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Reference List: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

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APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th ed., 2 nd printing).

Note:  This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until 2021, but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here .

Please note:   Some electronic citations necessitate the use of brackets; APA style dictates that brackets should directly surround their content without spaces (e.g., [bracketed content] should look like this). When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. Please note, too, that the OWL still includes information about print sources and databases for those still working with these sources .

Webpage or Piece of Online Content

Individual webpages and documents hosted online are cited similarly to print content. Note, however, that the URL is typically included at the end of the entry. The URL may, at the author's discretion, be left as an active link. Include additional information (like translators, editors, first edition publication date, and so on) as you would for print sources.

Author, A. A. & Author B. B. (Date of publication). Title of page [Format description when necessary]. Retrieved from  https://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Eco, U. (2015). How to write a thesis [PDF file]. (Farina C. M. & Farina F., Trans.) Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/...How_to_write_a_thesis/.../Umberto+Eco-How+to+Write+... (Original work published 1977).

If the page's author is not listed, start with the title instead. If the date of publication is not listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.).

Spotlight Resources. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/about_the_owl/owl_information/spotlight_resources.html

You only need to include a date of access when the page's content is likely to change over time (like, for instance, if you're citing a wiki that is publicly edited).

Purdue University Writing Lab [Facebook page]. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/PurdueUniversityWritingLab/

Article From an Online Periodical

Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, including an issue number in parentheses.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number (issue number if available). Retrieved from https://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149 . Retrieved from https://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving

Online Scholarly Journal Article: Citing DOIs

Please note : In August of 2011 the formatting recommendations for DOIs changed. DOIs are now rendered as an alpha-numeric string which acts as an active link. According to The APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6 th edition , you should use the DOI format which the article appears with. So, if it is using the older numeric string, use that as the DOI. If, however, it is presented as the newer alpha-numeric string, use that as the DOI. The Purdue OWL maintains examples of citations using both DOI styles.

Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many—but not all—publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document.

Note that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed." This button will usually lead the user to the full article which will include the DOI. Find DOI's from print publications or ones that go to dead links with CrossRef.org's "DOI Resolver," which is displayed in a central location on their home page.

Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number if available) , page range. doi:0000000/000000000000 or https://doi.org/10.0000/0000

Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41 , 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161

Wooldridge, M.B., & Shapka, J. (2012). Playing with technology: Mother-toddler interaction scores lower during play with electronic toys. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33 (5), 211-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2012.05.005

Article From an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned

Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require the URL of the journal home page. Remember that one goal of citations is to provide your readers with enough information to find the article; providing the journal home page aids readers in this process.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number if available). Retrieved from https://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8 . Retrieved from https://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html

Article from a Database

Please note: APA states that including database information in citations is not necessary because databases change over time (p. 192). However, the OWL still includes information about databases for those users who need database information.

When referencing a print article obtained from an online database (such as a database in the library), provide appropriate print citation information (formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work). By providing this information, you allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. You can also include the item number or accession number or database URL at the end, but the APA manual says that this is not required.

If you are citing a database article that is available in other places, such as a journal or magazine, include the homepage's URL. You may have to do a web search of the article's title, author, etc. to find the URL.

For articles that are easily located, do not provide database information. If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide database information. Only use retrieval dates if the source could change, such as Wikis. For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see pages 187-192 of the Publication Manual.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number if available) , page range. Retrieved from https://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8 (3), 120-125. Retrieved from https://www.fakeexamplehomepage.com/full/url/

If you only cite an abstract but the full text of the article is also available, cite the online abstract as any other online citations, adding "[Abstract]" after the article or source name. However, if the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source.

Paterson, P. (2008). How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody?: Two prison case studies [Abstract]. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36 (1), 54-58.

Hendricks, J., Applebaum, R., & Kunkel, S. (2010). A world apart? Bridging the gap between theory and applied social gerontology. Gerontologist, 50 (3), 284-293. Abstract retrieved from Abstracts in Social Gerontology database. (Accession No. 50360869)

Newspaper Article

Note that the APA recommends using the homepage address for the online newspaper, rather than the full URL for the article itself.

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper . Retrieved from https://www.homeaddress.com/

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times . Retrieved from https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/

Electronic Books

Electronic books may include books found on personal websites, databases, or even in audio form. Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it. For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author's name. For references to e-book editions, be sure to include the type and version of e-book you are referencing (e.g., "[Kindle DX version]"). If DOIs are available, provide them at the end of the reference.

