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How to Write a Survey Report

Last Updated: February 16, 2024

This article was co-authored by wikiHow Staff . Our trained team of editors and researchers validate articles for accuracy and comprehensiveness. wikiHow's Content Management Team carefully monitors the work from our editorial staff to ensure that each article is backed by trusted research and meets our high quality standards. This article has been viewed 383,200 times. Learn more...

Once you have finished conducting a survey, all that is left to do is write the survey report. A survey report describes a survey, its results, and any patterns or trends found in the survey. Most survey reports follow a standard organization, broken up under certain headings. Each section has a specific purpose. Fill out each section correctly and proofread the paper to create a polished and professional report.

Writing the Summary and Background Info

Step 1 Break the report up into separate sections with headings.

  • Table of Contents
  • Executive Summary
  • Background and Objectives
  • Methodology
  • Conclusion and Recommendations

Step 2 Write a 1-2...

  • Methodology of the survey.
  • Key results of the survey.
  • Conclusions drawn from the results of the survey.
  • Recommendations based on the results of the survey.

Step 3 State the objectives of the survey in the background section.

  • Study or target population: Who is being studied? Do they belong to a certain age group, cultural group, religion, political belief, or other common practice?
  • Variables of the study: What is the survey trying to study? Is the study looking for the association or relationship between two things?
  • Purpose of the study: How will this information be used? What new information can this survey help us realize?

Step 4 Provide background information by explaining similar research and studies.

  • Look for surveys done by researchers in peer-viewed academic journals. In addition to these, consult reports produced by similar companies, organizations, newspapers, or think tanks.
  • Compare their results to yours. Do your results support or conflict with their claims? What new information does your report provide on the matter?
  • Provide a description of the issue backed with peer-reviewed evidence. Define what it is you're trying to learn and explain why other studies haven't found this information.

Explaining the Method and Results

Step 1 Explain how the study was conducted in the methodology section.

  • Who did you ask? How can you define the gender, age, and other characteristics of these groups?
  • Did you do the survey over email, telephone, website, or 1-on-1 interviews?
  • Were participants randomly chosen or selected for a certain reason?
  • How large was the sample size? In other words, how many people answered the results of the survey?
  • Were participants offered anything in exchange for filling out the survey?

Step 2 Describe what type of questions were asked in the methodology section.

  • For example, you might sum up the general theme of your questions by saying, "Participants were asked to answer questions about their daily routine and dietary practices."
  • Don't put all of the questions in this section. Instead, include your questionnaire in the first appendix (Appendix A).

Step 3 Report the results of the survey in a separate section.

  • If your survey interviewed people, choose a few relevant responses and type them up in this section. Refer the reader to the full questionnaire, which will be in the appendix.
  • If your survey was broken up into multiple sections, report the results of each section separately, with a subheading for each section.
  • Avoid making any claims about the results in this section. Just report the data, using statistics, sample answers, and quantitative data.
  • Include graphs, charts, and other visual representations of your data in this section.

Step 4 Point out any interesting trends in the results section.

  • For example, do people from a similar age group response to a certain question in a similar way?
  • Look at questions that received the highest number of similar responses. This means that most people answer the question in similar ways. What do you think that means?

Analyzing Your Results

Step 1 State the implications of your survey at the beginning of the conclusion.

  • Here you may break away from the objective tone of the rest of the paper. You might state if readers should be alarmed, concerned, or intrigued by something.
  • For example, you might highlight how current policy is failing or state how the survey demonstrates that current practices are succeeding.

Step 2 Make recommendations about what needs to be done about this issue.

  • More research needs to be done on this topic.
  • Current guidelines or policy need to be changed.
  • The company or institution needs to take action.

Step 3 Include graphs, charts, surveys, and testimonies in the appendices.

  • Appendices are typically labeled with letters, such as Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C, and so on.
  • You may refer to appendices throughout your paper. For example, you can say, “Refer to Appendix A for the questionnaire” or “Participants were asked 20 questions (Appendix A)”.

Polishing Your Report

Step 1 Add a title page and table of contents to the first 2 pages.

  • The table of contents should list the page numbers for each section (or heading) of the report.

Step 2 Cite your research according to the style required for the survey report.

  • Typically, you will cite information using in-text parenthetical citations. Put the name of the author and other information, such as the page number or year of publication, in parentheses at the end of a sentence.
  • Some professional organizations may have their own separate guidelines. Consult these for more information.
  • If you don’t need a specific style, make sure that the formatting for the paper is consistent throughout. Use the same spacing, font, font size, and citations throughout the paper.

Step 3 Adopt a clear, objective voice throughout the paper.

  • Try not to editorialize the results as you report them. For example, don’t say, “The study shows an alarming trend of increasing drug use that must be stopped.” Instead, just say, “The results show an increase in drug use.”

Step 4 Write in concise, simple sentences.

  • If you have a choice between a simple word and a complex word, choose the simpler term. For example, instead of “1 out of 10 civilians testify to imbibing alcoholic drinks thrice daily,” just say “1 out of 10 people report drinking alcohol 3 times a day.”
  • Remove any unnecessary phrases or words. For example, instead of “In order to determine the frequency of the adoption of dogs,” just say “To determine the frequency of dog adoption.”

Step 5 Revise your paper thoroughly before submitting.

  • Make sure you have page numbers on the bottom of the page. Check that the table of contents contains the right page numbers.
  • Remember, spell check on word processors doesn’t always catch every mistake. Ask someone else to proofread for you to help you catch errors.

Survey Report Template

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  • Always represent the data accurately in your report. Do not lie or misrepresent information. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

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Create a Facebook Survey

  • ↑ https://survey.umn.edu/best-practices/survey-analysis-reporting-your-findings
  • ↑ https://www.poynter.org/news/beware-sloppiness-when-reporting-surveys
  • ↑ https://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/assessment/assessing-community-needs-and-resources/conduct-surveys/main

About This Article

wikiHow Staff

To write a survey report, you’ll need to include an executive summary, your background and objectives, the methodology, results, and a conclusion with recommendations. In the executive summary, write out the main points of your report in a brief 1-2 page explanation. After the summary, state the objective of the summary, or why the survey was conducted. You should also include the hypothesis and goals of the survey. Once you’ve written this, provide some background information, such as similar studies that have been conducted, that add to your research. Then, explain how your study was conducted in the methodology section. Make sure to include the size of your sample and what your survey contained. Finally, include the results of your study and what implications they present. To learn how to polish your report with a title page and table of contents, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to write a survey report

How to Create a Survey

How to write a survey report

Tips for an effective survey report.

  • Start with an introduction
  • Use visualizations
  • Focus on key facts first
  • Categorize results
  • Summarize your findings
  • Integrate company branding

Conducting a survey is a great way to gather insights from your target demographic. But you’ll limit the effectiveness of the results if you don’t have the right strategy to analyze and report the information.

Once you’ve published and collected data from an online survey, it’s time to analyze the information and format it in a presentable way. Let’s dive into the ins and outs of how to write a survey report.

Survey report basics

You conduct research because you want to answer a question. Do your customers like your product? Why or why not? Did your customers get good service from the support team? If not, how could you improve? One way to find out is to conduct a survey.

The survey report presents the results of the survey objectively, summarizing the responses. Most survey reports show the results in visually appealing ways by including graphs and charts.

It’s important to make the report easy to follow — for example, creating different sections for various survey question categories and using headings and subheadings to call out those categories. Your survey report should be interesting, but always focus on summarizing the information accurately.

Create and share customizable surveys with Jotform.

Survey administration and data collection

Before drafting a survey, consider what you want to achieve, then shape the questions to gather the kind of information that will help you reach those goals. You’ll likely want to include two types of questions :

  • Quantitative. These are questions that yield a numerical response. Some of the most common quantitative questions ask respondents how satisfied they are with a product or service or how likely they would be to recommend a service to someone else. Respondents then have a scale of numbers to choose from. This numerical data can measure variables, and the results fit easily into graphs and charts.
  • Qualitative. These questions gather more details from respondents about their experiences and opinions. As an example, if you were an online retailer, you might ask respondents to describe how you could improve their shopping experience.

Quantitative results are a little easier to present in a report because the numbers can quickly translate into easy-to-understand graphics. When you include qualitative questions, you’ll need to analyze and interpret the responses in text to share the results effectively with others.

