The Case Study program is intended to create affordable and technically advanced homes with an intimate relationship to nature. While the legacy of these homes is in mid-century modernism their comfort, environmental considerations and energy performance are state of the art. They are designed to create an immersive connection with the landscape, weather, and seasons. To take advantage of the economies of production these houses are constructed from factory produced modules that can be configured to suit a variety of family sizes and living arrangements. The Milan Case Study house utilizes two modules containing the living room and three bedrooms while additional bedrooms, family room, studio and shop modules that can be added at the time of construction or in the future.
The Case Study houses are designed to touch the earth as lightly as possible; and are planned to minimize the footprint while maximizing light and views. The entrance to the houses is anchored to the earth and defines an entrance courtyard while the principle living rooms project over the surrounding landscape. The modules are joined by site-built connectors. Like ligaments, these spaces allow flexibility for various site and programmatic conditions. The ligaments also allow the factory modules to be calibrated to maximize light and views, while minimizing the actual footprint on the landscape.
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Milan Case Study’s Showpiece Home Offers a Modular Model for Affordable Housing
In a spectacular setting surrounded by a 360-degree ring of trees, a couple from Brooklyn watched builders assemble their country home. Rumbling trucks delivered the components and a giant crane lowered the pieces into place. “It looked like children playing with blocks, but in slow motion and with a lot of precision,” says one of the owners.
This isn’t your father’s modular home, it’s House One, a showpiece of the Milan Case Study , an experiment in luxurious modern minimalism located on the site of a former dairy farm in northern Dutchess County and divided into 10 lots of about 10 acres each.
The somewhat clinical name derives from the Case Study House Program, a feature concept initiated after World War II by Arts & Architecture magazine that challenged builders and architects to create an anti-Levittown prototype of replicable homes conveying style, quality, and creativity.
“The tool I work with is modular, and there are lots of interesting architectural possibilities that come with it, but the whole trick is to defeat the module,” says architect James Garrison. “These homes are humane and idiosyncratic.”
Some of the 36 projects presented in the publication only existed on paper, but others, including Stahl House in Beverly Hills, Eames House in Pacific Palisades, and Triad House in La Jolla, which the local historical society called “the most important single-family home in the La Jolla community,” still stand as iconic achievements.
“In the western part of the country, the perception of modular construction is different than it is here,” says Nick Mahedy, principal of Milan Case Study. “It’s not necessarily thought of as a low-end product. There’s a lot going on now in the Hamptons and things are beginning to shift with modular.”
Building homes under controlled factory conditions eliminates weather delays, reduces waste, and drives down costs. “Everything is thought-out beforehand in a way that doesn’t happen with stick-built homes,” says Mahedy. All it takes to assess the solid build at House One is to knock on the granite-like interior wall of the unfinished garage module.
Creating the 2,723-square-foot main compound on a single level, augmented by ample deck space, makes the house feel like a miniature resort.
If there is a stigma associated with modular—and project architect James Garrison is aghast that this could still be the case—it is perhaps due to being mistaken for trashy trailers, also called mobile, prefab, or manufactured homes.
Besides the build quality between manufacturers, the only difference is that mobile homes conform to federal standards and modular homes are built to the local code of jurisdiction, says Robert Capenos, executive director of the New York Housing Association , a modular home trade group located in Latham. “New York is the number one destination for modular homes in the country” at around 1,200 per year, says Capenos. “It’s a niche market, but modular has a strong high-end component. The sky’s the limit and from the top end to the bottom, it’s the best-kept secret in single-family housing.”
Know Your Limits
The secret is well-kept indeed. From the time Thomas Edison filed a patent application for a single-pour concrete home design in 1908 that failed to catch on, architects and developers have been stymied trying to make modular a more mainstream choice.
One drawback these days is that transportable homes cannot exceed 14 feet in width, the largest load allowed on the roads, says Garrison, a modern modular master who completed two similar projects in Catskill: another Case Study House and Piaule Catskill, a boutique hotel/resort where guests stay in prefab “cabins” that look more like the world’s most elegant shipping container than what we normally think of as cabins.
Floor-to-ceiling Andersen windows flood the house with light and showcase the serene outdoor scene.
“Any art form has limitations, which drive innovation and artistry, whether it’s the size of your canvas, the brush, or the pigment,” says Garrison. “The tool I work with is modular and there are lots of interesting architectural possibilities that come with it, but the whole trick is to defeat the module. These [Milan Case Study] homes are humane and idiosyncratic. They don’t look like they came from an assembly line.”
