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  • Introduction
  • Formatting Your Paper
  • In-Text Citations
  • Books and eBooks
  • Business Reports
  • Conference Presentations and Publications
  • Dissertations and Theses
  • Government Documents, Statutes, and Court Cases
  • Images and Advertisements
  • Missing Information
  • Multiple Authors
  • Personal Communications (E-mails, Interviews, etc.)
  • Previous Coursework
  • Religious Works
  • Secondary Source/Indirect Citation (as cited in)
  • Social Media
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  • Avoiding Plagiarism
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APA 7th Edition Citation Guide Multiple Authors

Source with two authors.

Rules for citing more than one author apply to all sources, regardless of format. Below is an example of a book with two authors.

Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use an ampersand (&) for parenthetical citations.

Reference Page Format:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of Publication). Format the remainder according to resource type.

Reference Page Example:

Loveless, D., & Griffith, B. (2014).  Critical pedagogy for a polymodal world . Birkhäuser.

In-text Citation Examples:

According to Loveless and Griffith (2014) ... ...(Loveless & Griffith, 2014). ...(Loveless & Griffith, 2014, p. 121).

Source with Three to Twenty Authors

For all sources with three to twenty authors, include all of the authors on your References page. 

For in-text citations, sources with three or more authors can be abbreviated to only the first author's last name followed by "et al." For example, (Author et al., Year).

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C. (Year of Publication).  Format the remainder according to resource type .
Somerville, I., Purcell, A., & Morrison, F. (2011). Public relations education in a divided society: PR, terrorism and critical pedagogy in post-conflict Northern Ireland.  Public Relations Review, 37 (5), 548-555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2011.09.008
According to Somerville et al. (2011) ... ... (Somerville et al., 2011). ... (Somerville et al., 2011, p. 549).

Source with Twenty-One or More Authors

For sources with twenty-one or more authors, write out the first twenty authors on the References page, add an ellipsis (...), and end with the last author. 

For in-text citations, sources with more than twenty authors can be abbreviated to only the first author's last name followed by "et al." For example, (Author et al., Year).

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., Author, T. T., . . . Author, Z. Z. (Year of Publication).  Format the remainder according to resource type .
Aad, G., Abbott, B., Abdallah, J., Abdinov, O., Aben, R., Abolins, M., AbouZeid, O. S., Abramowicz, H., Abreu, H., Abreu, R., Abulaiti, Y., Acharya, B. S., Adamczyk, L., Adams, D. L., Adelman, J., Adomeit, S., Adye, T., Affolder, A. A., Agatonovic-Jovin, T., Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A., Alen, S. P., . . . Woods, N. (2015). Combined measurement of the Higgs boson mass in pp collisions at √s=7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS and CMS experiments.  Physical Review Letters, 114 (19), 1-33. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.191803
According to Aad et al. (2015) ... ... (Aad et al., 2015). ... (Aad et al., 2015, p. 20).
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APA 7th Edition Citation Guide

  • APA 7th Edition Home
  • Formatting the Paper Itself
  • When and What to Cite

In-Text: Multiple Authors

  • In-Text: First and Subsequent Citations
  • In-Text: Authors and Dates Matching
  • In-Text: Direct Quotations
  • In-Text: Secondary Sources
  • Reference Examples: Print
  • Reference Examples: Electronic
  • Reference Examples: Audiovisual Media
  • Step 1: Author (Names)
  • Step 2: Date
  • Step 3: Titles
  • Step 4: Source
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This citation guide is based on The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association  (7th ed., 2020). The contents are accurate to the best of our knowledge.

Content in this guide was copied with permission from Bethel University (TN) Library .

citing three authors apa

How to Use This Guide

Citations in APA style include two parts: (1) in-text citations, which are connected to (2) reference list citations.

This guide will help you create in-text citations that correlate with the corresponding reference list citations. Please see Reference Examples  for more details on the reference list.

Note: All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper except for Personal Communications and similar unrecoverable sources.

Multiple Authors

If you are citing a source that has multiple authors, follow these basic steps.

Two Authors

Always cite both authors' names in-text every time you reference them.

Johnson and Smith (2009) found...

Three or More Authors

If a document has three or more authors, simply provide the last name of the first author with "et al." from the first citation to the last.

Thomas et al. (2007) likened abnormal psychology to...

... distractions (Thomas et al., 2007).

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APA Formatting and Style (7th ed.) for Student Papers

  • What's New in the 7th ed.?
  • Principles of Plagiarism: An Overview
  • Basic Paper Formatting
  • Basic Paper Elements
  • Punctuation, Capitalization, Abbreviations, Apostrophes, Numbers, Plurals
  • Tables and Figures
  • Reference Page Format
  • Periodicals (Journals, Magazines, Newspapers)
  • Books and Reference Works
  • Webpage on a Website
  • Discussion Post
  • Company Information & SWOT Analyses
  • Dissertations or Theses
  • ChatGPT and other AI Large Language Models
  • Online Images
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Citations with Three or More Authors

  • For works that have three or more authors, list the first author followed by “et al.” (meaning “and others”) Examples: (Connell et al., 2014) Researchers Connell et al. (2015) found . . .

Researchers Connell et al. (2015) point out that one of the purposes of advertising is “framing consumer decisions by directing attention away from product disadvantages” (p. 130). 

Parenthetical:, one of the purposes of advertising is “framing consumer decisions by directing attention away from product disadvantages” (connell et al., 2015, p. 130). , paraphrase / summary:, researchers connell et al. (2015) point out that one of the purposes of advertising is to distract people from an item’s undesirable qualities when they are considering a purchase. , one of the purposes of advertising is to distract people from an item’s undesirable qualities when they are considering a purchase (connell et al., 2015). , * ** remember: each source listed on the reference page must correspond to at least one in-text citation in the body of the paper; each in-text citation must correspond to a source listed on the reference page..

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How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition) | Guide & Generator

APA 7th edition publication manual

This citation guide outlines the most important citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020). Scribbr also offers free guides for the older APA 6th edition , MLA Style , and Chicago Style .