Here are a few best practices for creating a quality survey report:

  • Start with an introduction. Set the tone by explaining the purpose of the survey. Provide context for the information you’re presenting.
  • Use visualizations. Images and graphs are an effective way to tell a story. Keep it interesting with different visuals, such as pie charts, bar graphs, and other formats. But make sure to use the type of visual that best demonstrates the results.
  • Focus on key facts first. What are the most critical data points you want to share? Include those at the beginning of the survey report.
  • Categorize results. Group similar data together to show relationships. Consider using headings and subheadings to break up the information.
  • Summarize your findings. At the end of the survey report, give the reader an overview of the information. Include takeaways that you can use to make improvements.
  • Integrate company branding. Look for ways to infuse your brand in the survey report — at minimum, make sure you include your logo at the top of the document and a footer with your company’s information. And don’t forget to select presentation colors that align with your branding guidelines.

The aesthetics of your report matter. Even the smallest details can communicate volumes about your organization. So make sure the survey report is professional and concise while sharing accurate information.

Sharable survey reports

Now that you’ve created your survey report, how will you share it with others ? Here are a few options to consider:

  • Send a URL to a cloud-based report
  • Embed the report on a website
  • Download the report to distribute as a PDF
  • Print a copy of the report for in-person meetings

You may also want to use multiple report-sharing features to accommodate the varying needs of your audience.

Built-in reporting features

If you don’t want to write a survey report from scratch, don’t worry! The simplest solution is to use a survey tool with built-in reporting features. You can pair a Jotform survey template with the Jotform Report Builder to visualize and present data in just a few clicks.

Student Survey Template

Jotform Report Builder makes it easy to convert collected survey data into beautiful visuals and charts. You can use auto-generated reports , but you also have the ability to customize the report layout to match the unique needs of your organization. You can share these survey reports in seconds, and they are updated automatically whenever new responses are submitted.

Additionally, the Report Builder allows you to filter the data in many ways, which is a huge help when it comes to analyzing the information you’ve collected. You can use these powerful insights to improve your business and meet the needs of your customers more effectively.

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  • Doing Survey Research | A Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

Doing Survey Research | A Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

Published on 6 May 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on 10 October 2022.

Survey research means collecting information about a group of people by asking them questions and analysing the results. To conduct an effective survey, follow these six steps:

  • Determine who will participate in the survey
  • Decide the type of survey (mail, online, or in-person)
  • Design the survey questions and layout
  • Distribute the survey
  • Analyse the responses
  • Write up the results

Surveys are a flexible method of data collection that can be used in many different types of research .

Table of contents

What are surveys used for, step 1: define the population and sample, step 2: decide on the type of survey, step 3: design the survey questions, step 4: distribute the survey and collect responses, step 5: analyse the survey results, step 6: write up the survey results, frequently asked questions about surveys.

Surveys are used as a method of gathering data in many different fields. They are a good choice when you want to find out about the characteristics, preferences, opinions, or beliefs of a group of people.

Common uses of survey research include:

  • Social research: Investigating the experiences and characteristics of different social groups
  • Market research: Finding out what customers think about products, services, and companies
  • Health research: Collecting data from patients about symptoms and treatments
  • Politics: Measuring public opinion about parties and policies
  • Psychology: Researching personality traits, preferences, and behaviours

Surveys can be used in both cross-sectional studies , where you collect data just once, and longitudinal studies , where you survey the same sample several times over an extended period.

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

Before you start conducting survey research, you should already have a clear research question that defines what you want to find out. Based on this question, you need to determine exactly who you will target to participate in the survey.

Populations

The target population is the specific group of people that you want to find out about. This group can be very broad or relatively narrow. For example:

  • The population of Brazil
  • University students in the UK
  • Second-generation immigrants in the Netherlands
  • Customers of a specific company aged 18 to 24
  • British transgender women over the age of 50

Your survey should aim to produce results that can be generalised to the whole population. That means you need to carefully define exactly who you want to draw conclusions about.

It’s rarely possible to survey the entire population of your research – it would be very difficult to get a response from every person in Brazil or every university student in the UK. Instead, you will usually survey a sample from the population.

The sample size depends on how big the population is. You can use an online sample calculator to work out how many responses you need.

There are many sampling methods that allow you to generalise to broad populations. In general, though, the sample should aim to be representative of the population as a whole. The larger and more representative your sample, the more valid your conclusions.

There are two main types of survey:

  • A questionnaire , where a list of questions is distributed by post, online, or in person, and respondents fill it out themselves
  • An interview , where the researcher asks a set of questions by phone or in person and records the responses

Which type you choose depends on the sample size and location, as well as the focus of the research.

Questionnaires

Sending out a paper survey by post is a common method of gathering demographic information (for example, in a government census of the population).

  • You can easily access a large sample.
  • You have some control over who is included in the sample (e.g., residents of a specific region).
  • The response rate is often low.

Online surveys are a popular choice for students doing dissertation research , due to the low cost and flexibility of this method. There are many online tools available for constructing surveys, such as SurveyMonkey and Google Forms .

  • You can quickly access a large sample without constraints on time or location.
  • The data is easy to process and analyse.
  • The anonymity and accessibility of online surveys mean you have less control over who responds.

If your research focuses on a specific location, you can distribute a written questionnaire to be completed by respondents on the spot. For example, you could approach the customers of a shopping centre or ask all students to complete a questionnaire at the end of a class.

  • You can screen respondents to make sure only people in the target population are included in the sample.
  • You can collect time- and location-specific data (e.g., the opinions of a shop’s weekday customers).
  • The sample size will be smaller, so this method is less suitable for collecting data on broad populations.

Oral interviews are a useful method for smaller sample sizes. They allow you to gather more in-depth information on people’s opinions and preferences. You can conduct interviews by phone or in person.

  • You have personal contact with respondents, so you know exactly who will be included in the sample in advance.
  • You can clarify questions and ask for follow-up information when necessary.
  • The lack of anonymity may cause respondents to answer less honestly, and there is more risk of researcher bias.

Like questionnaires, interviews can be used to collect quantitative data : the researcher records each response as a category or rating and statistically analyses the results. But they are more commonly used to collect qualitative data : the interviewees’ full responses are transcribed and analysed individually to gain a richer understanding of their opinions and feelings.

Next, you need to decide which questions you will ask and how you will ask them. It’s important to consider:

  • The type of questions
  • The content of the questions
  • The phrasing of the questions
  • The ordering and layout of the survey

Open-ended vs closed-ended questions

There are two main forms of survey questions: open-ended and closed-ended. Many surveys use a combination of both.

Closed-ended questions give the respondent a predetermined set of answers to choose from. A closed-ended question can include:

  • A binary answer (e.g., yes/no or agree/disagree )
  • A scale (e.g., a Likert scale with five points ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree )
  • A list of options with a single answer possible (e.g., age categories)
  • A list of options with multiple answers possible (e.g., leisure interests)

Closed-ended questions are best for quantitative research . They provide you with numerical data that can be statistically analysed to find patterns, trends, and correlations .

Open-ended questions are best for qualitative research. This type of question has no predetermined answers to choose from. Instead, the respondent answers in their own words.

Open questions are most common in interviews, but you can also use them in questionnaires. They are often useful as follow-up questions to ask for more detailed explanations of responses to the closed questions.

The content of the survey questions

To ensure the validity and reliability of your results, you need to carefully consider each question in the survey. All questions should be narrowly focused with enough context for the respondent to answer accurately. Avoid questions that are not directly relevant to the survey’s purpose.

When constructing closed-ended questions, ensure that the options cover all possibilities. If you include a list of options that isn’t exhaustive, you can add an ‘other’ field.

Phrasing the survey questions

In terms of language, the survey questions should be as clear and precise as possible. Tailor the questions to your target population, keeping in mind their level of knowledge of the topic.

Use language that respondents will easily understand, and avoid words with vague or ambiguous meanings. Make sure your questions are phrased neutrally, with no bias towards one answer or another.

Ordering the survey questions

The questions should be arranged in a logical order. Start with easy, non-sensitive, closed-ended questions that will encourage the respondent to continue.

If the survey covers several different topics or themes, group together related questions. You can divide a questionnaire into sections to help respondents understand what is being asked in each part.

If a question refers back to or depends on the answer to a previous question, they should be placed directly next to one another.

Before you start, create a clear plan for where, when, how, and with whom you will conduct the survey. Determine in advance how many responses you require and how you will gain access to the sample.

When you are satisfied that you have created a strong research design suitable for answering your research questions, you can conduct the survey through your method of choice – by post, online, or in person.

There are many methods of analysing the results of your survey. First you have to process the data, usually with the help of a computer program to sort all the responses. You should also cleanse the data by removing incomplete or incorrectly completed responses.

If you asked open-ended questions, you will have to code the responses by assigning labels to each response and organising them into categories or themes. You can also use more qualitative methods, such as thematic analysis , which is especially suitable for analysing interviews.