De Huff, E. W. (n.d.). Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo Indian tales . Retrieved from https://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/dehuff/taytay/taytay.html

Davis, J. (n.d.). Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest . Available from https://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/biblio? inkey=1-9780931686108-0

Kindle Books

To cite Kindle (or other e-book formats) you must include the following information: the author, date of publication, title, e-book version, and either the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, or the place where you downloaded the book. Please note that the DOI/place of download is used in-place of publisher information.

Here’s an example:

Chapter/Section of a Web Document or Online Book Chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number). Retrieved from https://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Engelshcall, R. S. (1997). Module mod_rewrite: URL Rewriting Engine. In Apache HTTP Server version 1.3 documentation (Apache modules). Retrieved from https://httpd.apache.org/docs/1.3/mod/mod_rewrite.html

Peckinpaugh, J. (2003). Change in the Nineties. In J. S. Bough and G. B. DuBois (Eds.), A century of growth in America . Retrieved from GoldStar database.

NOTE : Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section, not the home page of the website.

Online Book Reviews

Cite the information as you normally would for the work you are quoting. (The first example below is from a newspaper article; the second is from a scholarly journal.) In brackets, write "Review of the book" and give the title of the reviewed work. Provide the web address after the words "Retrieved from," if the review is freely available to anyone. If the review comes from a subscription service or database, write "Available from" and provide the information where the review can be purchased.

Zacharek, S. (2008, April 27). Natural women [Review of the book Girls like us ]. The New York Times . Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/27/books/review/Zachareck -t.html?pagewanted=2

Castle, G. (2007). New millennial Joyce [Review of the books Twenty-first Joyce, Joyce's critics: Transitions in reading and culture, and Joyce's messianism: Dante, negative existence, and the messianic self] . Modern Fiction Studies, 50 (1), 163-173. Available from Project MUSE website: https://muse.jhu.edu/journals/modern_fiction_studies/toc/mfs52.1.html

Dissertation/Thesis from a Database

Biswas, S. (2008). Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatment target in Parkinson's disease . Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global . (AAT 3295214)

Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Often encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines (authors' names). When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front of the citation. Provide publication dates if present or specify (n.d.) if no date is present in the entry.

Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopædia Britannica online . Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism

Online Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies

Jürgens, R. (2005). HIV/AIDS and HCV in prisons: A select annotated bibliography . Retrieved from https://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/alt_formats/hpb-dgps/pdf/intactiv/hiv-vih-aids-sida-prison-carceral_e.pdf

Point readers to raw data by providing a web address (use "Retrieved from") or a general place that houses data sets on the site (use "Available from").

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data file]. Retrieved from https://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.pdf

Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representations of Data)

Give the name of the researching organization followed by the date. In brackets, provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Finally, provide the project name and retrieval information.

Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. (2007). [Graph illustration the SORCE Spectral Plot May 8, 2008]. Solar Spectral Data Access from the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments . Retrieved from https://lasp.colorado.edu/cgi-bin/ion-p?page=input_data_for_ spectra.ion

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews

If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If an audio file or transcript is available online, use the following model, specifying the medium in brackets (e.g. [Interview transcript, Interview audio file]):

Butler, C. (Interviewer) & Stevenson, R. (Interviewee). (1999). Oral History 2 [Interview transcript]. Retrieved from Johnson Space Center Oral Histories Project website: https:// www11.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/oral_histories.htm

Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides

When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).

Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Website: https://www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ501/Hallam/index.html

Roberts, K. F. (1998). Federal regulations of chemicals in the environment [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://siri.uvm.edu/ppt/40hrenv/index.html

Computer Software/Downloaded Software

Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.

Ludwig, T. (2002). PsychInquiry [computer software]. New York: Worth.

Software that is downloaded from a web site should provide the software’s version and year when available.

Hayes, B., Tesar, B., & Zuraw, K. (2003). OTSoft: Optimality Theory Software (Version 2.1) [Software]. Available from https://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/hayes/otsoft/

E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you parenthetically cite them in your main text: (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting

Include the title of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name. Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets. If available, provide the URL where the message is archived (e.g. "Message posted to..., archived at...").

Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25]. Message posted to https://groups.earthlink.com/forum/messages/00025.html

Blog (Weblog) Post

Include the title of the message and the URL. Please note that titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen name.

J Dean. (2008, May 7). When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror? [web log comment]. Retrieved from https://www.spring.org.uk/the1sttransport

YouTube Video or Video Blog Entry

Online videos are cited similarly to the other types of digital media described above. However, because the creators of digital videos often go by pseudonymous screen names, this information is included after the author's name.

