Works-Cited-List Entries

Citations by format.

Entries in the works-cited list are created using the MLA template of core elements —facts common to most sources, like author, title, and publication date. To use the template, evaluate the work you’re citing to see which elements apply to the source. Then, list each element relevant to your source in the order given on the template. 

The examples below show you how to cite five basic source types. Click on an entry to get more information, as well as links to posts with more examples. For hundreds of sample entries by format, check out the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook . 

Book by One Author

Mantel, Hilary. Wolf Hall . Picador, 2010.

Book by an Unknown Author

Beowulf . Translated by Alan Sullivan and Timothy Murphy, edited by Sarah Anderson, Pearson, 2004.

An Edited Book

Sánchez Prado, Ignacio M., editor. Mexican Literature in Theory . Bloomsbury, 2018.

Online Works

Article on a website.

Deresiewicz, William. “The Death of the Artist—and the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur.” The Atlantic , 28 Dec. 2014, theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/01/ the-death-of-the-artist-and-the-birth-of-thecreative-entrepreneur/383497/.

Book on a website

Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Masque of the Red Death.” The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe , edited by James A. Harrison, vol. 4, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1902, pp. 250-58. HathiTrust Digital Library , hdl.handle.net/2027/coo.31924079574368.

Journal Article in a Database

Goldman, Anne. “Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante.” The Georgia Review , vol. 64, no. 1, spring 2010, pp. 69-88. JSTOR , www.jstor.org/stable/41403188.

Songs, Recordings, and Performances

Song from an album.

Snail Mail. “Thinning.” Habit , Sister Polygon Records, 2016. Vinyl EP. 

Song on a website

Snail Mail. “Thinning.” Bandcamp , snailmailbaltimore.bandcamp.com.

Concert Attended in Person

Beyoncé. The “Formation” World Tour. 14 May 2016, Rose Bowl, Los Angeles.

Movies, Videos, and Television Shows

A movie viewed in person.

Opening Night. Directed by John Cassavetes, Faces Distribution, 1977. 

A Movie Viewed Online

Richardson, Tony, director. Sanctuary . Screenplay by James Poe, Twentieth Century Fox, 1961. YouTube , uploaded by LostCinemaChannel, 17 July 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=IMnzFM_Sq8s .

A Television Show Viewed on Physical Media

“Hush.” 1999. Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Complete Fourth Seaso n, created by Joss Whedon, episode 10, Mutant Enemy / Twentieth Century Fox, 2003, disc 3. DVD.

A Photograph Viewed in Person

Cameron, Julia Margaret. Alfred, Lord Tennyson . 1866, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City.

A Painting Viewed Online

Bearden, Romare. The Train . 1975. MOMA , www.moma.org/collection/works/65232?locale=en.

An Untitled Image from a Print Magazine

Karasik, Paul. Cartoon. The New Yorker , 14 Apr. 2008, p. 49.

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Citation Guide

  • APA Style - 7th Edition

Introduction to MLA Style

Creating mla citations: examples, paper formatting guidelines & sample papers, in-text citations & the list of works cited, examples of works cited & in-text citations, software tools for mla style, works cited for this page.

  • Chicago/Turabian Style
  • Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing
  • Tools for Managing Citations
  • Citation Season!

What is MLA Style?

MLA stands for Modern Language Association. MLA Style is an established style for formatting your paper and giving credit to your sources. 

This page provides resources for all the elements of a preparing a paper in MLA Style, including formatting, in-text citations, and the works cited list.

Disciplines at Caldwell that use MLA Style include English, history, theology, philosophy, and others.

MLA Quick Links

Cover Art

  • Quoting and Paraphrasing in MLA Format This video course is all about quoting and paraphrasing sources in your paper! Learn rules of quoting and paraphrasing responsibly, and see examples of in-text citations in MLA format.
  • Purdue OWL Guide to MLA Style Purdue OWL has resources about many citation styles. Here is their section on MLA

how to do mla citation purdue owl

An Article from a Journal Found in a Library Database (a source in two containers)

from MLA Handbook chapter 5.100-103, The Three Most Common Types of Entries

how to do mla citation purdue owl

A Chapter or Section of a Book Accessed through an Online Repository (a source with two containers)

how to do mla citation purdue owl

An Episode of a TV Show Watched on an Online Platform (a source in two containers)

how to do mla citation purdue owl

A Chapter or Section of a Print Book (a source in one container)

how to do mla citation purdue owl

A Print Book (a source that is self-contained)

  • Sample MLA Papers These sample student papers show MLA formatting for all details of a research paper. Look a the structure of the page, how quotes are incorporated, and how works are cited.
  • Formatting Your Research Project (MLA Handbook, Ch. 1) Instructions for formatting your paper in MLA style, including margins, title, headers and footers, headings and subheadings, etc.
  • The Writing Process Purdue OWL's Guide to academic writing in MLA Style, including grammar, mechanics, and punctuation.
  • Mechanics of Prose (MLA Handbook, Ch. 2) Guidance on all the details of writing, such as spelling, grammar, punctuation, how format titles and names in your paper.