Statistical analysis is usually conducted using programs like SPSS or Stata. The same set of survey data can be subject to many analyses.

Finally, when you have collected and analysed all the necessary data, you will write it up as part of your thesis, dissertation , or research paper .

In the methodology section, you describe exactly how you conducted the survey. You should explain the types of questions you used, the sampling method, when and where the survey took place, and the response rate. You can include the full questionnaire as an appendix and refer to it in the text if relevant.

Then introduce the analysis by describing how you prepared the data and the statistical methods you used to analyse it. In the results section, you summarise the key results from your analysis.

A Likert scale is a rating scale that quantitatively assesses opinions, attitudes, or behaviours. It is made up of four or more questions that measure a single attitude or trait when response scores are combined.

To use a Likert scale in a survey , you present participants with Likert-type questions or statements, and a continuum of items, usually with five or seven possible responses, to capture their degree of agreement.

Individual Likert-type questions are generally considered ordinal data , because the items have clear rank order, but don’t have an even distribution.

Overall Likert scale scores are sometimes treated as interval data. These scores are considered to have directionality and even spacing between them.

The type of data determines what statistical tests you should use to analyse your data.

A questionnaire is a data collection tool or instrument, while a survey is an overarching research method that involves collecting and analysing data from people using questionnaires.

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  • How to Create a Survey Report in 5 Steps

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Surveys are usually created as part of a research process, which is aimed at attaining a conclusion. Hence,r to conclude  your surveys, you need to create a survey report at the end of your survey.

This describes a survey, its results, and any pattern or trends found in the survey, all to help you conclude your research.

Creating a survey report is usually the next step after you finish conducting your survey. For proper analysis, it usually follows a set-out pattern — including headings, subheadings, etc.

What is a Survey Report? 

A survey report is a document whose task is to present the information gathered during the survey in an  objective manner. It presents a summary of all the responses that were collected in a simple and visually appealing manner.

The report follows a standard organization, with different sections, headings, subheadings, etc. It is usually created at the end of a survey (i.e. after constructing and gathering responses).

Survey reports are an integral part of the research, and it is very important that you always represent accurate data in your report.

5 Steps to Creating a Survey Report

It is one thing to create a survey report, but another to create a good survey report. Therefore, we have prepared a guide to assist you in writing your next report.

Here are the 5 main steps you need to follow to create a good survey report.

Create a Questionnaire  

Every survey report requires a survey Hence, the first thing you need to do is to create a survey or questionnaire that will be used to carry out your survey.

The responses received from the questionnaire will determine the final outlook of the survey report . However, there are a few important things you need to consider before creating a questionnaire for your survey report.

Factors to Consider Before Creating a Questionnaire For a Survey Report  

  • Define your objectives

The first step to creating a good questionnaire for your survey report is defining the objectives of your research. After which you will create your questionnaire which aligns with your research objectives.

In simple terms, your research objective will guide you in choosing the kind of questionnaire that should be created. For example, if your objective is to sell your products online, then you should create an online order form.

  • Who are your audience?

After defining your objectives, the next step is to identify your target audience. Your target audience will  determine the kind of questions that would be asked in the questionnaire.

When creating a questionnaire to evaluate job seekers, for instance, the questions that will be asked in the questionnaire will be different from when creating a questionnaire for those seeking a life partner.

  • Survey Report Method (Quantitative/Qualitative)

Now that you know the research objective and target audience, the next step is to determine the method that will be used in carrying out this survey. Is it going to be quantitative or qualitative? Or both?

The interesting thing about choosing a method of carrying out your research is that this method is determined by the first two factors. For an online matchmaking questionnaire, a qualitative method will be used.

An online order form , on the other hand, will require both, but mostly quantitative methods.

  • Best Types of Questions for Surveys

Another important aspect of creating a questionnaire is determining the types of questions that will be most perfect for the survey. Is it dichotomous, close-ended questions , or rating and ranking questions ?

The type of survey questions should be carefully chosen by the questionnaire in order to collect the right data and not affect the response rate on the survey . For example, when requesting the phone number of your respondents, the question shouldn’t be closed-ended.

Collect Data  

After determining how to create a questionnaire for your survey, the next thing to do is  create the questionnaire and start collecting data . There are points to note  in data collection and some of them have been highlighted below:

  • Location of your Audience

to create a more detailed survey report, you need to identify your audience’s location when collecting data. Respondents may be reluctant to provide  their location in the questionnaire, 

Therefore, you need to create a questionnaire that automatically identifies the respondent’s location once they start filling the questionnaire. This can be done using the Formplus Geolocation feature .

  • Avoid Survey Bias

One of the best practices of collecting clean data for your questionnaire is by avoiding survey bias . There are different kinds of biases that we can face during data collection, and they all fall under response and non-response biases .

There are a lot of things you need to consider when creating your questionnaire to avoid these biases. These fall under the 4 factors we have highlighted above for you to consider when creating a questionnaire.

  • Ways to Create a Questionnaire (Paper or Online Form)

Another thing to consider when choosing a data collection method is the type of questionnaire to use. Is it better to use an online or paper form?

There are a lot of factors that should be considered when making this decision. Some of these include; your target audience, cost of implementation, efficiency, and data security.

The traditional way of data collection is through the paper questionnaire. However, if you consider the factors that were highlighted above, you will realize that it is better to use an online questionnaire .

An online questionnaire is easier to implement, more efficient, cost-effective, helps to reach a larger audience, and even offers more data security. However, if most of your target audience are in remote areas without an internet connection, or are not familiar with how to use a technological device, it is better to use paper forms or both.

Analyze Data  

Before writing a report from the data collected during your survey, you need to simplify it for better understanding. This will make it easy to write a survey report for the data collected and for other people to understand the data. 

  • Export Data

After data collection, you need to export it for data analysis. This can be done using any of the available data analysis software.

Analyzing data on Excel or Google Sheets just became easier with Formplus . With the Formplus – Google Sheets integration, the responses collected from your questionnaire will be automatically added to your Google Sheets worksheet in real-time.

You can also export the data as CSV and work on it using Microsoft Excel, Power BI, or any other data analysis software. 

Analyze and Interpret

After exporting the data, you analyze it. Data analysis involves breaking data down into simpler terms, identifying similarities, grouping and interpreting them.

There are different methods of data analysis that can be used in analyzing the data collected from your questionnaire before interpretation . However, each of these methods follows similar processes that have been highlighted below.

  • Data Cleaning

Due to some factors during the data collection process, you may have collected inaccurate or corrupt information – making the data “ dirty”. This may include duplicate records, white spaces, or outright errors. 

Things like this make the collected data irrelevant to your aim of Analysis and should be cleaned. It is the next step after data collection, so that you may arrive at a conclusion that is closer to your expected outcome.

  • Data Analysis

Once the data is collected, cleaned, and processed, it is ready for analysis. At this point, you may realize that you have the exact data you need or still need to collect more data. To make analysis easier, you might use software that will ease understating, interpretation, and conclusion. 

  • Data Interpretation

After a successful analysis, the next step is interpretation. There are different ways of interpreting the result of data analysis. It can be done using simple words (usually a summary of the result), tables, or charts.

  • Data Visualization

This is the most common process involved in data analysis and interpretation. It is the process of displaying data graphically so that it can be easier for everyone  to understand  and process it. It is often used to analyze relationships and discover trends by comparing t variables in a dataset.

Write Survey Report  

After successfully analysing and interpreting  your data, it is ready to feature in your survey report. At this stage, all you need to do is plug and play because everything you need has been prepared in the previous steps.

To further make your survey report writing process easier, it is advised that you follow a pre-designed template that is tailored to the type of survey under consideration.

Types of Survey Report

Before embarking on the report writing journey, you need to first identify the type of survey report you want to write. The type of survey report is determined by the nature of the survey that was carried out.

Some of the different kinds of surveys include employee satisfaction surveys, customer feedback surveys, market research surveys, etc. 

  • Employee Satisfaction Survey

This method is used to gauge whether employees are satisfied with the work environment. Organizations usually do this to ensure that employees are motivated and to build a stronger team spirit.

Employees are asked to give feedback and particularly voice their frustrations with the company. 

  • Customer Feedback Survey

This is undoubtedly one of the most common types of surveys. Businesses are always seen requesting feedback from customers after selling a product or rendering a service.

As an individual, you must have experienced this at a point in time. Whether after purchasing an item from a grocery store, placing an order online ordering at a restaurant, etc. 

  • Market Research Survey

It is used to discover customer needs, competitive advantage, how and where products are purchased, etc. This type of survey can be applied when no data is available yet: For example, to measure how your target audience feels about a product you intend to lunch. 