The general format is as follows:

Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Here, the "author" is the person who uploaded the video file. The screen name should be spelled and capitalized exactly as it appears, even if it does not observe standard spelling and capitalization rules.

If no author name is available, or if the author's name is identical to the username, leave it out. In this case, do not put the username in brackets.

PBSoffbook. (2013, October 3).  How to be creative   [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=weIQIthC3Ks

Please note that the APA Style Guide to Electronic References warns writers that wikis (like Wikipedia, for example) are collaborative projects that cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of their entries.

OLPC Peru/Arahuay. (n.d.). Retrieved April 29, 2011 from the OLPC Wiki: https://wiki.laptop. org/go/OLPC_Peru/Arahuay

Audio Podcast

For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Bell, T., & Phillips, T. (2008, May 6). A solar flare. Science @ NASA Podcast . Podcast retrieved from https://science.nasa.gov/podcast.htm

Video Podcasts

Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, January 5). The community college classroom [Episode 7]. Adventures in Education . Podcast retrieved from https://www.adveeducation.com

For more help with citing electronic sources, please use these links:

  • APA Style Blog: How to Cite Something You Found on a Website in APA Style
  • APA Frequently Asked Questions

UpToDate: How to Cite

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Recommendation by UptoDate

UptoDate recommends that you cite the UpToDate topic as a chapter in a book titled UpToDate. There are no page numbers to cite, and the publication year for any topic should be the current year.

The example below is provided by UptoDate :

Marion DW. Pacing the diaphragm: Patient selection, evaluation, implantation, and complications. In: UpToDate , Post TW (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA. (Accessed on January 04, 2018.)

Recommendation by the DMU library

However, the corporate recommendation does not necessarily follow the citation style guidelines that you may need for your class assignments or for publication.  We recommend you cite Uptodate as a chapter in an ebook, modified to the appropriate style guidelines.

APA  10th edition example:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.),  Title of book . Available from: http:///

Using the below UptoDate topic below as an example, here is the recommended APA citation format you would follow when you need to cite three to seven authors :

Borody, T.J., Leis, S., Pang, G., & Wettstein, A.R. (2013). Fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. In T.W. Post, P. Rutgeerts, & S. Grover (Eds.), UptoDate . Available from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-the-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection?source=search_result&search=fecal+transplant&selectedTitle=1~7

Uptodate Topic

Finally, in regards to the recommended editor, while UptoDate lists a specific individual on their website that they would like to credit, this individual is not necessarily listed as an editor on the UptoDate topic pages. In deference to the company, we recommend listing this individual as one of the editors in your citation. But we believe that authorship and editorship should be attributed to all names on an UptoDate topic. Our example citation reflects this guideline.

For more information, the rules for citing editors are listed in Section 6.27 Author and Editor Information of the APA's Publication Manual, 6th Edition.

Note: The Purdue OWL site also states that in the case of electronic books, "If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from", and point readers to where they can find it. For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author's name." Since UptoDate is a licensed resource, not available to the general public, the library example reflects this recommendation.

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APA Citation Style, 7th Edition: StatPearls, UpToDate, DynaMedex

  • APA 6/7 Comparison Guide
  • New & Notable Changes
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  • Journal Article with One Author
  • Journal Article with Two Authors
  • Journal Article with Three or more Authors
  • Help?! I can't find the DOI
  • One Author/Editor
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  • Chapter in a Book
  • Electronic Books
  • Social Media Posts
  • YouTube or other streaming video
  • Podcast or other audio works
  • Infographic, Powerpoint, or other visual works
  • Government Websites & Publications, & Gray Literature
  • Legislative (US & State House & Senate) Bills
  • StatPearls, UpToDate, DynaMedex
  • Dissertations & Thesis
  • Interviews & Emails
  • Magazine Articles
  • Newspaper Articles
  • Datasets, Software, & Tests
  • Posters & Conference Sessions
  • Photographs, Tables, & PDF's
  • Canvas Posts & Class Discussion Boards
  • In-Text Citations & Paraphrasing
  • References Page
  • Free APA 7th edition Resources, Handouts, & Tutorials

APA Reference Examples for: StatPearls, UpToDate, DynaMedex

Tips for citing point of care tools & databases in APA 7th edition (Chapter 10.1, p. 319). 