In-Text Citations

  • In-Text Citations: The Basics Basic instructions from Purdue OWL about how to format in-text citations in MLA Style. This is how you credit your sources when you mention them in the text of your paper.
  • Citing Sources in the Text (MLA Handbook, Ch. 6) This chapter starts with the basics of citing your sources in the text of your paper. It covers many situations you might encounter.

Works Cited Page

  • MLA Style 101 This video course goes through each "element" of the MLA works cited page entry (like author, title, publisher) and shows how to identify what belongs in each element. This will help you create works cited page entries and know how to edit citations that a database generates!
  • Interactive Practice Template Learn how to create citations for your Works Cited page!
  • How to Cite Books This page from Purdue OWL covers the basics of citing books as well as what to do in a variety of situations. This page has guidance on multiple authors, an organization as author, translations, anthologies, and more.
  • How to Cite Electronic Resources (aka things you found online) This page from Purdue OWL covers works cited page entries for most kinds of online sources, including scholarly journal articles in a library database, ebooks, government agency websites, online news, a YouTube video, personal email correspondence, and more.
  • Citation Examples from the MLA Handbook This is a regularly updated list of citations for a wide variety of sources. It's organized by source, so scroll down or use ctrl-F to search the page for the kind of source you want to see, like "translated book" or "YouTube Video".

Journal Article Found in a Library Database

Works cited page entry.

Lorensen, Jutta. “Between Image and Word, Color, and Time: Jacob Lawrence’s The Migration Series.”  African American Review , vol. 40, no. 3, 2006, pp. 571-86. Academic Search Premier, each.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? Drect=true&db=f5h&AN=24093790&site=eho st-live.

In-text citation

(Lorensen 577)

Newspaper Article Found in a Library Database 

Fessenden, Ford, et al. "The Battle for New York's Key Voting Blocs in the Primaries."  New York Times , 19 Apr. 2016, p. A 14.  ProQuest Central , ezproxy.caldwell.edu:2048/login?url=http:// search.proquest.com/ docview/1781721245?accountid=26523.

(Fessenden et al. A14)

Article from an Online News Source

Chang, Kenneth. “NASA Will Send More Helicopters to Mars.” The New York Times , 27 July 2022, www.nytimes.com/2022/07/27/science/mars-sample-mission-nasa.html.

Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich.  The Crown of Columbus . HarperCollins Publishers, 1999. 

(Dorris and Erdrich 110-12)

Article or Specific Chapter from a Book 

Copeland, Edward. “Money.”  The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen , edited by Copeland and Juliet McMaster, Cambridge UP, 1997, pp. 131-48. 

(Copeland 135)

Webpage on a Website 

“Infographic: Benefits of Language Learning.” Modern Language Association , 2022, www.mla.org/Resources/Advocacy/Infographics/Infographic-Benefits-of-Language-Learning.

("Inforgraphic: Benefits of Language Learning")

Film on an App 

Mamma Mia . Directed by Phyllida Lloyd, Universal Pictures, 2008. Netflix app. 

( Mamma Mia ) or ( Mamma Mia  59:03-61:23) - cite a specific scene with timestamps in the page number spot

There are many tools that can help you create, manage, and organize your citations and your references page. Here are some that the library provides or recommends for students and faculty. 

  • NoodleTools This link opens in a new window NoodleTools is an online tool that helps you take notes and correctly format citations. MLA, APA, and Chicago/Turabian citation styles are included. Use throughout your research project to track sources, take notes, create outlines, collaborate with classmates, and format bibliographies. Use this link to create an account.
  • ZoteroBib ZoteroBib is a free service that helps you build a bibliography from any computer or device, without creating an account or installing any software. It's from the team behind the open source citation management app Zotero. ZBib can create a draft citation from a link or ISBN and has helpful templates for you to use to manually create citations. You can use it for MLA, APA, or Chicago Style.

The information on this page comes from the MLA Handbook, 9th Edition. This book can be cited in MLA style like this:

MLA Handbook.  9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021. 

The elements used here are: [2. Title of source]  MLA Handbook.  [5. Version]  9th ed., [7. Publisher]  Modern Language Association of America, [8. Publication date]  2021. Because the publisher is an organization who is also the author, this organization - the Modern Language Association - is only listed once, as the publisher. 