In some instances, it’s about building on past data in your market research database. When you are building on past research, you conduct a survey to measure, for example, what people think about the product, say, a year after its launch.

For each of the different types of surveys highlighted above, the structure of the survey report will be slightly different from the other.  

Features of a Survey Report/Guidelines

Although the structure of the different types of survey reports may vary slightly, there are some must-have features common to all survey types. The features of a survey report include; a title page, table of contents, executive summary, background and objectives, methodology, results, conclusion and recommendations, and appendices.

The content of the above-listed sections may, however, vary across the different types of survey reports. Asides from following a set structure, there are also guidelines for writing a good survey report.

This includes writing the executive summary and table of contents last, writing in concise, simple sentences, and polishing the report before finalizing it.

  • Use Analyzed Data and Infer Conclusion

This is the point where you implement all the research and analysis that was done in previous steps. Note that it is not  good practice to write survey reports from memory.

Rather, it should be carefully written using the facts and figures derived from analysis. This is what is used to drive a conclusion on your research, and also make recommendations.

You will notice that this follows consecutively in the survey report. That is results, the conclusion derived from results, and the recommendation after observing the conclusion. 

How to Create an Online Survey with Formplus 

Follow the following simple steps to create a ranking questionnaire using Formplus:

Step 1- Get Started for Free

  • Visit www.formpl.us on your device
  • Click on the Start Free Trial button to start creating surveys for free
  • Register using your email address or Google account in just 2 seconds.

online-survey-form-builder

Step 2- Start Creating Surveys

You can create a Formplus survey in one of the following ways:

Use an Existing Template

Get a head start by using a template designed by a team of market research experts. To do this, go to Templates and choose from any of the available templates.

Start From Scratch

To create a new survey from scratch on Formplus, go to your  Dashboard, then click on the Create new form button. 

Alternatively, go to the top menu, then click on the Create Form button.

how to write a survey report brainly

Step 3 – Add Form Fields

The next step is to add questions so you can collect data from your survey. You can do this by going to the left sidebar in the form builder, then choose from any of the available 30+ form fields. 

You can simply click or drag and drop the form field into the blank space to preview your progress as you create the survey. Each form field included in your form can be further edited by clicking on the Edit icon.

Once you have edited the form fields to your taste, you should click on the Save button in the top right corner of the form builder.

Step 4  – Beautify Your Survey 

After adding the required form field to your survey, the next step is to make it attractive to respondents. Formplus has some built-in customization features that can be used to create a beautiful survey

This option allows you to add colours, fonts, images, backgrounds, etc. There is also a custom built-in CSS feature that gives you more design flexibility.

You even get to preview the survey in real-time as you make further customization.

Step 5  – Share and Start Collecting Responses

Formplus offers various sharing options to choose from. This includes sharing via email, customized links, social media, etc.

You can send personalized email invites to respondents with prefilled respondent details to avoid entry of incorrect data. With prefilled surveys, personal details like respondent’s name, email address, and phone number will be pre-populated.

how to write a survey report brainly

Conclusion 

Survey reports show the results of a research survey and make recommendations based on a careful analysis of these results. They summarize the result of your research in a manner that can be easily understood and interpreted by a layman or third party, who was not involved in the research process. 

A good survey report follows a well thought out systematic arrangement that smoothly drives you from a wide summary down to your specific recommendations. How  it is being written is what determines how it is seen or understood by other people.

The key to writing a good survey is by mastering the art of using simple words to summarize the results of your research. It should also be created using beautiful designs to encourage readers.

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  • An ultimate guide to survey report: Best practices & tools

An ultimate guide to survey report: Best practices & tools

Surveys are designed to obtain information and opinions from respondents by asking questions about a topic. Surveyors care about the participants' views and follow a path according to survey results. 

Even if you manage to receive a high number of replies, a survey is not over. Simply put, responses are the data you collect. The survey report is a way to present and interpret this data, apply the findings to your study, and turn them into knowledge.  

This article will explain the definition of a survey report, best practices to follow when creating a survey report, how to create graphics for a survey report and examples with all details.

  • What is a survey report?

You can find out if your customers like your product or services, whether your customers get good service from the support team, or how you can improve the service and your product by conducting a survey.

A survey report is a document that  objectively ,  precisely , and  factually  presents all the pertinent facts about the survey . The survey report  summarizes the replies and objectively presents the survey results. 

It is essential to prepare a survey report when you complete survey research. Most reports include graphs and charts to present the findings in a visually pleasing manner. The report should be simple to read and understand. A survey report usually contains the following:

  • Completion rate
  • Total number of responses
  • Survey views
  • The date range of responses
  • Distribution of survey respondents' responses
  • Closed-ended question analysis
  • The thoughts and interpretations of the researcher/survey owner
  • Best practices to follow when creating a survey report

The survey report aims to accurately and comprehensively communicate the information gathered during the survey. Here are the guidelines to remember while building a survey report:

  • Make an introduction: At the start of the report, specify what the main aim of this survey was when you were starting off. Explaining the survey's purpose will help establish the mood. Give the facts you are delivering context. 
  • Write the most crucial details first: You need to grab the attention of your audience and readers to make your point. Emphasize crucial points at the beginning and make sure the report is logically arranged with distinct headings and subheadings.
  • Use visualizations: A survey report can be effectively presented using graphs and images . Use a variety of visualizations, such as bar graphs, pie charts, and other formats , to keep it interesting. 
  • Include the company branding: Incorporate your brand as much as possible within the survey report. Make sure to add your company’s details in a footer or at the top of the page, along with your logo. You can customize your report with colors suitable for your brand principles.
  • Give information about respondents: Providing information about the respondents in the survey report makes it more reliable and effective. In your survey report, you can include information about the age , education leve l, and gender of the participants.
  • Briefly summarize your results: Give the reader an overview of the data points at the conclusion of the survey report . Provide a succinct and straightforward description of the survey's results. 

Best practices for preparing a survey report

Best practices for preparing a survey report

  • How to create graphics for your survey report

The survey reports are a crucial study component; thus, you must continually offer correct data. Making a survey report is one thing, but making a good survey report is quite another. Therefore, we have shared how to create graphics for your survey report.

forms.app’s statistics page

You can generate an effective survey report through online survey tools. forms.app is one of the best survey maker tool . You can get the survey reports you created on forms.app easily from the statistics page. Here is how to create the graphics for your survey report on forms.app.

1  - Sign in or create a forms.app account: You can get the report graph of your survey that you created with just a few clicks, without writing code on forms.app. First, you can log into your existing account. If you do not have an account, you can create an account in seconds and become a free member.

Sign in or create a forms.app account

Sign in or create a forms.app account

2  - Choose ready-to-use templates or begin to form from scratch: You can choose templates for many topics on forms.app. You can easily design your survey by selecting ready-to-use survey templates . Additionally, you have the option of starting from scratch with your survey.

Choose ready-to-use templates or begin to form from scratch

Choose ready-to-use templates or begin to form from scratch

3  - Edit the questions and customize the survey design: You can edit the pre-made questions according to your needs. The questions can be changed, added, or removed. In addition, forms.app gives its customers access to hundreds of colorful themes. You can select one of the ready-made themes for your survey.

Edit the questions and customize the survey design

Edit the questions and customize the survey design

4  - Adjust the settings and share your survey: After you finish your survey settings, you can save and share it with respondents. You can send a link to participants or embed your survey on your website.

Adjust the settings and share your survey

Adjust the settings and share your survey

5  - Get a survey report graphic: After sharing your easily prepared survey on forms.app with the participants, you can quickly see the answers. After the survey process is over, click on the "results" button above. You can see the statistics and respondents in the “results” section. Thus, you can reach the report graph of the survey you prepared on forms.app.

Get a survey report graphic

Get a survey report graphic

MS Excel or Google Sheets

You can easily create a graph of your survey report on MS Excel or Google Sheets. Here we shared the steps you need to follow.

1  - Open Excel or Google Sheets and create a new spreadsheet. Or simply download your survey data from forms.app.

Open your data on a spreadsheet

Open your data on a spreadsheet

2  - Make sure your questions and answers are in different columns. 

Have your questions and answers in separate columns

Have your questions and answers in separate columns

3  - Move your mouse over the cells that hold the answer data and choose them.

Choose related data

Choose related data

4  - Select the "Column Chart" or "Bar Chart" option from the list of chart types under the "Insert" menu.

Insert a chart

Insert a chart

5  - Customize the chart according to your needs.

Customize your chart

Customize your chart

6  - Save the chart and use it in your report.