  • Authors: OFTEN individual authors are NOT included on point-of-care tools. When that's the case, use the point-of-care tool as the name of the "author." Editors should not be listed in the area of "authors" unless you are referencing a book. 
  • Year/Date: To create the "date" for the reference, use the date that the page or reference article was last updated. 
  • Retrieval dates : remember it's important to use a retrieval date in the source information for point-of-care tools BECAUSE they are constantly updated and the old information IS NOT archived (or easily able to locate again). 
  • Information that is constantly updated without an archive.  Articles contained in point of care tools are ONLY available in the database in which they came from AND the information is constantly updated over time. Because of this, it's often important to include a retrieval date. 

StatPearls article: 

Important Notes on StatPearls: 

  • "StatPearls material is always a challenging reference type because people come across StatPearls materials in the National Library of Medicine database (and APA references USUALLY do not cite databases), but the material is usually also available on the StatPearls website (APA Style Expert, personal communication, April 4, 2023, para 1)."
  • "(Additionally,) StatPearls is often the developer and original publisher of the material, which makes the UpToDate reference example the closest exemplar from the Publication Manual (APA Style Expert, personal communication, April 4, 2023)."
  • "Further, the StatPearls website clarifies the roles of the people listed in the byline on PubMed, and there's usually at least one editor among them, even though editors would not be included in the author element of reference with named authors (APA Style Expert, personal communication, April 4, 2023, para 1)."
  • "Therefore, although it is admittedly not necessarily the most intuitive way to format the reference, here is what APA style would prefer for your example (APA Style Expert, personal communication, April 4, 2023, para 1)."
  • "However, given that (some) StatPearls articles are also only available through the National Library of Medicine, the reference format should follow the example on page 337/example number 73, for the informally published work from PubMed Central (APA Style Expert, personal communication, April 4, 2023, para 1)."
  • In the first reference StatPearls  is in italics, since APA recognizes it from this website as a formal publisher and therefore as a  proper noun . In the second reference, the name of the article  is in italics, since on most websites the reference title is placed in italics. 

Reference, if located from the StatPearls website:

Tariq, R. A., Vashisht, R., & Sinha, A. (2023). Medication dispensing errors and prevention. StatPearls . Retrieved April 4, 2023, from https://www.statpearls.com/point-of-care/24883

In-text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Tariq et al., 2023).

Reference, if located from the NNLM website:

Tariq, R. A., Vashist, R., Sinha, A., & Scherbak, Y. (2023). Medication dispensing errors and prevention (PMID 30085607). National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519065/

UpToDate article: 

Graber, E. (2022). Patient education: Acne (Beyond the basics) . UpToDate. Retrieved May 31, 2023, from  https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acne-beyond-the-basics

(Graber, 2022).

DynaMedex or Dynamed or Micromedex article: 

DynaMedex. (n.d.). Amyotrophic lateral Sclerosis (ALS) . Retrieved May 31, 2023, from  https://tinyurl.com/yckx3u36  

(DynaMedex, n.d.). ​

Carrie Forbes, MLS

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Helpful Tips

Retrieval dates are only needed in citations for webpages that contain information that is likely to change over time. For example, an article from a news site that receives continuous coverage. Please refer to page 290 or 350 in APA 7th edition. 

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How do I cite drug information from UpToDate?

APA 7th edition provides an example for citing articles in UpToDate ; however, drug information is often proprietary and uses the group author  element and missing information , or n.d. for "no date." Check out the example below for Aspirin: Drug information . 

Reference List Example: 

Lexicomp. (n.d.). Aspirin: Drug information. UpToDate . Retrieved March 12, 2020, from https://www-uptodate-com.libproxy.csudh.edu/contents/aspirin-drug-information

Here’s a brief explanation of each element  in the reference citation: 

  • Author – Since drug information is provided by a company rather than associated with any individual authors, use the name of the drug company (e.g. Lexicomp) as a group author . 
  • Date – Since there is no specific date of publication listed, use n.d. for "no date."
  • Title  – Use the title of the drug information article as it appears. 
  • Source – Typically, database information isn’t necessary in an APA 7th edition. However, UpToDate includes original, proprietary content so it would be listed in the source element and italicized. 
  • Retrieval Date – Typically, retrieval dates aren't necessary in APA 7th edition. However, since drug information provided in this database is designed to change over time, you would still include a retrieval date  using the Month, Day Year format of when you accessed the information. 
  • URL  – Include the CSUDH Library subscription link to UpToDate content.
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How To Cite Sources: APA

