each reference should be flush left, while each additional line of a single reference should be a few spaces to the right of the left margin, which is known as a hanging indent.

The format of each source is as follows for academic journals:

  • Last name of first author (followed by their first initial)
  • The year the source was published in parentheses
  • The title of the source
  • The journal that published the source (in italics)
  • The volume number, if applicable (in italics)
  • The issue number, if applicable
  • Page numbers (in parentheses)
  • The URL or "doi" in lowercase letters followed by a colon and the doi number, if applicable

The following examples are scholarly articles in academic journals, cited in APA format:

  • Kulacaoglu, F., & Kose, S. (2018). Borderline personality disorder (BPD): In the midst of vulnerability, chaos, and awe.  Brain sciences ,  8 (11), 201. doi:10.3390/brainsci8110201
  • Cattane, N., Rossi, R., & Lanfredi, M. (2017). Borderline personality disorder and childhood trauma: exploring the affected biological systems and mechanisms.  BMC Psychiatry,   18 (221). doi:10.1186/s12888-017-1383-2

Visit the American Psychological Association's website for more information on citing other types of sources including online media, audiovisual media, and more.

Create an Annotation for Each Source

Normally a bibliography contains only references' information, but in some cases you might decide to create an annotated bibliography. An annotation is a summary or evaluation of the source.

An annotation is a brief description of approximately 150 words describing the information in the source, your evaluation of its credibility, and how it pertains to your topic. Writing one of these for each piece of research will make your writing process faster and easier.

This step helpful in determining which sources to ultimately use in your paper. Your instructor may also require it as part of the assignment so they can assess your thought process and understanding of your topic.

Reasons to Write a Bibliography

One of the biggest reasons to create an APA format bibliography is simply to make the research and writing process easier.

If you do not have a comprehensive list of all of your references, you might find yourself scrambling to figure out where you found certain bits of information that you included in your paper.

A bibliography is also an important tool that your readers can use to access your sources.

While writing an annotated bibliography might not be required for your assignment, it can be a very useful step. The process of writing an annotation helps you learn more about your topic, develop a deeper understanding of the subject, and become better at evaluating various sources of information.

The following is an example of an APA format bibliography by the website EasyBib:

There are many online resources that demonstrate different formats of bibliographies, including the American Psychological Association website . Purdue University's Online Writing Lab also has examples of formatting an APA format bibliography.

Check out this video on their YouTube channel which provides detailed instructions on formatting an APA style bibliography in Microsoft Word.

You can check out the Purdue site for more information on writing an annotated APA bibliography as well.

What This Means For You

If you are taking a psychology class, you may be asked to create a bibliography as part of the research paper writing process. Even if your instructor does not expressly require a bibliography, creating one can be a helpful way to help structure your research and make the writing process more manageable.

For psychology majors , it can be helpful to save any bibliographies you have written throughout your studies so that you can refer back to them later when studying for exams or writing papers for other psychology courses.

American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . 7th Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2020.

Masic I. The importance of proper citation of references in biomedical articles.   Acta Inform Med . 2013;21(3):148–155. doi:10.5455/aim.2013.21.148-155

American Psychological Association. How do you format a bibliography in APA Style?

Cornell University Library. How to prepare an annotated bibliography: The annotated bibliography .

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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  • Harvard Style Bibliography | Format & Examples

Harvard Style Bibliography | Format & Examples

Published on 1 May 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 7 November 2022.

In Harvard style , the bibliography or reference list provides full references for the sources you used in your writing.

  • A reference list consists of entries corresponding to your in-text citations .
  • A bibliography sometimes also lists sources that you consulted for background research, but did not cite in your text.

The two terms are sometimes used interchangeably. If in doubt about which to include, check with your instructor or department.

The information you include in a reference varies depending on the type of source, but it usually includes the author, date, and title of the work, followed by details of where it was published. You can automatically generate accurate references using our free reference generator:

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Table of contents

Formatting a harvard style bibliography, harvard reference examples, referencing sources with multiple authors, referencing sources with missing information, frequently asked questions about harvard bibliographies.