Use it in your survey report

Use it in your survey report

Custom data visualization tools

Data visualization displays data visually, such as graphs and charts. This makes it easier for individuals to draw conclusions from data and make data-driven decisions. You can create your survey report graph using custom data visualization tools like Tableau, Klipfolio , and Qlik Sense .

The list of data visualization tools

The list of data visualization tools

  • A survey report example

The essential data should be presented in your survey report clearly and understandably so you can reach conclusions fast. Let’s imagine the survey research conducted by a perfume company was conducted from March 7 to March 16 via an online survey, which consisted of 16 questions.

A total of 150 customers participated in the survey. The survey aimed to measure product quality, customer service, and overall customer satisfaction level . Of the 150 customers surveyed, 55% rated the overall survey score as excellent, 36% as good, and only 9% as average or below.  You can review the following item created on forms.app.

  • Completion rate: The completion rate is calculated by dividing the total number of questions in your survey by the number of questions that were answered. If your survey has 16 questions and respondents answered only 8, the completion rate is 50%.
  • Total number of responses: The total number of responses is the total number of respondents you selected to participate in the survey. In our example, the total number of responses is 150.
  • Survey views: The total number of views versus the number of different people who viewed the survey, as some people may have viewed the survey more than once.
  • The date range of responses: You must provide the date range of the responses in your survey report. In the above example, the response date range is between March 7 and 16.
  • Distribution of survey respondents' responses: Survey respondents have different opinions about your products and services. In our example, 55% rated the overall survey score as excellent, 36% as good, and 9% as average or below.
  • Closed-ended question analysis: Closed-ended questions are analyzed more quickly in the survey report. The analysis process is complex in open-ended questions as the participants express their opinions directly. You can easily illustrate closed-ended questions with pie charts or bar charts. 
  • The thoughts and interpretations of the researcher/survey owner: The researcher's thoughts and comments should be included in the survey report. This reflects the survey owner’s insights.
  • Key points to take away

In conclusion, a survey report aims to impartially convey the data acquired during the survey. It does it in an easy-to-understand and aesthetically pleasing way by survey summary of all the replies gathered.

The report has a typical structure, with sections, headers, subheadings, and more. Usually, it is produced at the conclusion of a survey. To create an effective survey report, you should:  

  • Have a clean structure 
  • Use simple language  
  • And focus on the key results

Ensure the survey report is accurate and professional, giving only pertinent information. This article has explained the definition of the survey report, the statistical significance of the survey analysis report, and how to create excellent graphics for your survey report.

Sena is a content writer at forms.app. She likes to read and write articles on different topics. Sena also likes to learn about different cultures and travel. She likes to study and learn different languages. Her specialty is linguistics, surveys, survey questions, and sampling methods.

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Chapter 9: Survey Research

Constructing Survey Questionnaires

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the cognitive processes involved in responding to a survey item.
  • Explain what a context effect is and give some examples.
  • Create a simple survey questionnaire based on principles of effective item writing and organization.

The heart of any survey research project is the survey questionnaire itself. Although it is easy to think of interesting questions to ask people, constructing a good survey questionnaire is not easy at all. The problem is that the answers people give can be influenced in unintended ways by the wording of the items, the order of the items, the response options provided, and many other factors. At best, these influences add noise to the data. At worst, they result in systematic biases and misleading results. In this section, therefore, we consider some principles for constructing survey questionnaires to minimize these unintended effects and thereby maximize the reliability and validity of respondents’ answers.

Survey Responding as a Psychological Process

Before looking at specific principles of survey questionnaire construction, it will help to consider survey responding as a psychological process.

A Cognitive Model

Figure 9.1  presents a model of the cognitive processes that people engage in when responding to a survey item (Sudman, Bradburn, & Schwarz, 1996) [1] . Respondents must interpret the question, retrieve relevant information from memory, form a tentative judgment, convert the tentative judgment into one of the response options provided (e.g., a rating on a 1-to-7 scale), and finally edit their response as necessary.

Flowchart. Long description available.

Consider, for example, the following questionnaire item:

How many alcoholic drinks do you consume in a typical day?

  • _____ a lot more than average
  • _____ somewhat more than average
  • _____ average
  • _____ somewhat fewer than average
  • _____ a lot fewer than average

Although this item at first seems straightforward, it poses several difficulties for respondents. First, they must interpret the question. For example, they must decide whether “alcoholic drinks” include beer and wine (as opposed to just hard liquor) and whether a “typical day” is a typical weekday, typical weekend day, or both . Even though Chang and Krosnick (2003) [2] found that asking about “typical” behaviour has been shown to be more valid than asking about “past” behaviour, their study compared “typical week” to “past week” and may be different when considering typical weekdays or weekend days) . Once they have interpreted the question, they must retrieve relevant information from memory to answer it. But what information should they retrieve, and how should they go about retrieving it? They might think vaguely about some recent occasions on which they drank alcohol, they might carefully try to recall and count the number of alcoholic drinks they consumed last week, or they might retrieve some existing beliefs that they have about themselves (e.g., “I am not much of a drinker”). Then they must use this information to arrive at a tentative judgment about how many alcoholic drinks they consume in a typical day. For example, this  mental calculation  might mean dividing the number of alcoholic drinks they consumed last week by seven to come up with an average number per day. Then they must format this tentative answer in terms of the response options actually provided. In this case, the options pose additional problems of interpretation. For example, what does “average” mean, and what would count as “somewhat more” than average? Finally, they must decide whether they want to report the response they have come up with or whether they want to edit it in some way. For example, if they believe that they drink much more than average, they might not want to report th e higher number  for fear of looking bad in the eyes of the researcher.

From this perspective, what at first appears to be a simple matter of asking people how much they drink (and receiving a straightforward answer from them) turns out to be much more complex.

Context Effects on Questionnaire Responses

Again, this complexity can lead to unintended influences on respondents’ answers. These are often referred to as  context effects  because they are not related to the content of the item but to the context in which the item appears (Schwarz & Strack, 1990) [3] . For example, there is an  item-order effect  when the order in which the items are presented affects people’s responses. One item can change how participants interpret a later item or change the information that they retrieve to respond to later items. For example, researcher Fritz Strack and his colleagues asked college students about both their general life satisfaction and their dating frequency (Strack, Martin, & Schwarz, 1988) [4] . When the life satisfaction item came first, the correlation between the two was only −.12, suggesting that the two variables are only weakly related. But when the dating frequency item came first, the correlation between the two was +.66, suggesting that those who date more have a strong tendency to be more satisfied with their lives. Reporting the dating frequency first made that information more accessible in memory so that they were more likely to base their life satisfaction rating on it.

The response options provided can also have unintended effects on people’s responses (Schwarz, 1999) [5] . For example, when people are asked how often they are “really irritated” and given response options ranging from “less than once a year” to “more than once a month,” they tend to think of major irritations and report being irritated infrequently. But when they are given response options ranging from “less than once a day” to “several times a month,” they tend to think of minor irritations and report being irritated frequently. People also tend to assume that middle response options represent what is normal or typical. So if they think of themselves as normal or typical, they tend to choose middle response options. For example, people are likely to report watching more television when the response options are centred on a middle option of 4 hours than when centred on a middle option of 2 hours.  To mitigate against order effects, rotate questions and response items when there is no natural order. Counterbalancing is a good practice for survey questions and can reduce response order effects which show that among undecided voters, the first candidate listed in a ballot receives a 2.5% boost simply by virtue of being listed first [6] !

Writing Survey Questionnaire Items

Types of items.

Questionnaire items can be either open-ended or closed-ended.  Open-ended items  simply ask a question and allow participants to answer in whatever way they choose. The following are examples of open-ended questionnaire items.

  • “What is the most important thing to teach children to prepare them for life?”
  • “Please describe a time when you were discriminated against because of your age.”
  • “Is there anything else you would like to tell us about?”

Open-ended items are useful when researchers do not know how participants might respond or want to avoid influencing their responses. They tend to be used when researchers have more vaguely defined research questions—often in the early stages of a research project. Open-ended items are relatively easy to write because there are no response options to worry about. However, they take more time and effort on the part of participants, and they are more difficult for the researcher to analy z e because the answers must be transcribed, coded, and submitted to some form of qualitative analysis, such as content analysis.  The advantage to open-ended items is that they are unbiased and do not provide respondents with expectations of what the researcher might be looking for. Open-ended items are also more valid and more reliable. The disadvantage is that respondents are more likely to skip open-ended items because they take longer to answer. It is best to use open-ended questions when the answer is unsure and for quantities which can easily be converted to categories later in the analysis.

Closed-ended items  ask a question and provide a set of response options for participants to choose from. The alcohol item just mentioned is an example, as are the following:

  How old are you?