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Table of contents

Apa in-text citations, apa references, formatting the apa reference page, free lecture slides, frequently asked questions.

In-text citations are brief references in the running text that direct readers to the reference entry at the end of the paper. You include them every time you quote or paraphrase someone else’s ideas or words to avoid plagiarism .

An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system). If you’re citing a specific part of a source, you should also include a locator such as a page number or timestamp. For example: (Smith, 2020, p. 170) .

Parenthetical vs. narrative citation

The in-text citation can take two forms: parenthetical and narrative. Both types are generated automatically when citing a source with Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator.

  • Parenthetical citation: According to new research … (Smith, 2020) .
  • Narrative citation: Smith (2020) notes that …

Multiple authors and corporate authors

The in-text citation changes slightly when a source has multiple authors or an organization as an author. Pay attention to punctuation and the use of the ampersand (&) symbol.

Missing information

When the author, publication date or locator is unknown, take the steps outlined below.

Are your APA in-text citations flawless?

The AI-powered APA Citation Checker points out every error, tells you exactly what’s wrong, and explains how to fix it. Say goodbye to losing marks on your assignment!

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citing three authors apa

APA references generally include information about the author , publication date , title , and source . Depending on the type of source, you may have to include extra information that helps your reader locate the source.

Reference examples

Citing a source starts with choosing the correct reference format. Use Scribbr’s Citation Example Generator to learn more about the format for the most common source types. Pay close attention to punctuation, capitalization, and italicization.

Generate APA citations for free

It is not uncommon for certain information to be unknown or missing, especially with sources found online. In these cases, the reference is slightly adjusted.

APA Reference Page (7th edition)

On the first line of the page, write the section label “References” (in bold and centered). On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order .

Apply these formatting guidelines to the APA reference page:

  • Double spacing (within and between references)
  • Hanging indent of ½ inch
  • Legible font (e.g. Times New Roman 12 or Arial 11)
  • Page number in the top right header

Which sources to include

On the reference page, you only include sources that you have cited in the text (with an in-text citation ). You should not include references to personal communications that your reader can’t access (e.g. emails, phone conversations or private online material).

Are you a teacher or professor looking to introduce your students to APA Style? Download our free introductory lecture slides, available for Google Slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.

Open Google Slides Download PowerPoint

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e.g., a press release by a charity, a report by an agency, or a page from a company’s website—use the organization’s name as the author in the reference entry and APA in-text citations .

When no author at all can be determined—e.g. a collaboratively edited wiki or an online article published anonymously—use the title in place of the author. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary.

When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your APA in-text citation . If there are no page numbers (e.g. when citing a website ) but the text is long, you can instead use section headings, paragraph numbers, or a combination of the two:

(Caulfield, 2019, Linking section, para. 1).

Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable.

If you are referring to the source as a whole, it’s not necessary to include a page number or other marker.

The abbreviation “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors . Here’s how it works:

Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).

APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources.

However, if you are citing a website or online article that’s designed to change over time, it’s a good idea to include an access date. In this case, write it in the following format at the end of the reference: Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / How to cite in APA when there are multiple authors

How to cite in APA when there are multiple authors

This article covers how to cite a reference in APA style (7th ed.) when there are multiple authors. Broadly speaking, in an APA style “the author” refers to the person(s) or group(s) who should be given credit for the work being referenced.

Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:

In-text citations when there are multiple authors

Reference list entries when there are multiple authors, troubleshooting.

APA 7th ed. uses the author-date citation system for citing references in text. Unless you are citing a source with no author in APA , the structure in parenthetical citations includes placing the author’s last name/surname, followed by a comma, and the publication year in parentheses. In narrative citations, this information is incorporated into the sentence.

Parenthetical citation for one author:

(Author Last Name, Year Published)

(Curtis, 2020)

Narrative citation for one author:

Author Last Name (Year Published)

Curtis (2020)

Two authors

For a work with two authors, include both authors’ last names in every in-text citation, whether narrative or parenthetical. In parenthetical citations, use an ampersand (&) between the authors’ last names.

Parenthetical citation for two authors:

(1st Author & 2nd Author, Year Published)

(Curtis & Williams, 2020)

Narrative citation for two authors:

1st Author & 2nd Author (Year Published)

Curtis & Williams (2020)

Three or more authors

When citing a journal paper in APA with three or more authors, only enter the last name of the first author listed and add “et al.” after it. “Et al.” is Latin for the phrase “and others,” which is why it is used as a substitute for two or more authors’ last names.

Parenthetical citation for three or more authors:

(1st Author et al., Year Published)

(Harris et al., 2020)

Narrative citation for three or more authors:

1st Author et al. (Year Published)

Harris et al. (2020)

Here is a page with more information on when to use “et al.” in APA style .

Group authors

The same guidelines for in-text citations apply when the authors of a source are a distinct group or organization such as a government agency, association, nonprofit organization, business, hospital, task force, or study group. To confirm whether a reference was written by individual author(s) or a group, check the cover or title page.

Hint: for an online resource, the author could be the name of the organization hosting the webpage or website, rather than the name of just one content contributor.

Before using an abbreviated group name as the author of your citation, spell out the abbreviation and define the group one time first in the text. Afterward, use the abbreviation of the group name throughout the rest of the paper.

Group author in-text citation examples:

First parenthetical citation with group abbreviation included: (Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities [AJCU], 2020)

Subsequent parenthetical citations: (AJCU, 2020)

First narrative citation with group abbreviation included: The Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities [AJCU] (2020)

Subsequent narrative citations: The AJCU (2020)

Avoiding ambiguity in in-text citations

Sometimes, in-text citations that have three or more authors, some of whom have the same last name, and the same publication year can look like they are the same reference when using the et al. abbreviation. For example, Curtis et al. (2020) could refer to

Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, and Tyler (2020)

Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, Maxey, Key, Smith, and Esparza (2020)

To avoid this ambiguity and confusion for the reader, write out as many names as possible for the in-text citation until the references are distinguished, and then add “et. al” to abbreviate the other authors’ names.

Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, et al. (2020)

Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, Maxey, et al. (2020)

When only the final author is different, list all of the names in every citation to avoid any confusion.

Curtis, Acres, Thomas, Henderson, and Esparza (2020)

APA has slightly different reference structures for different source types (e.g., book, website, journal article, etc.), but each structure generally includes the following:

Author last name, Author initials. (Date Published). Title. URL or DOI if available .

Need more help with citing a particular source? Find further guidance in this APA citations guide.

One or two authors

For references with one or two authors, cite using the four-part structure.

Two individual authors example:

Smith, J., & Jones, S. (1994). Making a movie star. Behind the Scenes Stories: A Journal of Celebrity Life, 44 (2), 192–200. https://doi.org/l4nds0r

One group author example:

The American Marine Society. (2003). Whale mating patterns in the new millennium. The American Marine Society Magazine , 17-20 . https://fams.gov/article/2003/whale-mating-patterns-in-the-new-millennium

2 – 20 authors

In APA 7th ed., up to 20 authors should be included in a reference list entry. Write out the last name and first initial(s) for each contributor.

2–20 authors example:

Wright, A., Komal, G., Siddharth, D., Boyd, G., Cayson, N., Beverley, K., Travers, K., Begum, A., Redmond, M., Mills, M., Cherry, D., Finley, B., Fox, M., Ferry, F., Almond, B., Howell, E., Gould, T., Berger, B., Bostock, T., Fountain, A. (2020). Styling royalty. London Bridge Press.

21+ authors

For references with more than 20 authors, after listing the 19th author replace any additional author names with an ellipsis ( … ) followed by the final listed author’s last name and first initial(s).

21+ authors example:

Wright, A., Komal, G., Siddharth, D., Boyd, G., Cayson, N., Beverley, K., Travers, K., Begum, A., Redmond, M., Mills, M., Cherry, D., Finley, B., Fox, M., Ferry, F., Almond, B., Howell, E., Gould, T., Berger, B., Bostock, T., . . . Booker, T. (2020). Eating well: Tips from 23 lifestyle authors. Food Magazine. https://foodmag.com/article/2020/tips-from-22-lifestyle-authors

Solution #1: How to order the names of multiple authors in an APA reference

Authors should be cited in the exact order that they are listed by the source, even if they have not been listed alphabetically.

Solution #2: How to cite an article with more than 20 authors in APA style

If an article has more than 20 authors, all authors do not need to be listed in the reference. Instead, name the first 19, then use an ellipsis (…), then add the name of the final author listed. The ellipsis acts as a substitute for all the names between the first 19 and the final authors. No ampersand (&) is needed before the final name.

For example:

Richards, B.A., Lillicrap, T. P., Beaudoin, P., Bengio, Y., Bogacz, R., Christensen, A., Clopath, C.

Costa, R. P., de Berker, A., Ganguli, S., Gillon, C. J., Hafner, D., Kepecs, A., Kriegeskorte,

N., Latham, P., Lindsay, G. W., Miller, K. D., Naud, R., Pack, C. C., … Kording, K. P. (2019). A deep learning framework for neuroscience. Nature Neuroscience ,  22 (11), 1761–1770. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0520-2

When making an in-text citation, only write the first author’s last name followed by “et. al.” This applies to both parenthetical and narrative citations.

(Richard et al., 2019)

Richard et al. (2019)

Solution #3: How to cite an article written by an organization in APA style

  • Organization as author

When an article is written by an organization, use the typical four-part APA structure (author, date, title, publisher) and cite the organization as the author.

American Nurses Association. (2019). 2018 Annual Report, American Nurse Today, 14 (6), 29-36.

https://www.nursingworld.org/~49d621/globalassets/docs/ana/ana-annual-report-for-

  • Organization as author and publisher

If the organization that authored an article is also its publisher , omit the publisher’s name in the citation.

  • In-text citation when an organization is an author

Use the organization’s name as the author. For example:

American Nurses Association [ANA] (2019)

If an organization’s name is long, abbreviate it by doing the following:

  • First, write the organization’s name in full the first time, followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis.
  • After this, you may use the abbreviation without including the complete name.

1 st in-text narrative citation: American Nurses Association [ANA] (2019)

1 st in-text parenthetical citation: (American Nurses Association [ANA] (2019)

After this distinction is made, abbreviations in-text can be used as demonstrated below:

Narrative citations: The ANA (2019)

Parenthetical citations: (ANA, 2019)

Published October 28, 2020.

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To cite a source with multiple authors and an edition number in APA style, you need to know the names of the authors, title of the book, edition number, and publisher. The in-text citation of a book with multiple authors and an edition number is similar to citing a journal or a book reference with multiple authors. An example of a book reference with three authors and an edition number, along with a template, is given below:

In-text citation template and example:

Author Surname et al. (Publication Year)

LeBuffe et al. (2012)

Parenthetical

(Author Surname et al., Publication Year)

(LeBuffe et al., 2012)

Reference list entry template and example:

Author Surname, F. M., Author Surname, F. M., & Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Book title (edition number). Publisher

LeBuffe, P. A., Naglieri, J. A., & Manderth, A. (2012). Devereux early childhood assessment for preschoolers (2nd ed.). Kaplan Early Learning Company.

Use numerals to indicate an edition number. The word “edition” is abbreviated as “ed.” Italicize the book title and follow sentence case for capitalization.

Citing a source that has multiple authors with the same last name and same initials is the same as citing a source with different authors. There is no need to add the initials of the authors in in-text citations as all surnames (although the same) appear in a single source. Examples of a book reference with three authors with the same last name and initials and their templates are given below:

Dunn et al. (2007)

(Dunn et al., 2007)

Author Surname, F. & Author Surname, F. (Publication Year). Book title. Publisher.

Dunn, L. M., Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test-IV. American Guidance Service.