Sources are alphabetised by author last name. The heading ‘Reference list’ or ‘Bibliography’ appears at the top.

Each new source appears on a new line, and when an entry for a single source extends onto a second line, a hanging indent is used:

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Reference list or bibliography entries always start with the author’s last name and initial, the publication date and the title of the source. The other information required varies depending on the source type. Formats and examples for the most common source types are given below.

  • Entire book
  • Book chapter
  • Translated book
  • Edition of a book

Journal articles

  • Print journal
  • Online-only journal with DOI
  • Online-only journal without DOI
  • General web page
  • Online article or blog
  • Social media post

Newspapers and magazines

  • Newspaper article
  • Magazine article

When a source has up to three authors, list all of them in the order their names appear on the source. If there are four or more, give only the first name followed by ‘ et al. ’:

Sometimes a source won’t list all the information you need for your reference. Here’s what to do when you don’t know the publication date or author of a source.

Some online sources, as well as historical documents, may lack a clear publication date. In these cases, you can replace the date in the reference list entry with the words ‘no date’. With online sources, you still include an access date at the end:

When a source doesn’t list an author, you can often list a corporate source as an author instead, as with ‘Scribbr’ in the above example. When that’s not possible, begin the entry with the title instead of the author:

Though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, there is a difference in meaning:

  • A reference list only includes sources cited in the text – every entry corresponds to an in-text citation .
  • A bibliography also includes other sources which were consulted during the research but not cited.

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

In Harvard style referencing , to distinguish between two sources by the same author that were published in the same year, you add a different letter after the year for each source:

  • (Smith, 2019a)
  • (Smith, 2019b)

Add ‘a’ to the first one you cite, ‘b’ to the second, and so on. Do the same in your bibliography or reference list .

To create a hanging indent for your bibliography or reference list :

  • Highlight all the entries
  • Click on the arrow in the bottom-right corner of the ‘Paragraph’ tab in the top menu.
  • In the pop-up window, under ‘Special’ in the ‘Indentation’ section, use the drop-down menu to select ‘Hanging’.
  • Then close the window with ‘OK’.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, November 07). Harvard Style Bibliography | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 25 March 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-bibliography/

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Handbook for Historians

  • Choosing a Paper Topic
  • Thesis Statement
  • What Sources Can I use?
  • Gathering sources
  • Find Primary Sources
  • Paraphrasing and Quoting Sources
  • How to create an Annotated Bibliography
  • Formatting Endnotes/Footnotes
  • Formatting Bibliographies

Formatting a Bibliography

Bibliography: books, bibliography: journal articles, bibliography: websites, bibliography: other sources.

  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Sample Papers
  • Research Paper Checklist

A bibliography is additional to your endnotes/footnotes, and appears at the very end of your paper. It has hanging indents (here is a video on making a hanging indent in word and a link to making a hanging indent in Google Docs ), and is arranged alphabetically by the author's last name

Primary and secondary sources should be separated in your final bibliography. List all primary sources first, followed by secondary sources, subdivided between books and periodical articles. Read more about primary and secondary sources .

  • How to format your bibliography Click here for a printable version.

A. A Book by a Single Author.

Author, last name first. Title . City of Publisher: Publisher, year.

Egerton, Douglas R. Death or Liberty: African Americans and Revolutionary America . New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

B. Books by Two, Three or Four Authors.

Author, last name first for first author only. Title . City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Judge, Edward H., and John W. Langdon. A Hard and Bitter Peace: A Global History of the Cold War . New York: Prentice Hall, 1996.

Sánchez, Joseph P., Bruce A. Erickson, and Jerry L. Gurulé. Between Two Countries: A History of Coronado National Memorial, 1939-1990 . Los Ranchos de Albuquerque: Rio Grande Books, 2007.

C. Books by Corporate Authors.

Author. Title . City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

American Historical Association. The Introductory History Course: Six Models . 2nd ed. Washington: American His­torical Association, 1984.