  • _____ Under 18
  • _____ 18 to 34
  • _____ 35 to 49
  • _____ 50 to 70
  • _____ Over 70

On a scale of 0 (no pain at all) to 10 (worst pain ever experienced), how much pain are you in right now?

Have you ever in your adult life been depressed for a period of 2 weeks or more?

Closed-ended items are used when researchers have a good idea of the different responses that participants might make. They are also used when researchers are interested in a well-defined variable or construct such as participants’ level of agreement with some statement, perceptions of risk, or frequency of a particular behaviour. Closed-ended items are more difficult to write because they must include an appropriate set of response options. However, they are relatively quick and easy for participants to complete. They are also much easier for researchers to analyze because the responses can be easily converted to numbers and entered into a spreadsheet. For these reasons, closed-ended items are much more common.

All closed-ended items include a set of response options from which a participant must choose. For categorical variables like sex, race, or political party preference, the categories are usually listed and participants choose the one (or ones) that they belong to. For quantitative variables, a rating scale is typically provided. A  rating scale  is an ordered set of responses that participants must choose from.  Figure 9.2  shows several examples. The number of response options on a typical rating scale ranges from three to 11—although five and seven are probably most common. Five-point scales are best for unipolar scales where only one construct is tested, such as frequency (Never, Rarely, Sometimes, Often, Always). Seven-point scales are best for bipolar scales where there is a dichotomous spectrum, such as liking (Like very much, Like somewhat, Like slightly, Neither like nor dislike, Dislike slightly, Dislike somewhat, Dislike very much). For bipolar questions, it is useful to offer an earlier question that branches them into an area of the scale; if asking about liking ice cream, first ask “Do you generally like or dislike ice cream?” Once the respondent chooses like or dislike, refine it by offering them one of choices from the seven-point scale.  Branching improves both reliability and validity  (Krosnick & Berent, 1993) [7] .  Although you often see scales with numerical labels, it is best to only present verbal labels to the respondents but convert them to numerical values in the analyses. Avoid partial labels or length or overly specific labels. In some cases, the verbal labels can be supplemented with (or even replaced by) meaningful graphics. The last rating scale shown in  Figure 9.2  is a visual-analog scale, on which participants make a mark somewhere along the horizontal line to indicate the magnitude of their response.

Three different rating scales for survey questions. Long description available.

What is a Likert Scale?

In reading about psychological research, you are likely to encounter the term  Likert scale . Although this term is sometimes used to refer to almost any rating scale (e.g., a 0-to-10 life satisfaction scale), it has a much more precise meaning.

In the 1930s, researcher Rensis Likert (pronounced LICK-ert) created a new approach for measuring people’s attitudes (Likert, 1932) [8] . It involves presenting people with several statements—including both favourable and unfavourable statements—about some person, group, or idea. Respondents then express their agreement or disagreement with each statement on a 5-point scale:  Strongly Agree ,  Agree ,  Neither Agree nor Disagree ,  Disagree , Strongly Disagree . Numbers are assigned to each response (with reverse coding as necessary) and then summed across all items to produce a score representing the attitude toward the person, group, or idea. The entire set of items came to be called a Likert scale.

Thus unless you are measuring people’s attitude toward something by assessing their level of agreement with several statements about it, it is best to avoid calling it a Likert scale. You are probably just using a “rating scale.”

Writing Effective Items

We can now consider some principles of writing questionnaire items that minimize unintended context effects and maximize the reliability and validity of participants’ responses. A rough guideline for writing questionnaire items is provided by the BRUSO model (Peterson, 2000) [9] . An acronym,  BRUSO  stands for “brief,” “relevant,” “unambiguous,” “specific,” and “objective.” Effective questionnaire items are  brief  and to the point. They avoid long, overly technical, or unnecessary words. This brevity makes them easier for respondents to understand and faster for them to complete. Effective questionnaire items are also  relevant  to the research question. If a respondent’s sexual orientation, marital status, or income is not relevant, then items on them should probably not be included. Again, this makes the questionnaire faster to complete, but it also avoids annoying respondents with what they will rightly perceive as irrelevant or even “nosy” questions. Effective questionnaire items are also unambiguous ; they can be interpreted in only one way. Part of the problem with the alcohol item presented earlier in this section is that different respondents might have different ideas about what constitutes “an alcoholic drink” or “a typical day.” Effective questionnaire items are also  specific ,  so that it is clear to respondents what their response  should  be about and clear to researchers what it  is  about. A common problem here is closed-ended items that are “double barrelled.” They ask about two conceptually separate issues but allow only one response. For example, “Please rate the extent to which you have been feeling anxious and depressed.” This item should probably be split into two separate items—one about anxiety and one about depression. Finally, effective questionnaire items are  objective  in the sense that they do not reveal the researcher’s own opinions or lead participants to answer in a particular way. Table 9.2  shows some examples of poor and effective questionnaire items based on the BRUSO criteria. The best way to know how people interpret the wording of the question is to conduct pre-tests and ask a few people to explain how they interpreted the question.

For closed-ended items, it is also important to create an appropriate response scale. For categorical variables, the categories presented should generally be mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Mutually exclusive categories do not overlap. For a religion item, for example, the categories of  Christian  and Catholic  are not mutually exclusive but  Protestant  and  Catholic are. Exhaustive categories cover all possible responses.

Although  Protestant  and  Catholic  are mutually exclusive, they are not exhaustive because there are many other religious categories that a respondent might select:  Jewish ,  Hindu ,  Buddhist , and so on. In many cases, it is not feasible to include every possible category, in which case an  Other  category, with a space for the respondent to fill in a more specific response, is a good solution. If respondents could belong to more than one category (e.g., race), they should be instructed to choose all categories that apply.

For rating scales, five or seven response options generally allow about as much precision as respondents are capable of. However, numerical scales with more options can sometimes be appropriate. For dimensions such as attractiveness, pain, and likelihood, a 0-to-10 scale will be familiar to many respondents and easy for them to use. Regardless of the number of response options, the most extreme ones should generally be “balanced” around a neutral or modal midpoint. An example of an unbalanced rating scale measuring perceived likelihood might look like this:

Unlikely  |  Somewhat Likely  |  Likely  |  Very Likely  |  Extremely Likely

A balanced version might look like this:

Extremely Unlikely  |  Somewhat Unlikely  |  As Likely as Not  |  Somewhat Likely  | Extremely Likely

 Note, however, that a middle or neutral response option does not have to be included. Researchers sometimes choose to leave it out because they want to encourage respondents to think more deeply about their response and not simply choose the middle option by default. Including middle alternatives on bipolar dimensions is useful to allow people to genuinely choose an option that is neither.

Formatting the Questionnaire

Writing effective items is only one part of constructing a survey questionnaire. For one thing, every survey questionnaire should have a written or spoken introduction that serves two basic functions (Peterson, 2000) [10] . One is to encourage respondents to participate in the survey. In many types of research, such encouragement is not necessary either because participants do not know they are in a study (as in naturalistic observation) or because they are part of a subject pool and have already shown their willingness to participate by signing up and showing up for the study. Survey research usually catches respondents by surprise when they answer their phone, go to their mailbox, or check their e-mail—and the researcher must make a good case for why they should agree to participate. Thus the introduction should briefly explain the purpose of the survey and its importance, provide information about the sponsor of the survey (university-based surveys tend to generate higher response rates), acknowledge the importance of the respondent’s participation, and describe any incentives for participating.

The second function of the introduction is to establish informed consent. Remember that this aim means describing to respondents everything that might affect their decision to participate. This includes the topics covered by the survey, the amount of time it is likely to take, the respondent’s option to withdraw at any time, confidentiality issues, and so on. Written consent forms are not typically used in survey research, so it is important that this part of the introduction be well documented and presented clearly and in its entirety to every respondent.

The introduction should be followed by the substantive questionnaire items. But first, it is important to present clear instructions for completing the questionnaire, including examples of how to use any unusual response scales. Remember that the introduction is the point at which respondents are usually most interested and least fatigued, so it is good practice to start with the most important items for purposes of the research and proceed to less important items. Items should also be grouped by topic or by type. For example, items using the same rating scale (e.g., a 5-point agreement scale) should be grouped together if possible to make things faster and easier for respondents. Demographic items are often presented last because they are least interesting to participants but also easy to answer in the event respondents have become tired or bored. Of course, any survey should end with an expression of appreciation to the respondent.