Garrison is also an evangelist trying to inspire a great awakening for duplicable homes. “There’s no reason why this model can’t be a prototype for high-quality, more affordable, mass-produced modern homes,” he says. “It’s great fun figuring out how to get factories to become inventive.”
The basic template of House One in Milan offers three bedrooms and 2.5 bathrooms, which can be expanded to include up to six bedrooms and more bathrooms. To surmount the 14-foot-wide limit, the two main rectangular modules, built with only one outside wall, sit at a slight angle to each other, like a wedge, and are connected by a site-built floor and ceiling frame. This piece serves as a hallway that expands the footprint and adds drama to what could have been a drab, constrained interior.
The owners modified the standard issue by placing a half bathroom here, a reading nook there. They also built a wall that turned a bedroom into an office. More substantial additions are available a la carte. “We got hungry and bit,” says one owner.
Pool? Sure. A smaller module containing a mother-in-law apartment, added as an appendage between the kitchen and the mud room? Indeed. How about a 595-square-foot standalone unit with a garage and a secluded office for the owner who often works from home? Absolutely.
The great room looking toward the kitchen and dining area. Covering the wall at the right is an 18-foot Rajasthani phad painting, a family heirloom of one of the owners.
Placing the 2,723-square-foot main compound on one level, augmented by ample deck space, makes the house feel like a miniature resort. It can take time for some people to become oriented to the unusual layout. “Some guests have gotten confused and lost their way in here,” says one owner.
The couple also added a geothermal system that, in conjunction with the expansive windows and planned solar paneling, will take the property to near-Passive House status.
At Milan Case Study, buyers can also pick their own plumbing, flooring, countertops, appliances, and bathroom floor tiles. Three of the baths in House One are adorned with concrete popham design tiles from Morocco. The other one features Clé Tiles. “One way to elevate modular homes is to install finished surfaces on-site rather than in the factory,” says Mahedy. House One features oak floors, Brooklyn-made Watermark Designs bathroom fixtures and custom walnut cabinetry in most of the rooms, including the bathrooms.
Siberian larch gives the exterior a sleek-yet-earthy appearance and also accents several interior walls. “This is a naturally rot-resistant, long-lasting wood,” says Mahedi. “There are 700-year-old buildings in Europe made from this type of tree that are still standing.”
The rectangle motifs that dominate the home’s interior are softened by a round table, two orb-shaped lamps, and an oval fireplace suspended from the great room’s ceiling. Adding a funhouse effect, the roofs tilt upward, like an open lid.
Visitors enter the home on a blind side in the back, their gazes drawn toward a far-away window akin to a vanishing point. Down a narrow hallway past a bedroom, bathroom, and the pantry, the home expands, eventually revealing the wall of windows in the great room and creating a dramatic effect that would be lost if people first stepped into a grand space.
Where the modules fan out, eight large floor-to-ceiling Andersen windows (and a glass door) showcase the serene outdoor scene. A stream snakes through the landscape, cattails wave in the breeze and a small ridge rises in the distance. Decks that extend from the master bedroom, the great room, and the detached office provide another evolved touch.
The basic template of House One offers three bedrooms and 2.5 bathrooms, which can be expanded to include up to six bedrooms and more bathrooms.
One of Garrison’s goals is to draw the outside in, which he achieves with understated techniques beyond big windows. The main modules at House One rest on I-beams, resembling boxcars on a railroad track, and are cantilevered off the ground via a contoured foundation that includes just enough concrete and supporting piers to balance the house and harmonize it with the rolling terrain.
This non-site-specific construction, which can place a modular dwelling anywhere with the proper engineering, represents the minimalist ethos in action. “We want to touch the Earth as lightly as possible and integrate with nature,” says Garrison. The effect enhances the visual theatrics and allows the home’s interior to soar above the landscape.
Even if modular construction represents a tiny fraction of the market, the buyers of the first Milan Case Study house are pleased. “With the light, the setting, and the tilted ceiling, this place goes to 11,” says one owner. “It feels so peaceful.”
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Case studies: Bosco Verticale, Milan
Reshaping the future of tall tower design .
Bosco Verticale in the spring. Image credit: COIMA
Milan’s Bosco Verticale (Vertical Forest) twin tower project designed by architect Stefano Boeri and Agronomist Laura Gatti was an experiment: Could a building successfully provide a home for trees, birds, insects and people alike? More than five years since the first residents moved in, in light of the multiple awards the project has received, including being named in 2019 one of the “ 50 Most Influential Tall Buildings of the Last 50 Years , there is little doubt that the answer to this question is a resounding ‘yes’.