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APA Citation Guide, 7th edition: Three to Five Authors or Editors

  • General Style Guidelines
  • One Author or Editor
  • Two Authors or Editors
  • Three to Five Authors or Editors
  • Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
  • Article in a Reference Book
  • E-Books, not from a Database
  • Edition other than the First
  • Translation
  • Government Publication
  • Journal Article with One Author
  • Journal Article with 2 Authors
  • Journal Article with 3-20 Authors
  • Journal Article 21 or more Authors
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Basic Web Page
  • Web page from a University site
  • Web Page with No Author
  • Entry in a Reference Work
  • Government Document
  • Online Press Release
  • Motion Picture
  • Youtube Video
  • Audio Podcast Episode
  • Music Recording
  • TikTok Video
  • Electronic Image
  • Lecture/PPT
  • Classical Works
  • Secondary Sources
  • Avoiding Plagiarism

About Citing Books

For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and an example will be provided.

The following format will be used:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase) - entry that appears in the body of your paper when you express the ideas of a researcher or author using your own words.  For more tips on paraphrasing check out The OWL at Purdue .

In-Text Citation (Quotation) - entry that appears in the body of your paper after a direct quote.

References - entry that appears at the end of your paper.

Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association  (7th ed.).

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the manual.

Book with Three to Five Authors or Editors (pp. 286, 321-322)

citing three authors apa

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  • Last Updated: Nov 29, 2023 2:44 PM
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APA Format & Citation Style, 7th edition

  • Journal Article with 3 or More Authors
  • General Style Guidelines
  • One Author or Editor
  • Two Authors or Editors
  • Three or More Authors or Editors
  • Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
  • Article in a Reference Book
  • Edition other than the First
  • Translation
  • Government Publication
  • Journal Article with One Author
  • Journal Article with 2 Authors
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Basic Web Page
  • Web page from a University site
  • Web Page with No Author
  • Entry in a Reference Work
  • Government Document
  • Film and Television
  • Youtube Video
  • Audio Podcast
  • Electronic Image
  • Lecture/PPT
  • Conferences
  • Secondary Sources
  • Formatting Your Paper
  • APA Handouts & Guides This link opens in a new window

Journal Article with Three or More Authors

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname et al., Year)

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

References:

Surnames and initials for  up to twenty authors  should be provided in the reference list.  For more than 20 authors, list the first 19, followed by an ellipses, then list the final author.

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle.  Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. http://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx [if available]  OR  [nothing - if in an online database and does not have a doi]  OR  URL to document on website if readers can access.

(Yonkers et al., 2001, p. 1859)

Yonkers, K. A., Ramin, S. M., Rush, A. J., Navarrete, C. A., Carmody, T., March, D., Heartwell, S., & Leveno, K. J. (2001). Onset and persistence of postpartum depression in an inner-city maternal health clinic system.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 158 (11), 1856-1863. http://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.11.1856

Helpful Tips:

DOI:  If a journal article has a  Digital Object Identifier (DOI)  listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference  as a URL . You will not have to include a different URL or the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.  Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.

Online Database:  If you viewed a journal article in an  online database  and it does not have a DOI, the reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work. In other words, nothing after the page numbers will appear.

Website/Online:  If an online work (not including academic research databases), provide the URL in the reference (as long as the URL will work for readers).

Print:  If you viewed a journal article in its  print format , be sure to check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article.

Date:  When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication.

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APA Citations (7th ed.)

  • General Formatting
  • Professional Paper Elements - Title Page
  • Student Paper Elements - Title Page
  • In-text Citation Basics
  • In-text Citation Author Rules
  • Citing Multiple Works
  • Personal Communications
  • Classroom or Intranet Resources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Periodicals
  • Books and Reference Works
  • Edited Book Chapters and Entries in Reference Works
  • Reports and Gray Literature
  • Conference Sessions and Presentations
  • Dissertations and Theses
  • Data Sets and Software
  • Tests, Scales, & Inventories
  • Audiovisual Works
  • Audio Works
  • Visual Works
  • Social Media
  • Webpages & Websites
  • Basics & Formatting
  • Avoiding Plagiarism

Author Rules

APA has different rules for in-text citations depending on:

  • The number of authors of a work
  • Whether you are citing a group author that has an abbreviation
  • If an author is unknown or anonymous
  • If more than one work has the same author and date
  • If multiple authors share surnames

Look to the right to find rules about each of these circumstances.

Number of Authors to Include in In-text Citations

For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation.

     (McCall, 2019)

     (Moyer & Hendricks, 2014)

     Thornton and Manning (2016)

For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity.

     (Huerta et al., 2019)

     Kapoor, Bloom, Montez, et al. (2017)

     Kapoor, Bloom, Zucker, et al. (2017)

To learn more about avoiding ambiguity in in-text citations, see pp.266-267 of the manual.

Group Authors, With and Without Abbreviations

Authors may be groups. For example, you may cite a work written by the National Institute of Mental Health, or NIMH.

If a work is authored by one or two groups, include the group author name(s) in every citation.

     (Morningside College, 2019)

     (Harvard University & Cambridge College, 2018)

     (U.S. Department of Agriculture et al., 2019)

If a group author has an abbreviation, introduce the abbreviation in the first citation. In subsequent citations, use the abbreviation in place of the full group name.

      First citation:  (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2015)

      Subsequent citations:  (MADD, 2015)

Unknown or Anonymous Author

For works with an unknown author, include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation.

If the title of the work is italicized in the reference list, also italicize the title in the in-text citation. If the title of the work is not italicized in the reference list, use double quotation marks around the title in the in-text citation.

Capitalize titles in in-text citations using title case, even though sentence case is used in the reference list entry.

      Book with no author:  ( The Future of Entrepreneurship , 2018)

      Magazine article with no author:  ("Towards a Psychology of Collective Memory," 2015)

When the author of a work is overtly designated as "Anonymous," this takes the place of the author name in the in-text citation.

     (Anonymous, 2016)

See pp. 264-265 of the manual for more information.

Works With the Same Author and Same Date

When multiple references have an identical author (or no authors) and publication year, include a lowercase letter after the year. This lowercase letter is also included in the reference entry.

Use only the year with a letter in the in-text citation, even if the reference list entry contains a more specific date.