D. Edited Books/Parts of Collections of Writings by Different Authors .

Author, last name first. “Title of article.” In Title , edited by editors names, first name first, page numbers. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Langdon, John W. "Whither the Postards? Graduates of the Ecole Sainte-Geneviève, 1914-1954." In The Making of Frenchmen , eds. Donald N. Baker and Patrick J. Harrigan, 429-439. Waterloo, Ontario: Historical Reflections Press, 1980.

NOTE: Page numbers of the portion of the collection you are citing must be included: "429-439" above.

D2. Edited Books ( no other author) .

Author, last name first, ed. Title . City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Beatty, Jack, ed. Colossus: How the Corporation Changed America . New York: Broadway Books, 2001.

E. Multivolume Books with a Single Title by a Single Author.

Author, last name first. Title . Number of volumes. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Chamberlin, William Henry. The Russian Revolution . 2 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1935.

F. Multivolume Books by a Single Author with a Separate Title for Each Volume.

Author, last name first. Title . Volume number of Series title . Number of volumes. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Viansson-Ponté, Pierre. Le temps des orphelins . Vol. 2 of Histoire de la République Gaullienne . 2 vols. Paris: Fayard, 1976.

G. Multivolume Books with a Different Author and Title for Each Volume.

Author, last name first. Title . Volume number of editor’s name, ed. Series Title . Number of volumes. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Spitz, Lewis B. The Protestant Reformation . Vol. 3, William L. Langer, ed. The Rise of Modern Europe . 20 vols. New York: Harper & Row, 1985.

H. Two or More Parts of a Collection of Writings by Different Authors. (Use this format if you are citing from several different sections of a multi-author book.)

Author, last name first. “Article title.” In Editor’s Last name, Title , inclusive pages.

Hinterberger, Martin. “Emotions in Byzantium.” In James, A Companion to Byzantium , 123-34.

Louth, Andrew. “Christology and Heresy.” In James, A Companion to Byzantium, 187-98.

James, Liz. Ed. A Companion to Byzantium. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

I. Books With More than One Edition.

See section C.

J. Translated Books .

Author, last name first. Title . Translated by Translator’s name. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Fischer, Fritz. War of Illusions . Translated by Marian Jackson. New York: Norton, 1975.

K. A letter (or diary entry, memo, etc.) in a published collection.

Original Author. Title. Edited by Editor’s name. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Adams, Henry. Letters of Henry Adams, 1858-1891. Edited by Worthington Chauncey Ford. Boston: Hougton Mifflin, 1930.

L. A Primary Source Quoted by a Second Source.

Note: it is preferable that the original source is consulted and cited on its own, but if the original source cannot be obtained use this format .) Use “quoted” if you are taking a direct quote, “cited” if you are paraphrasing .

Author of original source, last name first, Title. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Quoted/Cited in Author of secondary work, last name first, Title . City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Ismay, Hastings. The Memoirs of General Lord Ismay. New York: Viking Press, 1960. Quoted in Holland, James. The Battle of Britain. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2010.

Note: you should include a separate citation for the secondary source alone in the bibliography.

M. Books published electronically. Cite the book as you would normally, but include the online format that you used (i.e. Kindle, Nook, Pdf). If you accessed the book online, include the date accessed and the URL.

Kayali, Hasan. Arabs and Young Turks: Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1918 . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. Accessed 21 May 2009, http://escholarship.org/editions/view?docId=ft7n39p1dn;query=;brand=ucpress .

Churchill, Winston. The Gathering Storm. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1947. Kindle edition.

N. Articles in Print Journals.

Author, last name first. “Article title.” Journal Title Volume Number:Issue Number (Year): page numbers.

Xu, Yamin. “Policing Civility on the Streets: Encounter with Litterbugs, ‘Nightsoil Lords,’ and Street Corner Urinators in Republican Beijing.” Twentieth-Century China 30:2 (2005): 28-71.