Key Takeaways

  • Responding to a survey item is itself a complex cognitive process that involves interpreting the question, retrieving information, making a tentative judgment, putting that judgment into the required response format, and editing the response.
  • Survey questionnaire responses are subject to numerous context effects due to question wording, item order, response options, and other factors. Researchers should be sensitive to such effects when constructing surveys and interpreting survey results.
  • Survey questionnaire items are either open-ended or closed-ended. Open-ended items simply ask a question and allow respondents to answer in whatever way they want. Closed-ended items ask a question and provide several response options that respondents must choose from.
  • Use verbal labels instead of numerical labels although the responses can be converted to numerical data in the analyses.
  • According to the BRUSO model, questionnaire items should be brief, relevant, unambiguous, specific, and objective.
  • Discussion: Write a survey item and then write a short description of how someone might respond to that item based on the cognitive model of survey responding (or choose any item on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale .
  • How much does the respondent use Facebook?
  • How much exercise does the respondent get?
  • How likely does the respondent think it is that the incumbent will be re-elected in the next presidential election?
  • To what extent does the respondent experience “road rage”?

Long Descriptions

Figure 9.1 long description: Flowchart modelling the cognitive processes involved in responding to a survey item. In order, these processes are:

  • Question Interpretation
  • Information Retrieval
  • Judgment Formation
  • Response Formatting
  • Response Editing

[Return to Figure 9.1]

Figure 9.2 long description: Three different rating scales for survey questions. The first scale provides a choice between “strongly agree,” “agree,” “neither agree nor disagree,” “disagree,” and “strongly disagree.” The second is a scale from 1 to 7, with 1 being “extremely unlikely” and 7 being “extremely likely.” The third is a sliding scale, with one end marked “extremely unfriendly” and the other “extremely friendly.” [Return to Figure 9.2]

Figure 9.3 long description: A note reads, “Dear Isaac. Do you like me?” with two check boxes reading “yes” or “no.” Someone has added a third check box, which they’ve checked, that reads, “There is as yet insufficient data for a meaningful answer.” [Return to Figure 9.3]

Media Attributions

  • Study  by XKCD  CC BY-NC (Attribution NonCommercial)
  • Sudman, S., Bradburn, N. M., & Schwarz, N. (1996). Thinking about answers: The application of cognitive processes to survey methodology . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ↵
  • Chang, L., & Krosnick, J.A. (2003). Measuring the frequency of regular behaviors: Comparing the ‘typical week’ to the ‘past week’. Sociological Methodology, 33 , 55-80. ↵
  • Schwarz, N., & Strack, F. (1990). Context effects in attitude surveys: Applying cognitive theory to social research. In W. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Eds.), European review of social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 31–50). Chichester, UK: Wiley. ↵
  • Strack, F., Martin, L. L., & Schwarz, N. (1988). Priming and communication: The social determinants of information use in judgments of life satisfaction. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18 , 429–442. ↵
  • Schwarz, N. (1999). Self-reports: How the questions shape the answers. American Psychologist, 54 , 93–105. ↵
  • Miller, J.M. & Krosnick, J.A. (1998). The impact of candidate name order on election outcomes. Public Opinion Quarterly, 62 (3), 291-330. ↵
  • Krosnick, J.A. & Berent, M.K. (1993). Comparisons of party identification and policy preferences: The impact of survey question format. American Journal of Political Science, 27 (3), 941-964. ↵
  • Likert, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology,140 , 1–55. ↵
  • Peterson, R. A. (2000). Constructing effective questionnaires . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ↵

Being tested in one condition can also change how participants perceive stimuli or interpret their task in later conditions.

The order in which the items are presented affects people’s responses.

A questionnaire item that allows participants to answer in whatever way they choose.

A questionnaire item that asks a question and provides a set of response options for participants to choose from.

An ordered set of responses that participants must choose from.

A guideline for questionnaire items that suggests they should be brief, relevant, specific, and objective.

Research Methods in Psychology - 2nd Canadian Edition by Paul C. Price, Rajiv Jhangiani, & I-Chant A. Chiang is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Conclusion of a Survey

Drawing conclusions from the survey results is one of the last steps in conducting a survey. Most researchers find writing the conclusion as hard as creating the introduction to the survey because these two segments act as the frame of the study.

This article is a part of the guide:

  • Response Scales
  • Example - Questionnaire
  • Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Surveys and Questionnaires - Guide
  • Types of Surveys

Browse Full Outline

  • 1 Surveys and Questionnaires - Guide
  • 2.1 Research and Surveys
  • 2.2 Advantages and Disadvantages
  • 2.3 Survey Design
  • 2.4 Sampling
  • 3.1 Defining Goals
  • 4.1 Survey Layout
  • 4.2 Types of Questions
  • 4.3 Constructing Questions
  • 4.4 Response Formats
  • 4.5 Response Scales
  • 5.1 Selecting Method
  • 5.2 Personal Interview
  • 5.3 Telephone
  • 5.4.1 Preparing Online Surveys
  • 5.4.2 Online Tools
  • 5.5 Focus Group
  • 5.6 Panel Study
  • 6.1 Pilot Survey
  • 6.2 Increasing Response Rates
  • 7.1 Analysis and Data
  • 7.2 Conclusion
  • 7.3 Presenting the Results
  • 8 Example - Questionnaire
  • 9 Checklist

how to write a survey report brainly

The Importance of the Conclusion

What do the survey results mean? Why do the findings matter? Are the survey results satisfactory in relation to the survey goals ? The conclusion answers all of these questions and more. With just one or two paragraphs of text, the conclusion can emphasize the significance of the findings and create a positive impression on the eyes of the readers.

Being the final portion of your survey report, the conclusion serves as the researcher’s final say on the subject of the survey. The conclusion should be able to wrap up the entire survey from the formulation of survey goals up to the satisfaction of such objectives. As much as possible, no issue related to the subject should be left unanswered, which is why you must carefully choose the words to utilize when drawing conclusions .

how to write a survey report brainly

How to Write an Effective Conclusion

A conclusion is considered “effective” only when the readers feel that they have gained something new and interesting from reading the survey and its results. An effective conclusion is one that makes an impact regarding the issue at hand, and is able to drive people to create decisions and take action related to the subject of the survey.

Here are some strategies that can help you write an effective conclusion for your survey:

1. Focus On Satisfying Your Survey Goal

The conclusion must answer the queries presented by your survey goals and objectives. In writing the conclusion, your mind must be set on fulfilling the very purpose of conducting the survey. With the survey goal in mind, you will be able to avoid common mistakes such as adding new information that were not previously stated earlier in the survey, or worse, creating a new thesis.

2. Make a Synthesis, not a Summary

Oftentimes, the conclusion is mistaken as the summary of the survey report. Although it contains the vital points of the survey, the conclusion must be a synthesis of the survey results, the interpretation of such, and the proposal of a course of action or solution to the issues that emerged from the survey.

3. Use an Academic Tone in Writing the Conclusion

Surveys are performed for scientific or marketing purposes, thus, they must be written using a professional and academic style. With this in mind, the tone of the conclusion should match that of the results and the rest of the data collection process. Doing this will boost the credibility of your survey, rather than adding anecdotes or jokes in hopes of increasing the appeal of the results.

4. Avoid Sentimentality

A conclusion of a survey must not be drawn from emotions in order to make the survey more appealing to the readers. The conclusion must be written in an interesting yet academic manner. Emotional praise is not ideal, but a refined commentary on the subject is acceptable.

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Sarah Mae Sincero (Aug 18, 2012). Conclusion of a Survey. Retrieved Feb 17, 2024 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/conclusion-of-a-survey

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Writing survey questions.

Perhaps the most important part of the survey process is the creation of questions that accurately measure the opinions, experiences and behaviors of the public. Accurate random sampling will be wasted if the information gathered is built on a shaky foundation of ambiguous or biased questions. Creating good measures involves both writing good questions and organizing them to form the questionnaire.

Questionnaire design is a multistage process that requires attention to many details at once. Designing the questionnaire is complicated because surveys can ask about topics in varying degrees of detail, questions can be asked in different ways, and questions asked earlier in a survey may influence how people respond to later questions. Researchers are also often interested in measuring change over time and therefore must be attentive to how opinions or behaviors have been measured in prior surveys.

Surveyors may conduct pilot tests or focus groups in the early stages of questionnaire development in order to better understand how people think about an issue or comprehend a question. Pretesting a survey is an essential step in the questionnaire design process to evaluate how people respond to the overall questionnaire and specific questions, especially when questions are being introduced for the first time.

For many years, surveyors approached questionnaire design as an art, but substantial research over the past forty years has demonstrated that there is a lot of science involved in crafting a good survey questionnaire. Here, we discuss the pitfalls and best practices of designing questionnaires.