  • Chicago and Turabian
  • Bluebook- Legal Citation

APA 7th Edition Resources

  • APA 7th Edition Tip Sheet
  • APA In-Text Citation Checklist
  • APA Style and Grammar Guidelines Guidance on formatting your paper, in-text citations, reference section, and more.
  • APA Style SIte: References The official APA Style site offers a wide selection of citation and formatting resources, including this collection of reference formatting help and examples.
  • Purdue OWL APA 7th Edition

APA 6th Edition Resources

  • APA 6th Tip Sheet Note: APA 6th Edition was replaced in October 2019.
  • Cite UpToDate in APA 6th Edition
  • Purdue OWL APA 6th Edition Purdue OWL can help you find common and uncommon formats for resources. This link leads to the APA section. This covers in-text and Works Cited citation.

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APA Style, 7th edition - Citing Sources

  • Getting Started
  • Formatting the Paper
  • Dissertation & SPP Formatting
  • Student vs. Professional
  • Writing Style
  • All about the DOI
  • Dictionary Entry
  • Government Report
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  • Lecture Notes
  • Legal Resources
  • Lexicomp via UpToDate

Drug entry provided by Lexicomp via UpToDate

  • Magazine Article
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Lexicomp. (n.d.). Lisdexamfetamine: Drug information.  UpToDate . Retrieved January 18, 2019, from  https://www-uptodate-com.regiscollege.idm.oclc.org/contents/lisdexamfetamine-drug-information

Parenthetical citation: (Lexicomp, n.d.)

Narrative citation: Lexicomp (n.d.)

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  • Last Updated: Nov 7, 2023 3:52 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.regiscollege.edu/APA7

purdue owl apa uptodate

Is Purdue OWL a good resource?

The official source for APA citing is the APA website , which has many examples and is easy to use.    You can also contact them with  APA Style Help  (it may not be immediate help). 

You can also use the library's APA website, which you can access from the Library Citation Support Guide  . This is kept as up-to-date as possible and contains information and examples knowingly used at SaskPolytech.  Check the tabs on the left under 'in text citations' and/or 'references list' for examples. 

The Purdue Owl is still usable but it is best to use the above sources. 

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  • Last Updated Jul 04, 2023
  • Answered By Joyce

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purdue owl apa uptodate

Some online guides for APA style, 7th edition:

  • APA Style Quick Guide for Journal Articles, Books and Book Chapters
  • Tomlinson Library Illustrated Guide  for APA citation
  • Purdue Online Writing Lab Guide  - Detailed overview of all aspects of writing and citing in APA style

Citing UpToDate and Cochrane Reviews in APA Style

Whenever possible, it's a good idea to cite the original research evidence (as referenced within review articles or databases like UpToDate and Cochrane Library).  There are times, however, when you may want to cite the UpToDate or Cochrane summary.  In that case, the citation formats below are recommended.

An example of a citation for an UpToDate review:

Robertson, R. P. , & Udler, M. S. (2021).  Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. UptoDate .  Retrieved September 4, 2023,

from  https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search

An example of a citation for a Cochrane Library review:

Mehrholz, J., Pohl, M., Platz, T., Kugler, J., & Elsner, B. (2018). Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke.   Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews .  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006876.pub5

Citing an entry from Essential Evidence Plus

Like UpToDate, Essential Evidence Plus is a subscription database with content reviewed and updated regularly.  A retrieved date is also included to alert a reader that the information may have changed since it was retrieved.  The citation format below is recommended:

Robertson, S., Song, C., Smilnak, T., & O’Connor, N. (2023). Diabetes mellitus (type 2). Essential Evidence Plus . Retrieved September 4, 2023, from https://www.essentialevidenceplus.com/content/eee/127

Citing the Merck Manual Professional Version

Citations from the Merck Manual follow the APA Publication Manual guidelines for an entry in an encyclopedia or reference work.  Because the Merck Manual is updated regularly, a Retrieved date is also included to alert a reader that the information may have changed since it was retrieved.

Ortega, V. E., & Genese, F. (2022). Asthma. In Merck Manal Professional Version . Merck & Co., Inc. Retrieved September 4, 2023, from https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pulmonary-disorders/asthma-and-related-disorders/asthma

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    Lexicomp. (n.d.). Lisdexamfetamine: Drug information. UpToDate. Retrieved January 18, 2019

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    Tomlinson Library Illustrated Guide for APA citation; Purdue Online Writing Lab Guide - Detailed overview of all aspects of writing and citing