Note: Format multiple authors in the same way as for books.

A Word about CITING ELECTRONIC SOURCES

Citations of electronic resources are different from citations for print sources. The following elements must be included:

  • Electronic full-text Journal articles and E-Books from the library’s databases, though they are accessed online, are regarded as published sources. Citations for these must contain full documentation of the publication as well as electronic access information.
  • Subscription databases, such as JSTOR or Proquest , must be accessed through a subscribing library or other institution.
  • Because material on the internet can change without notice, the last date on which the material was accessed is part of the citation.
  • The web address, or URL, is a required part of the citation. Most databases will include a stable URL, a permalink, or a DOI (digital object identifier) that you should use.

Proper citation formats, with examples, are shown below:

O. Articles in Online Journals. (Many online publications are now using a DOI (digital object identifier) to create a persistent link to the article’s information. If no DOI is available, use the URL and date accessed.)

Author, last name first. “Title of Article.” Journal Title Volume number:Issue Number (date): inclusive pages (leave blank if there are no pages). doi: or Accessed date. URL.

Egerton, Douglas R. “The Material Culture of Slave Resistance.” History Now: American History Online (December 2004). Accessed 20 June 2011. http://www.gilderlehrman.org/historynow/12_2004/historian2.php.

Huebner, Timothy S. “Roger B. Taney and the Slavery Issue: Looking Beyond –and before- Dred Scott.” The Journal of American History 97:1 (2010): 17-38. doi: 10.2307/jahist/97.1.17.

P. Articles in Newspapers or Magazines. (If you consulted the article online, include access date and URL. If no author is identified, begin citation with article title.)

Author, Last name first. “Article Title.” Title of Newspaper/Magazine , Date. Accessed date. URL.

Forero, Juan. “Turbulent Bolivia Is Producing More Cocaine, the U.N. Reports.” New York Times on the Web , 15 June 2005. Accessed 16 June 2005. www.nytimes.com/2005/06/15/international/americas/15coca.html.

Q. Articles/Newspapers retrieved from Databases.

Note: Include all journal information and provide database name and a permanent link to the article from the database.

Format with url (seen in articles retrieved from ProQuest databases):

Author, last name first. "Title of Article." Journal Title Volume number: Issue Number (date): inclusive pages. Database name. url.

Zens, Robert. “In the Name of the Sultan: Haci Mustapha, Pasha of Belgrade and Ottoman Provincial Rule in the Late 18th Century.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 44:1 (2012): 130-139. ProQuest Central. http://0-search.proquest.com.library.lemoyne.edu/docview/1531929597/4F00F029CDF14BBBPQ/16?accountid=27881

Format with permalink (seen in articles retrieved from Ebsco databases):

Author, last name first. “Title of Article.” Journal Title Volume number:Issue Number (date): inclusive pages. Database Name. Permanent Link.

Blaszak, Barbara. “Martha Jane Bury (1851-1913): A Case Study of Class Identity.” Labour History Review 67:2 (August 2002): 130-148. Historical Abstracts with Full Text. http://0-search.ebscohost.com.library.lemoyne.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=hia&AN=9502395&site=ehost-live.

Format with stable url link: (seen in articles retrieved from the JSTOR database)

Tisza, Stephen, and Hamilton Fish Armstrong. “A Letter of Count Tisza’s.” Foreign Affairs 6:3 (April 1928): 501-504. JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20028631.

Newspaper with Permanent URL link

Author, first name first (leave blank if no author). “Article Title.” Publication Title. Date. Database name. Permanent link.

“General Discussion of the Contest.” New York Times (1857-1922). 22 May 1861. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. http://0-proquest.umi.com.library.lemoyne.edu/pqdweb?did=78657656&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=1518&RQT=309&VName=HNP.

Web-based sources should be used sparingly and very carefully. Students must have all sources, Internet or otherwise, approved by the instructor before they are used.

R. Primary source document found online. (Use this format when using approved websites containing primary source material.) Include as many of the following elements as are available.