An in-text citation for this handbook could be ( MLA Handbook  45) to refer specifically to something on page 45. 

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  • Last Updated: Mar 26, 2024 9:53 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.caldwell.edu/citations

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Purdue Owl: MLA Formatting & Style Guide

Developed by the Purdue Online Writing Lab.  MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Author/Editor (By:)

Contributor, corporate author, related organizations, citation type.

Citation Guide

  • A Quick Guide to Resources

Subject Guide

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Changes in 9th edition

The 9th edition of the MLA Handbook was published in 2021. In this update, the format for both in-text and Works Cited citations is the same as the 8th edition. The 9th edition also includes this clarification on citing a film/DVD.

A film/DVD: Generally list film directors as key contributors in the Contributor element Blade Runner . 1982. Directed by Ridley Scott, director’s cut, Warner Bros., 1992.

Examples of MLA Style

In-text Citation

Creating a Works Cited Page

With MLA style, you must include a Works Cited page at the end of your paper. A Works Cited page is an alphabetical listing of the resources cited in your paper. Below are some examples of MLA style citations. Note: Some instructors may require access dates for websites or other pieces of information. Please check with your instructor if you have any questions.

  • Official MLA Style Center

A Modern Language Association hosted website with information on MLA citation and related resources. The MLA Style Center does not contain the full text of the handbook, although it walks users through the process of creating an entry in the works cited list.

  • Purdue Online Writing Lab

Online writing lab with formatting tips and sample papers. The "Cite your source automatically" feature on Purdue Owl pages is part of another website, and not recommended.

  • Excelsior Writing Lab

Citation examples, videos, and formatting guides for MLA, APA, and Chicago styles.

  • Citing Government Information using MLA

Information on citing government print and electronic resources using MLA citation style. (Courtesy of the University of Nevada-Reno)

  • << Previous: Basic APA
  • Next: If I Apply >>
  • Last Updated: Sep 14, 2023 4:49 PM
  • URL: https://guides.pnw.edu/c.php?g=1300509

Citation Styles and Management Tools Guide

Mla 9th edition citation guides, mla handbook (9th edition), core elements.

  • Citing Business Sources
  • Citation Management Tools
  • Other Online Citation Tools
  • UConn MLA 9th Edition (PDF) Citation Style Guide Guide to citing using MLA with examples. Created by UConn Librarians.
  • Purdue OWL MLA Guide Comprehensive guide to using the MLA style from Purdue University.

Cover Art

  • MLA Works Cited: A Quick Guide Highly recommended resource! Examples of the core elements, practice identifying "containers," and a practice template to make your own citation!

MLA focuses on the core elements that are common to all the different types of citations you might make. Remember, one of the points of a citation is to help others find the work you have consulted. Keep that in mind as you put together your core elements!

Not  every  source is going to all of these elements.

  • Title of Source (e.g. a book, article, chapter, song, or episode)
  • Title of Container (e.g. a journal, a book, album, or TV show)
  • Other Contributors (e.g. translator, editors, producers)
  • Publication date

The creator of the source you're citing.

Title of the Source

Title of the Container - This can be a tricky one!

The Container is the larger whole that the source is part of. If you have a chapter in a book, it's a book. If you're citing a TV episode, it's the whole TV show. "In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books, or watched a television series on Netflix. You might have found the electronic version of a journal on JSTOR. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used." (Purdue OWL)

Publication Date

"The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it. If you’re unsure about which date to use, go with the date of the source’s original publication." (Purdue OWL)

Other Contributors

In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc. If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation. (Purdue OWL)

If a source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in your citation. (Purdue OWL)

If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation. (Purdue OWL)

The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. (Purdue OWL)

The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it. If you’re unsure about which date to use, go with the date of the source’s original publication. (Purdue OWL)

This refers to a location like page numbers, a URL, or the physical location of a physical object.

  • MLA Interactive Practice Template

Check Yourself!

Test your ability to use MLA format in this quick, interactive exercise!

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  • Next: ASA >>
  • Last Updated: Apr 9, 2024 8:36 AM
  • URL: https://guides.lib.uconn.edu/citationguides

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MLA Format Guidelines

  • Getting Started
  • General Document Format
  • Formatting Visuals
  • In-Text Citations
  • List of Sources
  • Bias Free Language

For more guidance, visit Purdue OWL's MLA In-Text citation page.