     (LaBlanc & Ibarra, 2019a)

     (LaBlanc & Ibarra, 2019b)

     (Kirk, n.d.-a, n.d.-b)

Authors With the Same Surname

If the first authors of multiple references share the same surname but have different initials, include the first author's initials in all in-text citations, even if the year of publication differs.

     (J. R. Stuart & Frey, 2016; M. Stuart, 2019)

If the first authors of multiple references share the same surname and the same initials, cite the works in the standard author-date format.

     (Grant, 2019; Grant & Reese, 2017)

If multiple authors within a single reference share the same surname, the initials are not needed in the in-text citations.

     (Chen & Chen, 2018)

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APA Citation Style 6th Edition: C. Three to Five Authors or Editors

  • Quotes & Paraphrasing
  • References Guidelines
  • Definitions
  • A. One Author or Editor
  • B. Two Authors or Editors
  • C. Three to Five Authors or Editors
  • D. Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
  • E. Article in a Reference Book
  • F. No Author
  • H. Edition other than the First
  • I. Translation
  • J. Government Publication
  • A. Journal Article with One Author
  • B. Journal Article with 2 Authors
  • C. Journal Article with 3-5 Authors
  • D. Journal Article with 6 or more authors
  • E. Magazine Article
  • F. Newspaper Article
  • A. Basic Web Page
  • B. Website from a University Site
  • C. No Author
  • D. Blog Post
  • E. Entry in a Reference Work
  • F. Government Document
  • A. Motion Picture
  • B. YouTube Video
  • A. Electronic Image
  • A. Interview
  • D. Classical Works
  • E. Secondary Sources

About Citing

For each type of source in this guide, both  the general form and an example  will be provided.

The following format will be used:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase) - entry that appears in the body of your paper when you express the ideas of a researcher or author using your own words.  For more tips on paraphrasing check out  The OWL at Purdue .

In-Text Citation (Quotation) - entry that appears in the body of your paper after a direct quote.

References -  entry that appears at the end of your paper.

Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from the APA Manual  (6th ed.).

Book with Three to Five Authors or Editors (pp. 177, 202)

Printable handouts.

  • Inserting a Running Head
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • APA 7th Edition Checklist
  • APA 6th Edition Guide
  • APA References Page Sample
  • Creating a Hanging Indent
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APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Journal Article with 3–20 Authors

  • General Style Guidelines
  • One Author or Editor
  • Two Authors or Editors
  • Three to Five Authors or Editors
  • Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
  • Article in a Reference Book
  • Edition other than the First
  • Translation
  • Government Publication
  • Journal Article with 1 Author
  • Journal Article with 2 Authors
  • Journal Article with 3–20 Authors
  • Journal Article 21 or more Authors
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Basic Web Page
  • Web page from a University site
  • Web Page with No Author
  • Entry in a Reference Work
  • Government Document
  • Film and Television
  • Youtube Video
  • Audio Podcast
  • Electronic Image
  • Twitter/Instagram
  • Lecture/PPT
  • Conferences
  • Secondary Sources
  • Citation Support
  • Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Formatting Your Paper

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

What is a DOI? A DOI ( digital object identifier ) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the internet. 

NOTE: It is regarded as the most important part of the citation because it will accurately direct users to the specific article.

Think of it as a "digital fingerprint" or an article's DNA!

The rules for DOIs have been updated in the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. They should be included as URLs, rather than just the alphanumeric string.

Correct:  

  • http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-12-114
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-12-114

Incorrect:     

  • doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-114
  • Retrieved from http://doi:10.1186/1471-2288-12-114
  • FREE DOI Look-up (Cross-Ref)
  • DOI System: FAQ
  • Looking up a DOI
  • DOI Flowchart

Journal Article with Three to Twenty Authors

Helpful Tips:

DOI: If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference as a URL.

Online Database: For works from databases that publish works of limited circulation (such as the ERIC database) or original, proprietary material available only in that database (such as UpToDate), include the name of the database or archive and the URL of the work. If the URL requires a login or is session specific, meaning it will not resolve for readers, provide the URL of the database or specific archive home page or login page instead of the URL for the work.

Print: If you viewed a journal article in its print format , be sure to check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article.

Date: When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication.

Surnames and initials for  up to twenty authors  should be provided in the reference list.  For more than 20 authors, list the first 19, followed by an ellipsis, then list the final author.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Author Surname et al., Year)

NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author's name, followed by et al. and the year.

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial.Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume (issue), page range. http://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx

(Westhues et al., 2001)

(Westhues et al., 2001, p. 40)

Westhues, A., Lafrance, J., & Schmidt, G. (2001). A SWOT analysis of social work education in Canada. Social Work Education, 20 (1), 35-56. http://doi.org/10.1080/02615470020028364

(Dietz et al., 2007)

(Dietz et al., 2007, p. 1518)

Dietz, P. M., Williams, S. B., Callaghan, W. M., Bachman, D. J., Whitlock, E. P., & Hornbrook, M. C. (2007). Clinically identified maternal depression before, during, and after pregnancies ending in live births.  American Journal of Psychiatry, 164 (10), 1515-1520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.061118936

ePub Ahead of Print

ePub Ahead of Print  articles, also labeled  Advanced Online Publication  articles, may not have a volume number, issue number, or page numbers assigned to them. If you cannot find a fully published version of the article that includes this information, you can cite the article as an advanced online publication, noting its status where you would usually include the volume, issue, and page numbers. If possible, update your reference to the final version of the source when it becomes available.