Author of original document, last name first. “Title of document.” Date of document. Title of Web Site where document is found. Author, Editor, or Producer of site. Date accessed. URL.

Smith, Sydney. “Fallacies of Anti-Reformers.” 1824. Internet Modern History Sourcebook . Paul Halsall, ed. Accessed 22 June 2011. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/smithantireform.html.

Veblen, Thorstein. “The Theory of the Leisure Class.” 1899. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Paul Halsall, ed. Accessed 22 June 2011. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1899veblen.html.

Example (no author given):

“Codex Justinianus: Protection of Freewomen Married to Servile Husbands.” 530 A.D. Internet Medieval Source Book . Paul Halsall, ed. Accessed 25 February 2002. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/codexVIl-24-i.html.

Note: Many print primary sources are reproduced in digital format on various websites, such at the ones above. Most sites should give original publication information, but if not, you can try to locate original source information by searching online (try google books or worldcat.org). When possible, cite your sources according to the appropriate print format, and include the date accessed and the URL. For example, Veblen’s book The Theory of the Leisure Class can now be found in Google Books and would be cited similar to section N as follows:

Veblen, Thorstein. The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Instituions. London: Macmillan & Co., 1912. Accessed 22 June 21 2011. http://books.google.com/books?id=2kAoAAAAYAAJ&dq=inauthor%3A%22Thorstein%20Veblen%22&pg=PR3#v=onepage&q&f=false.

S. Other Approved Website (Include as much information as available.)

Author of webpage. “Title of Webpage.” Title of Entire Website. Publication Date. Accessed Date. URL.

Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. “May Day: On the Current Conditions of the Palestinian Working Class.” Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine . Accessed 21 May 2009. www.pflp.ps/english/?q=may-day-current-conditions-struggle-palestinian-wo.

T. Book Reviews.

Book Review found in a journal:

Author of review. “Title of Review.” (if available) Review of Title of Book, by Author of book. Title of Journal Volume: Issue (year). url.

Kerr, Audrey Elisa. “Everybody’s Oprah.” Review of Embracing Sisterhood: Class Identity and Contemporary Black Women, by Katrina Bell McDonald. The Women’s Review of Books 26:2 (2009). http://www.jstor.org/stable/20476833

Book Review found on a website:

Author, “Title of Review” (if available). Review of Title of Book, by Reviewer Name. Website where review appeared. Date. URL.

David Ponton, III. Review of Spatializing Blackness: Architectures of Confinement and Black Masculinity in Chicago, by Rashad Shabazz. H-Net Online. June 2016. https://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=46538.

U. Audio/Visual Materials (films, photographs, images, etc.)

Note: In most cases, visual sources are not acceptable; however some primary sources, such as the Watergate trials or Nazi propaganda, are appropriate and must be cited correctly. All sources must be approved by your instructor. The Library of Congress has an excellent set of example citations that you should consult.

General Format:

Author (or Creator) of image or video. “Title.” Format. Date. Source . Accessed date. URL.

Example: (primary video accessed from library)

The WPA Film Library. “Nazi Anti-Semitic Propaganda,” Video. 1939. Films on Demand . Accessed 14 September 2014. http://library.lemoyne.edu/record=b1418786

Example: (speech/video found online)

Harry S. Truman. “Speech after Hiroshima Bombing.” Video. August 6. 1945. Critical Past. Accessed 13 August 2016. https://youtu.be/e3Ib4wTq0jY

If the book or article you wish to cite differs from all of the models given here, please consult http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html . If none of those seem to fit, ask your professor or the History Librarian.

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Title: croissant: a metadata format for ml-ready datasets.

Abstract: Data is a critical resource for Machine Learning (ML), yet working with data remains a key friction point. This paper introduces Croissant, a metadata format for datasets that simplifies how data is used by ML tools and frameworks. Croissant makes datasets more discoverable, portable and interoperable, thereby addressing significant challenges in ML data management and responsible AI. Croissant is already supported by several popular dataset repositories, spanning hundreds of thousands of datasets, ready to be loaded into the most popular ML frameworks.