  • Purdue OWL's MLA In-Text Citation

Recommended MLA Websites

  • MLA Citation Guide - Purdue Owl MLA style guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing.
  • MLA In-Text Citations - Purdue Owl Describes how to write In-Text citations in your research assignments.
  • MLA Works Cited Page - Purdue Owl How to format your Works Cited Page.
  • MLA Works Cited Page - Purdue Owl A sample works cited page.
  • Purdue OWL Sample Paper - MLA

Include the source's author (last name only) and page number (if applicable) in parentheses either at the end of sentence before the sentence-ending punctuation or before a natural break in the sentence, such as a semicolon or comma.

  • Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).

If the author's name is used in the sentence, include the page number in parentheses before a natural break or at the end of the sentence.

  • Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).

If a quotation is more than four lines long in your document, indent it 0.5 inches on a new line without quotation marks around it. Double space the quotation, and insert closing punctuation before the parenthetical citation at the end.

At the end of Lord of the Flies the boys are struck with the realization of their behaviour:

The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. (Golding 186)

  • The line before your long quotation, when you're introducing the quote, usually ends with a colon.
  • The long quotation is indented half an inch from the rest of the text, so it looks like a block of text.
  • There are no quotation marks around the quotation.
  • The period at the end of the quotation comes  before  your in-text citation as opposed to  after , as it does with regular quotations.

Paraphrase or Summary

Unlike a direct quotation, a summary or paraphrase still relays ideas from a source but in your own words to make it fit better with your document. A paraphrase is a specific idea from a source that needs a citation with author and page number.

Paraphrasing from One Page

Include a full in-text citation with the author name and page number (if there is one). For example:

  • Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt 65).

Paraphrasing from Multiple Pages

If the paraphrased information/idea is from several pages, include them. 

  • Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt 50, 55, 65-71).

One or Multiple Authors

Citation rules vary based on how many authors a source. Consult the following table for how to handle these different situations.

Indirect (Secondary) Sources

When citing a quotation from a source, include the quotation's original author in text and insert a parenthetical citation that begins with the phrase "qtd. in" to indicate the source from which the quotation came.

  • According to Allegeria, biology "revolves around the idea that the cell is a fundamental unit of life" (qtd. in Smith 15).

Authors with the Same Surname

In addition to the author's name and the page number(s), include a shortened version of the title to distinguish which source is being referenced. 

  • Mattias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, were scientists who formulated cell theory in 1838 (Smith, "Cell Theory" 20). 

Anonymous Author

When a source's author is unknown, cite the first few words of the source's reference list entry, usually the title with appropriate formatting if an article (quotation marks) or book (italicized).

  • Cell biology is an area of science that focuses on the structure and function of cells ( Cell Biology  15).
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  • Next: List of Sources >>
  • Last Updated: May 9, 2024 6:12 PM
  • URL: https://tstc.libguides.com/mla

The Sheridan Libraries

Citing sources.

  • Chicago Style
  • More Styles
  • Other Statements about GenAI
  • Citing Audiovisual Materials
  • Citing Data
  • Citing E-books
  • Citing Images
  • Citing Other Things
  • Avoiding Plagiarism

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Email us: [email protected]

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MLA Style Resources

  • MLA Handbook
  • Online Guides for Modern Language Association
  • Generative Artificial Intelligence
  • MLA Citation Style Examples Examples of MLA citations from Northwest Missouri State University Owens Library. Updated February 2021 or the 9th edition (the newest).
  • MLA Style Center Use the search box for what you want to cite; for example, slide.
  • Purdue OWL -- MLA Formatting and Style Guide From the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University. Includes formatting, in-text citations, references lists, and more.
  • Purdue OWL -- MLA In-text Citations

Citing Generative AI (such as ChatGPT)  

How Do I Cite Generative AI in MLA Style? (ChatGPT 3.5 is used in their examples, but some was updated as recently as April 2023))

  • "You should cite a generative AI tool whenever you paraphrase, quote, or incorporate into your own work any content (whether text, image, data, or other) that was created by it"
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  • Last Updated: Mar 12, 2024 12:11 PM
  • URL: https://guides.library.jhu.edu/citing

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  • Resource Guides
  • Citing Your Sources - Purdue OWL, Excelsior OWL, and Valencia College
  • Chicago/Turabian Style
  • Copyright & Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Writing & Grammar

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  • Did you know?
  • Citing sources is crucial
  • Free citation tools

Did you know  that almost ALL of UMA Libraries' catalogs and databases will  create citations for you?  When you find a resource, simply scan the database for a  "(quotation mark)"  icon, or for a label such as  Cite this Item,  or  Cite,  or  Citation Export.

Giving Credit to Whom It Is Due

When you write a research paper, you must document the sources you used to produce it. When quoting or even paraphrasing another person's idea in your paper, you must give credit to that person so that the reader can find the source you cited.