Muldoon, K., Towse, J., Simms, V., Perra, O., & Menzies, V. (2012). A longitudinal analysis of estimation, counting skills, and mathematical ability across the first school year.  Developmental Psychology . Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028240

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APA Citation Style, 7th Edition: Journal Article with Three or more Authors

  • APA 6/7 Comparison Guide
  • New & Notable Changes
  • Student Paper Layout
  • Journal Article with One Author
  • Journal Article with Two Authors
  • Journal Article with Three or more Authors
  • Help?! I can't find the DOI
  • One Author/Editor
  • Two Authors/Editors
  • Chapter in a Book
  • Electronic Books
  • Social Media Posts
  • YouTube or other streaming video
  • Podcast or other audio works
  • Infographic, Powerpoint, or other visual works
  • Government Websites & Publications, & Gray Literature
  • Legislative (US & State House & Senate) Bills
  • StatPearls, UpToDate, DynaMedex
  • Dissertations & Thesis
  • Interviews & Emails
  • Magazine Articles
  • Newspaper Articles
  • Datasets, Software, & Tests
  • Posters & Conference Sessions
  • Photographs, Tables, & PDF's
  • Canvas Posts & Class Discussion Boards
  • In-Text Citations & Paraphrasing
  • References Page
  • Free APA 7th edition Resources, Handouts, & Tutorials

Journal Article- Three+ Authors & with a DOI

References:

Dyer, E., Swartzlander, B. J. & Gugliucci, M. R. (2018). Using virtual reality in medical education to teach empathy.   Journal of the Medical Library Association ,   106 (4), 498-500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e318299f3e3

In-text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Dyer et al., 2018)

In-text Citation (Direct Quote):

(Dyer et al., 2018, p.498)

Journal Article- Three+ Authors, No DOI (Retrieved From Publisher Website)

Notes: On the example below, the publisher no longer creates a print edition of the journal and articles are assigned an article number. In this example the article number is: e94186. Since the article does not have an official print version page numbers, you have to use another method for direct citations, which generally call for page numbers. APA 7th edition (p. 273) recommends either using paragraph numbers or section names to designate where a direct citation comes from. In the example below, the direct quote came from the Results section of the paper. 

Lee, K., Kreshnik, H., Jeffrey, D. H., & Emmerton, L. M. (2014). Interventions to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information: A comprehensive review.   PLOS ONE, 9 (4) , Article e94186.  https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0094186

( Lee et al. , 2007)

(Lee, et al.,  2007, Results section )

Journal Article- Three+ Authors and not available online (Print Format)

Zionts, N. D., Apter, J., Kuchta, J, & Greenhouse, P. K. (2010). Promoting consumer health literacy: Creation of a health information librarian fellowship.   Reference & User Service Quarterly, 49 (4), 350-359.  

(Zoints  et al., 2010)

(Zoints et al., 2010, p.358)

Carrie Forbes, MLS

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Page References

Citation information has been adapted from the APA Manual (7th Edition). Please refer to Chapter 10: Reference Examples, pp. 316-320 for more information. 

Helpful Tips

-Include the DOI in the reference if one is assigned.

-If no DOI is assigned and you retrieved the content online, use the home page URL for the journal in the reference.

-If a reference has up to seven authors, include all the author's names in the reference list. 

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Chat with a librarian is available during Laupus Library's open hours . 

Need to contact a specific librarian? Find your liaison.

Call us: 1-888-820-0522 (toll free)

252-744-2230

Text us: 252-303-2343

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In-text citation

  • Reference list
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  • Medicine and health sources
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  • Theses and dissertations
  • Web and social media
  • Other sources
  • Print this page
  • Other styles AGLC4 APA 7th Chicago 17th (A) Notes Chicago 17th (B) Author-Date Harvard MLA 9th Vancouver
  • Referencing home

The APA 7th style uses in-text citations when referring to or quoting people’s work. The essential elements of an in-text citation are the author surname/s and year.

Two types of in-text citations

1. author prominent format.

Use this format if you want to emphasise the author. Their name becomes part of your sentence.

Jones (2018) concluded that the treatment was effective in 74% of cases.

Author prominent citations are also referred to as parenthetical citations.

2. Information prominent format

Use this format if you want to emphasise the information. It cites the author’s name, typically at the end of a sentence.

...as evidenced by a recent Australian study of the treatment's effectiveness (Jones, 2018).

Information prominent citations are also referred to as narrative citations.

The following examples show how to form in-text citations according to number of authors and other considerations.

Surname, Year

Hawkins (2020) reported that the results of the study were inconclusive.

. . . the results of the study were inconclusive (Hawkins, 2020).

Two authors

Both surnames in the order listed on the publication and the year.

For author prominent citations, use “and” between the author names.

For information prominent citations, & between the author names.

Bovey and Hede (2013) argue that . . .

. . . is a significant factor (Bovey & Hede, 2013).

Three or more authors

Cite the first author followed by et al. and year

Robbins et al. (2017) note that leadership empathy and good communication are key to negotiating successful organisational change.

They may be required to work harder now there are … perform the same tasks (Robbins et al., 2017).

Different authors, same surname

When two or more authors have the same surname, add their initials to distinguish between them

P. R. Smith (1945) adopted a unique approach . . . . . . later in the text . . . This idea was first advanced by S. Smith (1935).

Research conducted by W.O. Brown and Jones (1985) was influenced by the work of S.A. Brown and Smith (1961).

The corresponding information prominent citations would be:

(P.R. Smith, 1945)

(S. Smith, 1935)

(W.O. Brown & Jones, 1985)

(S.A. Brown & Smith, 1961)

Multiple authors, ambiguous citations

Distinguish identical multiple-author citations with the same year by adding an additional surname, followed by a comma and et al.

Instead of just Brown et al. (1998), add additional author surnames to distinguish between separate works that Brown co-authored that year:

Brown, Shimamura, et al. (1998)

Brown, Taylor, et al. (1998).

The corresponding information prominent citations would be (Brown, Shimamura, et al., 1998), and (Brown, Taylor, et al., 1998).

  • For further guidance see the APA Style website - Citing multiple works…

Same author, two or more works

Author surname, then years separated by a commas, in chronological order.

Reimer (2017, 2018, 2019) considered this phenomenon across various studies . . .

. . . this phenomenon was considered across various studies (Reimer, 2017, 2018, 2019).

Same author, multiple works and same year

Assign a suffix of a, b, c, d, etc. after the year, according to alphabetical listing by title in the reference list.

Stairs (1992b) examined . . . . . . later in the text . . . According to Stairs (1992a) . . .