In a June 2020 interview, Boeri explained: “ I personally believe that we have to change in terms of how we deal with the concept of nature. Nature is not something that lives outside, a kind of autonomous sphere from our lives… We have to experiment with a totally different proximity with [it]…We have to imagine a kind of double simultaneous movement: one is the movement of the citizens in the direction of the forest, because the forest needs our help…, and the second is the movement of trees in the direction of the city ”. With the vertical forest, unlike garden cities, the objective is not to move people to the countryside, but rather to invite nature directly into city homes – maintaining densities that help limit urban sprawl.
Jeremy Hines and the Italian CEO of Hine, Manfredi Catella wanted to “ transform one of the darkest and abandoned parts of the Milan centre ” recalls Boeri. The 71-acre area targeted for regeneration under the brand name “Porta Nuova” was formerly occupied by industry. It sat between central Milan and the Isola neighbourhood, a working-class community. Hines’ ambition for the site was to deliver 20 high-rise towers clustered around was would become the tallest building in Italy – César Pelli’s Unicredit Tower. The contrast with central Milan’s stone-faced boulevards or the Isola community couldn’t have been greater.
To this challenge, Boeri answered “ yes, with pleasure but please let me develop this idea of the vertical forest, a high-rise building with trees ”. The concept was initially met with scepticism: How will trees survive 100 meters high? How will risks associated with high winds be mitigated? How can maintenance be sustainable? How can irrigation be reliable? “ For most people unfamiliar with trees, this project seemed too risky, and basically, impossible to realise ” recalls landscape architect and agronomist Laura Gatti.
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“In the past, green space was optional, but now it is necessary,” said Mr. Jo Yongjun at the AIPH Green…
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The Bosco Verticale towers stand at 111 metres (364 ft) and 76 metres (249 ft) and contain 800 trees, 4,500 shrubs and 15,000 other plants in their facades.
Creating a green second skin
Selection of species
Exclusive in nature?
- Client (project sponsors): Coima sgr (formerly Hines Italia)
- Architectural design: Boeri Studio
- Landscape design: Emanuela Borio, Laura Gatti
- Main contractor: Colombo Costruzioni , ZH Construction Company
- Structural Engineer: Arup Italia
Total project cost: information not available
Plants in numbers
800 trees, 4,500 shrubs and 15,000 other plants.
Online case study: Bosco Verticale case by Greenroof.com
Article: Bosco Verticale by Ellis Woodman, February 2015, Architect’s Journal
Book: Vertical Greenery: Evaluating the High-Rise Vegetation of Bosco Verticale , Elena Giacomello and Massimo Valagussa (2015), Milan: Arup Italia
Extensive preview is available at: https://store.ctbuh.org/index.php?controller=attachment&id_attachment=32
Master’s Thesis: The Geography of Vertical Forests: Exploring the Green City , Max Visser, Februray 2019, Utrecht University Faculty of Geography
Video: Milan Vertical Forest Turns Five by Stefano Boeri Architetti (2019)
Video: Greening the Vertical City – the Bosco Verticale and a Look into the Future of Urban Living by Laura Gatti. Presentation given at.the 2017 Green Roofs and Walls of the World Virtual Summit
Video: The Flying Gardeners – showing Massimo, Giovanni and Gilberto, the tree climbers and expert arboriculturists at work, climbing down from the top of the towers of the Bosco Verticale using 300 meters long ropes to trim, prune, shorten and control the foliage of the trees on the balconies of the skyscrapers.
Video: Trudo Vertical Forest by Stefano Boeri Architetti (2019)
Download case study
AIPH_Case Studies_Bosco Verticale_FINAL
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- Work at ArchDaily
Bosco Verticale / Boeri Studio
- Architects: Boeri Studio
- Year Completion year of this architecture project Year: 2014
- Photographs Photographs: Paolo Rosselli , Laura Cionci
- Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project Manufacturers: ECLISSE , AGB , CYMISA , Campolonghi , Cotto d'Este , Kone , Vimar , proMesh
- Interior Design : Coima Image s.r.l , Antonio Citterio & Partners
- Main Contractor : Colombo Costruzioni S.p.A.