Sources for which you should provide full citations include books, articles, interviews, Internet sources, government documents, software, videotapes, etc. You cite the sources briefly within the text of your paper, and then give the full citation in the "Bibliography" or "Works Cited" section at the end of your paper.

Additionally, IT IS REQUIRED. See UMA's  Academic Integrity Policy  which spells out your responsibility as a student. The way to avoid plagiarism is to carefully cite all sources used. Your instructors will indicate which citation style they want you to use when citing your sources. Most often this is either APA or MLA citation style.

Please double-check citations before submitting your work! We cannot guarantee the accuracy of citations created using these free, online tools.

Citation Machine

Citation Managers

ZoteroBib (ZBib)

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The UMA Writing Centers and VAWLT   (Virtual, Accessibility, Writing, Library & Technology tutors) offer UMA learners free online writing help and tutoring sessions. Visit their websites to learn more!

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The UMA Writing Centers and VAWLT  offer UMA students free, online tutoring sessions. Visit their websites to learn more!

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The UMA Writing Center supports writers and fosters a culture of writing at UMA, both in person & online.

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UMA VAWLT provides virtual support to by chat, email, & Zoom.

  • UMA VAWLT Virtual Accessibility, Writing, Library, and Technology tutors (VAWLT) more... less... The UMA VAWLT provides virtual support to UMS students by chat, email, and Zoom.
  • MLA 9th cheat sheet
  • MLA Made Easy - Top 10 Changes
  • Top 10 Changes - PDF
  • MLA Cheat Sheet Contains some info about the changes from 8th to 9th ed. as well as some basics of MLA style. PDF.
  • MLA Cheat Sheet MS Word version.

MLA Made Easy - Top 10 Changes from the 8th to 9th Edition of MLA Style . Hatala Testing, 2021. YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5eBYiznvmkc .

  • Top 10 Changes to MLA Style Notes from the video by Mark Hatala.
  • Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL)
  • CMOS - Chicago/Turabian

Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab)

The  Online Writing Lab (OWL)  at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Students, members of the community, and users worldwide will find information to assist with many writing projects. Teachers and trainers may use this material for in-class and out-of-class instruction.

Please be careful of the ads!

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)  site  is a fairly comprehensive resource for the Modern Language Association's (MLA) style and formatting rules. Use the left side bar on OWL's page to navigate to the style or other help that you need.

UPDATED TO 9th ed.

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)  site  is a fairly comprehensive resource for the American Psychological Association (APA) style and formatting rules. Use the left side bar of the OWL page to navigate to the style or other help that you need.

how to do mla citation purdue owl

CMOS  Style

  • OWL @ Excelsior College
  • Chicago/Turabian

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MLA In-Text Citations                                   MLA Works Cited

MLA Style Demo (videos)                             MLA Activity (tutorial)

APA In-Text Citations                                    APA References

APA Formatting Guide                                  APA Headings (setting up the paper)

APA Activity (tutorial)                                          APA Side By Side   (compares reference, in-text citation,                                                                                                                      and in-text citation with author set-up)

Chicago Formatting Guidelines                Chicago Notes & Bibliography

Format a Citation in APA Style Using EBSCOhost

Citation help from Academic Search Complete & other EBSCO databases

Academic Search Complete (along with Business Source Complete, PsycInfo, and other EBSCO databases) will create a citation for you! Look for the "Cite" button to view citations in all the major citation formats.

Citation Basics & Links

Citing your sources is an important step in the research and writing process.  Choose one of the following to get started:

Documentation style depends on your area of study. For instance, the American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is often used in the social sciences, whereas the Modern Language Association (MLA) style is used in the humanities. Check with your professor to be sure you are using the right style for your papers.

Here's a short overview of citations:

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Citation Guide

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  • Quoting, Paraphrasing, Summarizing & Patchwriting

Citation Manuals

Visit your local library or speak to a librarian how to get access to a citation manual.

This guide will direct you to information and resources on using different citation styles for your course projects.

In this guide you will find generic information about the importance of citing your sources , different citation styles you may be asked to use, and links to helpful plagiarism and citation related resources . You will also find useful information on how to incorporate resources into your paper using quotes, paraphrases and summaries , as well as information on patchwriting and how to avoid it.

Already know what citation style you need to use?  Use the navigation tabs on the left to jump to the guide for that style and find the information you need.

Have questions or need further assistance? Contact a librarian!

Citation Styles

What are citation styles.

Citation styles are specific methods of formatting research papers and projects and citing sources to give appropriate credit to authors for their ideas and work.