. . . was recently considered (Stairs, 1992b) . . . . . . later in the text . . . . . . the results were inconclusive (Stairs, 1992a).

  • For multiple references by the same author with no date, after n.d. add a hyphen and then the suffix e.g. (Dreshcke n.d.-b)

Multiple works from various authors

You may want to cite works from various authors to more strongly support a particular point you are making.

List each work alphabetically by surname in alphabetical order, separated by semicolons.

. . . as proposed by various researchers (Adams et al., 2020; Green, 2019; Hall & Clark, 2021).

Green (2019), Adams et al. (2020), and Hall and Clark (2021) analysed . . .

  • In the author prominent citation there is no requirement to order the citations alphabetically

If the author is identified as 'Anonymous'

Use 'Anonymous' as the surname.

Anonymous (2019)

(Anonymous, 2019)

Unknown author

Give the first few words of the title. If the title is from an article or a chapter, use double quotation marks. If the title is from a periodical, book brochure, or report, then use italics.

. . . the worst election loss in the party's history ("This is the end," 1968).

Corporate or group author

If the organisation has a recognisable abbreviation

First listing: Organisation name [Abbreviation], Year Subsequent: Abbreviation, Year

Where the organisation abbreviation is not widely known

Use the name in full every time

Census data gives valuable insights into... (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2021).

Australia's next census will be held on 10th August 2021 (ABS, 2021).

Author quoted directly

Occasionally it may be necessary to include in your work a quotation from an author.

Always include a page number when you have to cite directly from a source.

If no page numbers are available (e.g. in a website), include a paragraph number.

Use accepted abbreviations like p. for page and para. for paragraph

Gittins (2006) suggests that "the key to understanding microeconomics is to realise that its overwhelming focus is on the role of price" (p. 18).

Weston (1988) stated "the darkest days were still ahead" (p. 45).

A patient is in pain when they tell you and "it is important to believe the patient so as to build a trusting relationship" (Phipps et al., 1983, p.45).

Personal communications

Private letters, e-mail and conversations require only an in-text citation, which includes the date of the communication (Month DD, YYYY).

Personal communications are not included in reference lists, as they are not accessible to others.

R. Smith (personal communication, January 28, 2020) . . .

. . . (R. Smith, personal communication, January 28, 2020)

Author referred to in a secondary source

The original author is cited together with the secondary author.

Only do this when the original is unavailable and only include what you have actually read.

Farrow (1968, as cited in Ward & Decan, 1988) . . .

Ward and Decan (1988) cited Farrow (1968) as finding . . .

. . . (Farrow, 1968, as cited in Ward & Decan, 1988).

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th ed., 2 nd printing).

Note:  This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until 2021, but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here .

APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.

Citing an Author or Authors

A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.

A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.

In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. APA style calls for capitalizing important words in titles when they are written in the text (but not when they are written in reference lists).

Note : In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.

Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.

If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.

Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list (viz., alphabetically), separated by a semi-colon.

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works from the same author, list the years of publication in sequence, with the earliest first. Provide in-press citations last. Only list authors' surnames once for each list of dates. 

Following this pattern, multiple works from multiple authors can be contained within a single parenthetical. Separate authors' sources with a semicolon. Note, however, that the authors' names should be provided in the order they appear in the reference list regardless of when their sources were published.

Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names.

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords: When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual.

(Funk & Kolln, 1992)

Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.

Citing Indirect Sources

If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.

Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source.

Electronic Sources

If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.

Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").

Sources Without Page Numbers

When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number (Hall, 2001, para. 5). If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like webpages, people can use the "find" function in their browser to locate any passages you cite.

Note: Never use the page numbers of webpages you print out; different computers print webpages with different pagination.

Other Sources

The APA Publication Manual describes how to cite many different kinds of authors and content creators. However, you may occasionally encounter a source or author category that the manual does not describe, making the best way to proceed can be unclear.

In these cases, it's typically acceptable to apply the general principles of APA citation to the new kind of source in a way that's consistent and sensible. A good way to do this is to simply use the standard APA directions for a type of source that resembles the source you want to cite. For example, a sensible way to cite a virtual reality program would be to mimic the APA's guidelines for ordinary computer software .

You may also want to investigate whether a third-party organization has provided directions for how to cite this kind of source. For example, Norquest College provides guidelines for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers⁠ —an author category that does not appear in the APA Manual . In cases like this, it's a good idea to ask your instructor or supervisor whether using third-party citation guidelines might present problems.

IMAGES

  1. Apa Format In Text Citation For 3 Authors

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  2. How to Cite Books with Multiple Authors: APA, MLA, & Chicago

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  3. How To Cite More Than 3 Authors Apa

    citing three authors apa

  4. 3 Ways to Cite Multiple Authors in APA

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  5. APA Reference Page Examples and Format Guide

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  6. Apa Format In Text Citation For 3 Authors

    citing three authors apa

VIDEO

  1. Citing websites in APA

  2. APA Formatting & Citing with Laura

  3. Mastering APA 7th Edition: Citing Multiple Authors

  4. NUS Libraries

  5. Citing a Journal Article in APA Format

  6. How Do You Cite a Dictionary in APA Format?

COMMENTS

  1. In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

    The APA manual recommends the use of the author-date citation structure for in-text citation references. This structure requires that any in-text citation (i.e., within the body of the text) be accompanied by a corresponding reference list entry. In the in-text citation provide the surname of the author but do not include suffixes such as "Jr.".

  2. APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Three to Five Authors or Editors

    NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author's name followed by et al. and the year. In-Text Citation (Direct Quote): (Author Surname et al., Year, page number) References: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial.

  3. APA In-Text Citations (7th Ed.)

    Learn how to cite multiple authors and missing information in APA style with examples and tips. Find out how to use parenthetical and narrative citations, abbreviated group authors, no author, date or page number, and more.