- Vertical Forest Landscape Design: Emanuela Borio, Laura Gatti
- Aesthetic Supervision Of Works: Hines Italia, Gianni Bertoldi, Francesco de Felice, Alessandro Agosti, Andrea Casetto, Matteo Colognese, Angela Parrozzani, Stefano Onnis, Davor Popovic
- Schematic Design And Pii: Frederic de Smet, Daniele Barillari, Marco Brega, Julien Boitard, Matilde Cassani, Andrea Casetto, Francesca Cesa Bianchi, Inge Lengwenus, Corrado Longa, Eleanna Kotsikou, Matteo Marzi, Emanuela Messina, Andrea Sellanes
- Structures: Arup Italia s.r.l.
- Facilities Design: Deerns Italia s.p.a.
- Detailed Design: Tekne
- Landscape Design: Land s.r.l.
- Infrastructure Design: Alpina s.p.a.
- Project & Construction Management: Hines Italia s.r.l.
- Time & Tender Management: J&A Consultants s.r.l.
- General Contractor: ZH General Construction Company S.p.A.
- Architects In Charge: Stefano Boeri, Gianandrea Barreca, Giovanni La Varra
- City: Milan
- Country: Italy
Text description provided by the architects. The first example of a ‘Vertical Forest’ (il Bosco Verticale) was inaugurated in October 2014 in Milan in the Porta Nuova Isola area, as part of a wider renovation project led by Hines Italia. Milan’s Vertical Forest consists of two towers of 80 and 112 metres, hosting 480 large and medium trees, 300 small trees, 11,000 perennial and covering plants and 5,000 shrubs. The equivalent - over an urban surface of 1,500 m2 – of 20,000 m2 of forest and undergrowth.
The Vertical Forest is an architectural concept which replaces traditional materials on urban surfaces using the changing polychromy of leaves for its walls. The biological architect relies on a screen of vegetation, needing to create a suitable microclimate and filter sunlight, and rejecting the narrow technological and mechanical approach to environmental sustainability.
The Vertical Forest increases biodiversity. It promotes the formation of an urban ecosystem where various plant types create a separate vertical environment, but which works within the existing network, able to be inhabited by birds and insects (with an initial estimate of 1,600 specimens of birds and butterflies). In this way, it constitutes a spontaneous factor for repopulating the city’s flora and fauna.
The Vertical Forest helps to build a microclimate and to filter fine particles contained in the urban environment. The diversity of plants helps to develop the microclimate which produces humidity, absorbs CO2 and particles, produces oxygen, and protects against radiation and noise pollution.
The Vertical Forest is an anti-sprawl method which helps to control and reduce urban expansion. In terms of urban density, each tower constitutes the equivalent of a peripheral area of single family houses and buildings of around 50,000 m2.
The choice of species and their distribution according to the orientation and height of façades is the result of three years of studies carried out alongside a group of botanists and ethologists. The plants which are used on the building were pre-cultivated in a nursery in order for them to become accustomed to similar conditions to those which they will find on the balconies.
The Vertical Forest is an ever-evolving landmark of the city, whose colours change depending on the season and the different natures of the plants used. This offers Milan ’s population an ev- er-changing view of the city.
The management of the basins where the plants grow is the responsibility of the condominium, as is the maintenance and replacement of all vegetation and the number of plants established for each basin.
Hydration and irrigation system:
Following micro-meteorological studies, the calculation of irrigation requirements was carried out by examining climatic characteristics and was diversified depending on the exposure of each façade and the distribution of vegetation on each floor.
Address: milan, italy.
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Milan Case Study homes are designed to live in any location and exceed energy efficiency codes. They combine prefabricated construction and advanced envelope building techniques. Milan Case Study is guided by key principles of mid-century-modern architecture. They focus on affordability and the use of technology to solve challenges. Their team is committed to excellence regardless of the budget for the project.
BCS BATIMENT LLC, a general contractor licensed in Oregon & Hawaii, was established in October 2010 in Portland, Oregon with the dream of growing a father-daughter business. Their team delivers hands-on management and guidance from project conception to completion. With a licensed architect and two Oregon real estate brokers on the team, they guide their clients through real estate transactions with a unique set of skills and knowledge in the industry. They love creating opportunities for development projects and coordinating the design-build process from start to finish.
Boxco is a small design and fabrication company specializing in custom cabinetry, kitchen design, and furniture. They are dedicated to creating functional modern spaces that are simple, refined, and inviting. Boxco was born out of a devotion for building, a passion for creative design, and a love of kitchens. They help homeowners create spaces that facilitate their best memories and meals.
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