Common Citation Styles

The two main citation styles you are likely to use in your courses are MLA (Modern Language Association) and APA (American Psychological Association).

Additional citation styles you may use include Chicago, and AMA (American Medical Association).

Plagiarism & Citations

Why is citing important.

Citing is important because it...

  • Shows your readers you've done proper research into your topic
  • Allows readers to track down the sources you used
  • Shows you are a responsible scholar who gives credit to other researchers and acknowledges their ideas
  • Allows you to avoid plagiarism and the associated consequences when you use another's words or ideas

(adapted from  Overview - Citing sources - LibGuides at MIT Libraries )

What do I Need to Cite?

(adapted from  UT Arlington Acknowledging Sources tutorial  and with permission from  Purdue University Online Writing Lab - Plagiarism FAQs)

Check out Purdue OWL's "Should I Cite This?" flow-chart for help deciding if something should be cited.

What is Common Knowledge?

Definitions.

Common knowledge is generally understood to be any information that the average, educated person would know or accept as true without needing to look it up.

The Yale Poorvu Center for Teaching and Learning defines common knowledge as information "that most educated people know or can find out easily in an encyclopedia or dictionary."

Purdue OWL says that common knowledge refers to information that can be found uncited in at least 5 reliable sources.

Types of Common Knowledge

In keeping with the definitions of "common knowledge" above, there are three main categories that common knowledge could fall into:

  • A tomato is a fruit.
  • Seoul is the capital of Korea.
  • Einstein's theory of relativity or E=MC 2 (energy = mass x the speed of light squared)
  • The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. delivered the famous "I Have a Dream" speech in Washington D.C.
  • Kamala Harris was the first woman to be elected Vice-President of the United States.
  • In astronomy, it is widely known that black holes are the result of stars that go supernova.
  • In psychology,
  • In literature, it's common knowledge that Frankenstein is not the name of the monster, but the name of the scientist who created the monster.

(inspired from  What is Common Knowledge? | Academic Integrity at MIT )

Questions to Consider

Since the concept of "common knowledge" is so broad consider the following questions when deciding whether to cite something that could be considered common knowledge in your work:

  • If yes, the information might be considered common knowledge.
  • If no, the information is likely not considered common knowledge and should be cited.
  • If you're writing for an audience of experts in the field, you might be able to consider a basic piece of discipline-specific information common knowledge.
  • If you're writing for a general audience, you should not consider the information common knowledge and cite your source.
  • If the information is considered foundational in your field it can likely be considered common knowledge.
  • If you're reader might be surprised by your statement or it could be refuted by other sources it's probably not considered common knowledge and you should cite your source.

(adapted from  What Is Common Knowledge? | Definition & Examples (scribbr.com) )

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism is when you intentionally or unintentionally use another person's words or ideas without giving them proper credit (i.e. citing them) and pass off their ideas or words as your own. At it's most basic level, plagiarism is intellectual theft.

The CSCU Student Code of Conduct defines plagiarism as "the submission of work by a student for academic credit as one’s own work of authorship which contains work of another author without appropriate attribution."

Examples of Plagiarism

(adapted with permission,  Purdue University Online Writing Lab - Plagiarism FAQs)

What are the Consequences of Plagiarism?

Plagiarism is a very serious offense and depending on the intent and level of plagiarism you could face consequences ranging from relatively minor to severe. If you are found to have plagiarized, some possible consequences you might face include:

  • A failing grade on the assignment
  • A failure for the course
  • Being put on academic probation
  • Being suspended or expelled from the college
  • If you plagiarize outside the college environment you could be fired from your job or face legal action against you

See the CSCU Student Code of Conduct beginning on page 25 for more information on disciplinary procedures and sanctions at CT State Community College.

How Can I Avoid Plagiarism?

The best way to avoid plagiarism is to ALWAYS cite your sources , whether you're quoting a source directly, paraphrasing, or summarizing words, or ideas from another person or entity. Both in-text citations and works-cited entries are always necessary. Below are some specific tips on avoiding plagiarism:

  • Use quotation marks when using the same exact words from your source
  • Longer quotations (generally more than 3 sentences) are typically NOT put in quotation marks but indented on a separate line. Check the appropriate style gudie (MLA, APA, etc.) for proper formatting.
  • Always include both an in-text and works-cited citation

Paraphrasing and Summarizing

  • To correctly paraphrase or summarize, the wording AND sentence structure must be changed to reflect your own understanding of the information
  • Give explicit credit to ALL sources you took ideas, information, or language from regardless of the initial format (written, audio-visual, graphic, etc.).
  • Clearly differentiate between your own ideas and any thoughts or information borrowed from another source by including in-text citations in the appropriate locations
  • Make sure your in-text citations and works cited page (also known as reference list or bibliography) are properly formatted according to your citation style. Use our citation style guides to check your formatting. Ask a librarian if you have questions.
  • Always include both in-text citations and a works-cited page listing all sources used