  4. Reference List: Author/Authors

    The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.). Cite your source automatically in APA Cite Using citation machines responsibly Powered by

  5. Three or More Authors or Editors

    Book title: Subtitle. Publisher. Example In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Johnson et al., 1999) In-Text Citation (Direct Quote): (Johnson et al., 1999, p. 72) References: Johnson, N. G., Roberts, M. C., & Worell, J. (Eds.). (1999). Beyond appearance: A new look at adolescent girls. American Psychological Association. Last Updated:

  6. Citing Multiple Works With Three or More Authors and the ...

    Citing multiple works with three or more authors and the same publication year is covered in Section 8.18 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition This guidance is the same as in the 6th edition. Because "et al." is plural (meaning "and others"), it cannot stand for only one name.

  7. LibGuides: APA 7th Edition Citation Guide: Multiple Authors

    For in-text citations, sources with three or more authors can be abbreviated to only the first author's last name followed by "et al." For example, (Author et al., Year). Reference Page Format: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C. (Year of Publication). Format the remainder according to resource type. Reference Page Example:

  8. In-Text: Multiple Authors

    Citations in APA style include two parts: (1) in-text citations, which are connected to (2) reference list citations. ... Three or More Authors. If a document has three or more authors, simply provide the last name of the first author with "et al." from the first citation to the last.

  9. Three or More Authors

    Citations with Three or More Authors For works that have three or more authors, list the first author followed by "et al." (meaning "and others") Examples: (Connell et al., 2014) Researchers Connell et al. (2015) found . . . Quotation Narrative:

  10. How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition)

    The abbreviation "et al." (meaning "and others") is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors. Here's how it works: Only include the first author's last name, followed by "et al.", a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).

  11. APA Citation Style, 7th edition: General Style Guidelines

    When citing multiple works by the same author with the same date, link your in-text citations to your references by adding a letter to the end of the year in both: (Smith, 2015a), (Smith, 2015b), (Smith, 2015c), etc. How to Cite Different Numbers of Authors When a work has 2 authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs.

  12. How to cite in APA when there are multiple authors

    When citing a journal paper in APA with three or more authors, only enter the last name of the first author listed and add "et al." after it. "Et al." is Latin for the phrase "and others," which is why it is used as a substitute for two or more authors' last names. Parenthetical citation for three or more authors:

  13. Author-date citation system

    For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation (even the first citation). The following table shows the basic in-text citation styles: a Define the abbreviation for a group author only once in the text, choosing either the parenthetical or the narrative format.

  14. APA Citation Style, 6th Edition: Three to Five Authors/Editors

    The formatting guidelines below refer to books with three authors. If the book has four or five authors, you would follow this format and add the fourth and fifth author's after the third. General Format: In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): (Author's Last Name, Author's Last Name, & Author's Last Name, year) In-Text Citation (Direct Quote):

  15. APA Citation Guide, 7th edition: Three to Five Authors or Editors

    About Citing Books Book with Three to Five Authors or Editors (pp. 286, 321-322) The general format below refers to a book with three authors. For a book with four or five authors, you would add the additional authors' names after the first three.

  16. PDF Using "et al." in APA 7: A Quick Rundown

    Three authors, then, will use et al. a er referencing the primary author (e.g., Jackson et al. (2017) state…). According to the APA Style Manual 7. th. Edi on (Sec ons 8.10-8.36), whenever you're referring to a work with three or more authors, you should always use et al., even in the first cita on. This

  17. Journal Article with 3 or More Authors

    (Author Surname et al., Year) In-Text Citation (Quotation): (Author Surname et al., Year, page number) References: Surnames and initials for up to twenty authors should be provided in the reference list. For more than 20 authors, list the first 19, followed by an ellipses, then list the final author. Author Surname, First Initial.

  18. LibGuides: APA Citations (7th ed.): In-text Citation Author Rules

    For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation. (McCall, 2019) (Moyer & Hendricks, 2014) Thornton and Manning (2016) For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity.

  19. C. Three to Five Authors or Editors

    If you are dealing with a book that has three to five editors instead of authors, you would simply insert the names of the editors into the place where the authors' names are now, followed by " (Eds.)" without the quotation marks ( as per the example ). The rest of the format would remain the same. General Format In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

  20. APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Journal Article with 3-20 Authors

    A guide to help users create citations using APA (American Psychological Association) style, 7th edition. APA Toggle Dropdown. General Style Guidelines ; Books Toggle Dropdown. ... NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author's name, followed by et al. and the year. In-Text Citation (Quotation):

  21. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    In-Text Citations. Resources on using in-text citations in APA style. The Basics General guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay Author/Authors How to refer to authors in-text, including single and multiple authors, unknown authors, organizations, etc.

  22. Journal Article with Three or more Authors

    In this example the article number is: e94186. Since the article does not have an official print version page numbers, you have to use another method for direct citations, which generally call for page numbers. APA 7th edition (p. 273) recommends either using paragraph numbers or section names to designate where a direct citation comes from.

  23. Citing of Six or More Multiple Authors in APA

    To cite multiple authors in APA, you need to know how many you are citing. When citing 2-19 authors, you include a comma and & before the last author. When citing more than 20 authors, you write out the first 19 then use three ellipses (...) and include the final author.

  24. In-text citation

    In-text citation. The APA 7th style uses in-text citations when referring to or quoting people's work. The essential elements of an in-text citation are the author surname/s and year. Two types of in-text citations 1. Author prominent format. Use this format if you want to emphasise the author. Their name becomes part of your sentence.

  25. Research Guides: LAI203: How to Create In-Text Citations in APA

    In-text citations require the author's name, publication date, and page number the specific quote appears on (if available).. The basic components: (Author Last Name(s), Date, p. number). Using a signal phrase to introduce the quote:. Author Last Name(s) (Date) argue that "..."(p. number). If referring to an idea from a work but not using a direct quotation or referring to an entire work, do ...

  26. Citing multiple works

    Citing multiple works is covered in Section 8.12 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition This guidance has been revised from the 6th edition.

  27. In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

    A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses. (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)

  28. White paper references

    Narrative citation: Furst and DeMillo (2006) Learn more White paper references follow the same format as reports, which are covered in the seventh edition APA Style manuals in the Publication Manual Section 10.4 and the Concise Guide Section 10.4