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Free Harvard Referencing Generator

Generate accurate Harvard reference lists quickly and for FREE, with MyBib!

🤔 What is a Harvard Referencing Generator?

A Harvard Referencing Generator is a tool that automatically generates formatted academic references in the Harvard style.

It takes in relevant details about a source -- usually critical information like author names, article titles, publish dates, and URLs -- and adds the correct punctuation and formatting required by the Harvard referencing style.

The generated references can be copied into a reference list or bibliography, and then collectively appended to the end of an academic assignment. This is the standard way to give credit to sources used in the main body of an assignment.

👩‍🎓 Who uses a Harvard Referencing Generator?

Harvard is the main referencing style at colleges and universities in the United Kingdom and Australia. It is also very popular in other English-speaking countries such as South Africa, Hong Kong, and New Zealand. University-level students in these countries are most likely to use a Harvard generator to aid them with their undergraduate assignments (and often post-graduate too).

🙌 Why should I use a Harvard Referencing Generator?

A Harvard Referencing Generator solves two problems:

  • It provides a way to organise and keep track of the sources referenced in the content of an academic paper.
  • It ensures that references are formatted correctly -- inline with the Harvard referencing style -- and it does so considerably faster than writing them out manually.

A well-formatted and broad bibliography can account for up to 20% of the total grade for an undergraduate-level project, and using a generator tool can contribute significantly towards earning them.

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's Harvard Referencing Generator?

Here's how to use our reference generator:

  • If citing a book, website, journal, or video: enter the URL or title into the search bar at the top of the page and press the search button.
  • Choose the most relevant results from the list of search results.
  • Our generator will automatically locate the source details and format them in the correct Harvard format. You can make further changes if required.
  • Then either copy the formatted reference directly into your reference list by clicking the 'copy' button, or save it to your MyBib account for later.

MyBib supports the following for Harvard style:

🍏 What other versions of Harvard referencing exist?

There isn't "one true way" to do Harvard referencing, and many universities have their own slightly different guidelines for the style. Our generator can adapt to handle the following list of different Harvard styles:

  • Cite Them Right
  • Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU)
  • University of the West of England (UWE)

Image of daniel-elias

Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Cite a Website

    Citing a website in MLA Style. An MLA Works Cited entry for a webpage lists the author's name, the title of the page (in quotation marks), the name of the site (in italics), the date of publication, and the URL. The in-text citation usually just lists the author's name. For a long page, you may specify a (shortened) section heading to ...

  2. Free Citation Generator

    Citation Generator: Automatically generate accurate references and in-text citations using Scribbr's APA Citation Generator, MLA Citation Generator, Harvard Referencing Generator, and Chicago Citation Generator. Plagiarism Checker: Detect plagiarism in your paper using the most accurate Turnitin-powered plagiarism software available to ...

  3. How to Cite a Website in MLA

    Write the author's name in last name, first name format with a period following. Next, write the name of the website in italics. Write the contributing organization's name with a comma following. List the date in day, month, year format with a comma following. Lastly, write the URL with a period following.

  4. Citing a Website in APA

    If you're wondering how to cite a website in APA, use the structure below. Structure: Author Last Name, First initial. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of web page. Name of Website. URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3).

  5. Citing a Website in MLA

    Next, place the name of the website in italics, followed by a comma. If the name of the publisher matches the name of the author or the name of the title, do not include the publisher's information in the citation. The date the page or website was published comes next. End the citation with the URL or DOI. When including the URL, copy the URL ...

  6. Free APA Citation Generator [Updated for 2024]

    An APA citation generator is a software tool that will automatically format academic citations in the American Psychological Association (APA) style. It will usually request vital details about a source -- like the authors, title, and publish date -- and will output these details with the correct punctuation and layout required by the official ...

  7. MLA Formatting and Style Guide

    The following overview should help you better understand how to cite sources using MLA 9 th edition, including how to format the Works Cited page and in-text citations. Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. See also our MLA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel.