(adapted from  Plagiarism - Academic Integrity & Plagiarism - LibGuides at Kwantlen Polytechnic University )

Additional Resources

  • for Citations
  • for Plagiarism

General Resources

  • Purdue OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) has thorough information on writing and citing sources using different citation styles, avoiding plagiarism, and guidelines on writing for different purposes.
  • Excelsior OWL The Excelsior Online Writing Lab (OWL) has information on the writing and research process, and frequently used citation styles, among other resources.
  • WorldCat WorldCat is a global, online library catalog you can use to locate resources and find bibliographic information for citations.

Citation Generators

*Be cautious when using a citation generator! Citation generators are machines that take the available information and format it into a citation using the indictated style (i.e. MLA, APA, etc.). Since they are automated, they can be prone to error including missing information or mistakes in formatting like missing punctuation or italicis. As such, you should ALWAYS double check the citation generated by a machine and make sure it's accurate yourself. Use the resources available in our citation guides to check the correctness of a citation or ask a librarian for help.

For more information, see Purdue OWL's guide on Using Citation Generators Responsibly.  

  • Citation Machine Citation Machine is an online citation generator you can use to create citations in MLA, APA, and other formats. It also has a tool that will check your paper for plagiarism.
  • KnightCite An online citation generator maintained by Hekman Library of Calvin University in Michigan.
  • ZoteroBib ZoteroBib is a free, open-sourced tool that helps you build a bibliography and create in-text citations from any computer or device, without creating an account or installing any software.
  • How to Recognize Plagiarism tutorial (Indiana University) A comprehensive tutorial on identifying plagiarism and how to avoid it with the option to take a test and receive a certification.
  • Acknowledging Sources tutorial (University of Texas at Arlington Libraries) A brief tutorial on how to acknowledge your sources and avoid plagiarism.
  • APA Style Avoiding Plagiarism Guide A PDF handout outlining common forms of plagiarism with tips on how to avoid it.
  • Best Practices to Avoid Plagiarism (Purdue OWL) Tips and strategies to help you avoid plagiarism in your writing or course projects.
  • Avoiding Plagiarism (MIT Writing & Communication Center) A guide from the MIT Writing and Communication Center on plagiarism and tips for how to avoid it.
  • Plagiarism.org A website with useful resources for educators on plagiarism and how to teach students what it is and how to avoid it.

Plagiarism Detectors

  • PlagiarismDetector.net A free online plagiarism detection tool you can use to check if you accidentally plagiarized, or professors can use to verify the work you submitted is your own.
  • Next: Quoting, Paraphrasing, Summarizing & Patchwriting >>
  • Last Updated: Feb 23, 2024 2:22 PM
  • URL: https://library.ctstate.edu/citations

IMAGES

  1. MLA In-text Citations OWL

    how to do mla citation purdue owl

  2. Mla Works Cited Purdue Owl

    how to do mla citation purdue owl

  3. MLA: Formatting and Style Guide from OWL at Perdue.

    how to do mla citation purdue owl

  4. Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting and Style Guide

    how to do mla citation purdue owl

  5. Citation Type

    how to do mla citation purdue owl

  6. Intro to MLA on Purdue OWL

    how to do mla citation purdue owl

VIDEO

  1. Writing a Summary Response, Part I: Format and Citation

  2. Citations: A Beginning (1/24/24)

  3. How to Cite in MLA Format

  4. How to Do MLA Citation Format on MS Word

  5. Spring 2024 Purdue OWL Sample Entry Video Demo

  6. MLA Style and Citation: Importance of Citations and MLA

COMMENTS

  1. MLA Formatting and Style Guide

    The Purdue OWL, Purdue U Writing Lab. Accessed 18 Jun. 2018. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations ...

  2. MLA Formatting and Style Guide

    In-Text Citations. Resources on using in-text citations in MLA style. The Basics General guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay Works Cited Page. Resources on writing an MLA style works cited page, including citation formats. Basic Format

  3. MLA Works Cited Page: Basic Format

    Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. It should have the same one-inch margins and last name, page number header as the rest of your paper. Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page.

  4. MLA Works Cited Page: Books

    Cite a book automatically in MLA. The 8 th edition of the MLA handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. Essentially, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. and then assort them in a general format. Thus, by using this methodology, a writer will be able to cite any ...

  5. Research and Citation Resources

    APA Style (7th Edition) These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

  6. MLA Style: In-Text Citations (8th Ed., 2016)

    This vidcast explains how to create in-text citations using MLA 8th Edition, which was published in 2016. For more information, visit the Purdue OWL's MLA re...

  7. Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting

    This vidcast discusses how to format a paper using Microsoft Word according to MLA style. To learn more about MLA style, please visit the following resource ...

  8. Citations by Format

    Citations by Format. Entries in the works-cited list are created using the MLA template of core elements—facts common to most sources, like author, title, and publication date. To use the template, evaluate the work you're citing to see which elements apply to the source. Then, list each element relevant to your source in the order given on ...

  9. Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting: List of Works Cited

    This vidcast introduces the viewers to the basics of MLA style documentation, focusing on the list of works cited. For more information on this, please see t...

  10. Research Guides: Citation Guide: MLA Style

    Formatting Your Research Project (MLA Handbook, Ch. 1) Instructions for formatting your paper in MLA style, including margins, title, headers and footers, headings and subheadings, etc. The Writing Process. Purdue OWL's Guide to academic writing in MLA Style, including grammar, mechanics, and punctuation.

  11. Purdue Owl: MLA Formatting & Style Guide

    Developed by the Purdue Online Writing Lab. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

  12. Basic MLA

    Basic MLA - Citation Guide - Library Guides at Purdue University Northwest. MLA. Changes in 9th edition. The 9th edition of the MLA Handbook was published in 2021. In this update, the format for both in-text and Works Cited citations is the same as the 8th edition. The 9th edition also includes this clarification on citing a film/DVD. A film/DVD:

  13. MLA

    Purdue OWL MLA Guide. Comprehensive guide to using the MLA style from Purdue University. MLA Handbook (9th Edition) ... If a source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in your citation. (Purdue OWL) Number. If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers ...

  14. Using Purdue OWL for Citations

    This video provides a quick demonstration on how to use Purdue OWL when developing a works cited page.https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_st...

  15. Welcome to the Purdue Online Writing Lab

    The Purdue OWL offers global support through online reference materials and services. A Message From the Assistant Director of Content Development The Purdue OWL® is committed to supporting students, instructors, and writers by offering a wide range of resources that are developed and revised with them in mind. To do this, the OWL team is ...

  16. Library Guides: MLA Format Guidelines: In-Text Citations

    Include a full in-text citation with the author name and page number (if there is one). For example: Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt 65). Paraphrasing from Multiple Pages. If the paraphrased information/idea is from several pages, include them.

  17. MLA Style

    A video course that "teaches the principles of MLA documentation style through a series of short videos paired with quizzes, plus a final assessment". Under the search box, there are links: "MLA Handbook" goes to the Table of Contents. "Examples" has Citations and Sample Papers. "Courses" is nine videos about various aspects of the MLA style'.

  18. MLA In-text Citations

    Revised on March 5, 2024. An MLA in-text citation provides the author's last name and a page number in parentheses. If a source has two authors, name both. If a source has more than two authors, name only the first author, followed by " et al. ". If the part you're citing spans multiple pages, include the full page range.

  19. Purdue OWL MLA formatting

    The preparation of papers and manuscripts in MLA style is covered in chapter four of the MLA Handbook, and chapter four of the MLA Style Manual. Below are some basic guidelines for formatting a paper in MLA style. General Guidelines. Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper.

  20. Resource Guides: Citations: Citing Your Sources

    Sources for which you should provide full citations include books, articles, interviews, Internet sources, government documents, software, videotapes, etc. You cite the sources briefly within the text of your paper, and then give the full citation in the "Bibliography" or "Works Cited" section at the end of your paper. Additionally, IT IS REQUIRED.

  21. PDF Modern Language Association (MLA) Documentation

    Modern Language Association (MLA) Documentation MLA documentation and formatting style is often used in the humanities (except history and theology) and the fine arts. This handout provides some of the key rules, but for additional help, use the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (9th edition), visit the Purdue OWL

  22. MLA Style

    Use a clear font between 11 and 13 points. One example is Times New Roman font. Use one-inch margins on all sides and indent the first line of a paragraph one half-inch from the left margin. Add a running head in the upper right-hand corner with your last name, a space, and then a page number. Pages should be numbered consecutively with Arabic ...

  23. Citation Basics

    Citation Machine is an online citation generator you can use to create citations in MLA, APA, and other formats. It also has a tool that will check your paper for plagiarism. An online citation generator maintained by Hekman Library of Calvin University in Michigan. ZoteroBib is a free, open-sourced tool that helps you build a bibliography and ...