  8. Bibliography

    You should single-space within a bibliography entry and double-space between them. When an entry goes longer than one line, use a hanging indent of .5 inches for subsequent lines. Here's a link to a sample bibliography that shows layout and spacing. You can find a sample of note format here. Examples. Complete note vs. shortened note

  9. ZoteroBib: Fast, free bibliography generator

    Format your bibliography using APA, MLA, Chicago / Turabian, Harvard, or any of the 10,000+ other CSL styles. ... or switch to another bibliography, you can generate a link to a copy of the current version on zbib.org. Use the link to retrieve your bibliography later. Awesome! Let's start! Still have questions? Check the FAQ. Stay in touch!

  10. Creating an MLA Bibliography

    MLA 8 th edition vs MLA 9 th edition. The 9 th edition of the MLA handbook re-introduces guidelines regarding paper formatting (which were not present in the 8 th edition). The guidance in the 9 th addition is consistent with the guidance in previous editions and expands on the formatting of tables, figures/illustrations, and lists. The 9 th edition also offers new guidance in areas like ...

  11. Hyperlink Citations in a Bibliography

    Click the small arrow in the Bibliography section of the toolbar under the EndNote tab; Select Link in-text citations to references in the bibliography (example from Word 2007 - see below); Select Underline linked-in text citations if desired; Links will carry over to the PDF when using the Publish feature in Word. << Previous: Bibliography from Multiple Documents

  12. Free MLA Citation Generator [Updated for 2024]

    The generator will produce a formatted MLA citation that can be copied and pasted directly into your document, or saved to MyBib as part of your overall Works Cited page (which can be downloaded fully later!). Generate MLA format citations and create your works cited page accurately with our free MLA citation generator.

  13. EasyBib®: Free Bibliography Generator

    This is the total package when it comes to MLA format. Our easy to read guides come complete with examples and step-by-step instructions to format your full and in-text citations, paper, and works cited in MLA style. There's even information on annotated bibliographies.

  14. How to Write an APA Format Bibliography

    To create a bibliography, gather up all of the sources that you might use in your paper. Create an APA format reference for each source and then write a brief annotation. Your annotation should be a brief summary of what each reference is about. You can quickly refer to these annotations When writing your paper and determine which to include.

  15. Harvard Style Bibliography

    Formatting a Harvard style bibliography. Sources are alphabetised by author last name. The heading 'Reference list' or 'Bibliography' appears at the top. Each new source appears on a new line, and when an entry for a single source extends onto a second line, a hanging indent is used: Harvard bibliography example.

  16. MyBib

    MyBib is a free bibliography and citation generator that makes accurate citations for you to copy straight into your academic assignments and papers. If you're a student, academic, or teacher, and you're tired of the other bibliography and citation tools out there, then you're going to love MyBib. MyBib creates accurate citations automatically ...

  17. Formatting Bibliographies

    Formatting a Bibliography. A bibliography is additional to your endnotes/footnotes, and appears at the very end of your paper. It has hanging indents (here is a video on making a hanging indent in word and a link to making a hanging indent in Google Docs), and is arranged alphabetically by the author's last name. Primary and secondary sources should be separated in your final bibliography.

  18. [2403.19546] Croissant: A Metadata Format for ML-Ready Datasets

    Data is a critical resource for Machine Learning (ML), yet working with data remains a key friction point. This paper introduces Croissant, a metadata format for datasets that simplifies how data is used by ML tools and frameworks. Croissant makes datasets more discoverable, portable and interoperable, thereby addressing significant challenges in ML data management and responsible AI ...

  19. Free Harvard Referencing Generator [Updated for 2024]

    A Harvard Referencing Generator is a tool that automatically generates formatted academic references in the Harvard style. It takes in relevant details about a source -- usually critical information like author names, article titles, publish dates, and URLs -- and adds the correct punctuation and formatting required by the Harvard referencing ...