Question development

There are several steps involved in developing a survey questionnaire. The first is identifying what topics will be covered in the survey. For Pew Research Center surveys, this involves thinking about what is happening in our nation and the world and what will be relevant to the public, policymakers and the media. We also track opinion on a variety of issues over time so we often ensure that we update these trends on a regular basis to better understand whether people’s opinions are changing.

At Pew Research Center, questionnaire development is a collaborative and iterative process where staff meet to discuss drafts of the questionnaire several times over the course of its development. We frequently test new survey questions ahead of time through qualitative research methods such as  focus groups , cognitive interviews, pretesting (often using an  online, opt-in sample ), or a combination of these approaches. Researchers use insights from this testing to refine questions before they are asked in a production survey, such as on the ATP.

Measuring change over time

Many surveyors want to track changes over time in people’s attitudes, opinions and behaviors. To measure change, questions are asked at two or more points in time. A cross-sectional design surveys different people in the same population at multiple points in time. A panel, such as the ATP, surveys the same people over time. However, it is common for the set of people in survey panels to change over time as new panelists are added and some prior panelists drop out. Many of the questions in Pew Research Center surveys have been asked in prior polls. Asking the same questions at different points in time allows us to report on changes in the overall views of the general public (or a subset of the public, such as registered voters, men or Black Americans), or what we call “trending the data”.

When measuring change over time, it is important to use the same question wording and to be sensitive to where the question is asked in the questionnaire to maintain a similar context as when the question was asked previously (see  question wording  and  question order  for further information). All of our survey reports include a topline questionnaire that provides the exact question wording and sequencing, along with results from the current survey and previous surveys in which we asked the question.

The Center’s transition from conducting U.S. surveys by live telephone interviewing to an online panel (around 2014 to 2020) complicated some opinion trends, but not others. Opinion trends that ask about sensitive topics (e.g., personal finances or attending religious services ) or that elicited volunteered answers (e.g., “neither” or “don’t know”) over the phone tended to show larger differences than other trends when shifting from phone polls to the online ATP. The Center adopted several strategies for coping with changes to data trends that may be related to this change in methodology. If there is evidence suggesting that a change in a trend stems from switching from phone to online measurement, Center reports flag that possibility for readers to try to head off confusion or erroneous conclusions.

Open- and closed-ended questions

One of the most significant decisions that can affect how people answer questions is whether the question is posed as an open-ended question, where respondents provide a response in their own words, or a closed-ended question, where they are asked to choose from a list of answer choices.

For example, in a poll conducted after the 2008 presidential election, people responded very differently to two versions of the question: “What one issue mattered most to you in deciding how you voted for president?” One was closed-ended and the other open-ended. In the closed-ended version, respondents were provided five options and could volunteer an option not on the list.

When explicitly offered the economy as a response, more than half of respondents (58%) chose this answer; only 35% of those who responded to the open-ended version volunteered the economy. Moreover, among those asked the closed-ended version, fewer than one-in-ten (8%) provided a response other than the five they were read. By contrast, fully 43% of those asked the open-ended version provided a response not listed in the closed-ended version of the question. All of the other issues were chosen at least slightly more often when explicitly offered in the closed-ended version than in the open-ended version. (Also see  “High Marks for the Campaign, a High Bar for Obama”  for more information.)

how to write a survey report brainly

Researchers will sometimes conduct a pilot study using open-ended questions to discover which answers are most common. They will then develop closed-ended questions based off that pilot study that include the most common responses as answer choices. In this way, the questions may better reflect what the public is thinking, how they view a particular issue, or bring certain issues to light that the researchers may not have been aware of.

When asking closed-ended questions, the choice of options provided, how each option is described, the number of response options offered, and the order in which options are read can all influence how people respond. One example of the impact of how categories are defined can be found in a Pew Research Center poll conducted in January 2002. When half of the sample was asked whether it was “more important for President Bush to focus on domestic policy or foreign policy,” 52% chose domestic policy while only 34% said foreign policy. When the category “foreign policy” was narrowed to a specific aspect – “the war on terrorism” – far more people chose it; only 33% chose domestic policy while 52% chose the war on terrorism.

In most circumstances, the number of answer choices should be kept to a relatively small number – just four or perhaps five at most – especially in telephone surveys. Psychological research indicates that people have a hard time keeping more than this number of choices in mind at one time. When the question is asking about an objective fact and/or demographics, such as the religious affiliation of the respondent, more categories can be used. In fact, they are encouraged to ensure inclusivity. For example, Pew Research Center’s standard religion questions include more than 12 different categories, beginning with the most common affiliations (Protestant and Catholic). Most respondents have no trouble with this question because they can expect to see their religious group within that list in a self-administered survey.

In addition to the number and choice of response options offered, the order of answer categories can influence how people respond to closed-ended questions. Research suggests that in telephone surveys respondents more frequently choose items heard later in a list (a “recency effect”), and in self-administered surveys, they tend to choose items at the top of the list (a “primacy” effect).

Because of concerns about the effects of category order on responses to closed-ended questions, many sets of response options in Pew Research Center’s surveys are programmed to be randomized to ensure that the options are not asked in the same order for each respondent. Rotating or randomizing means that questions or items in a list are not asked in the same order to each respondent. Answers to questions are sometimes affected by questions that precede them. By presenting questions in a different order to each respondent, we ensure that each question gets asked in the same context as every other question the same number of times (e.g., first, last or any position in between). This does not eliminate the potential impact of previous questions on the current question, but it does ensure that this bias is spread randomly across all of the questions or items in the list. For instance, in the example discussed above about what issue mattered most in people’s vote, the order of the five issues in the closed-ended version of the question was randomized so that no one issue appeared early or late in the list for all respondents. Randomization of response items does not eliminate order effects, but it does ensure that this type of bias is spread randomly.

Questions with ordinal response categories – those with an underlying order (e.g., excellent, good, only fair, poor OR very favorable, mostly favorable, mostly unfavorable, very unfavorable) – are generally not randomized because the order of the categories conveys important information to help respondents answer the question. Generally, these types of scales should be presented in order so respondents can easily place their responses along the continuum, but the order can be reversed for some respondents. For example, in one of Pew Research Center’s questions about abortion, half of the sample is asked whether abortion should be “legal in all cases, legal in most cases, illegal in most cases, illegal in all cases,” while the other half of the sample is asked the same question with the response categories read in reverse order, starting with “illegal in all cases.” Again, reversing the order does not eliminate the recency effect but distributes it randomly across the population.

Question wording

The choice of words and phrases in a question is critical in expressing the meaning and intent of the question to the respondent and ensuring that all respondents interpret the question the same way. Even small wording differences can substantially affect the answers people provide.

An example of a wording difference that had a significant impact on responses comes from a January 2003 Pew Research Center survey. When people were asked whether they would “favor or oppose taking military action in Iraq to end Saddam Hussein’s rule,” 68% said they favored military action while 25% said they opposed military action. However, when asked whether they would “favor or oppose taking military action in Iraq to end Saddam Hussein’s rule  even if it meant that U.S. forces might suffer thousands of casualties, ” responses were dramatically different; only 43% said they favored military action, while 48% said they opposed it. The introduction of U.S. casualties altered the context of the question and influenced whether people favored or opposed military action in Iraq.

There has been a substantial amount of research to gauge the impact of different ways of asking questions and how to minimize differences in the way respondents interpret what is being asked. The issues related to question wording are more numerous than can be treated adequately in this short space, but below are a few of the important things to consider:

First, it is important to ask questions that are clear and specific and that each respondent will be able to answer. If a question is open-ended, it should be evident to respondents that they can answer in their own words and what type of response they should provide (an issue or problem, a month, number of days, etc.). Closed-ended questions should include all reasonable responses (i.e., the list of options is exhaustive) and the response categories should not overlap (i.e., response options should be mutually exclusive). Further, it is important to discern when it is best to use forced-choice close-ended questions (often denoted with a radio button in online surveys) versus “select-all-that-apply” lists (or check-all boxes). A 2019 Center study found that forced-choice questions tend to yield more accurate responses, especially for sensitive questions.  Based on that research, the Center generally avoids using select-all-that-apply questions.

It is also important to ask only one question at a time. Questions that ask respondents to evaluate more than one concept (known as double-barreled questions) – such as “How much confidence do you have in President Obama to handle domestic and foreign policy?” – are difficult for respondents to answer and often lead to responses that are difficult to interpret. In this example, it would be more effective to ask two separate questions, one about domestic policy and another about foreign policy.

In general, questions that use simple and concrete language are more easily understood by respondents. It is especially important to consider the education level of the survey population when thinking about how easy it will be for respondents to interpret and answer a question. Double negatives (e.g., do you favor or oppose  not  allowing gays and lesbians to legally marry) or unfamiliar abbreviations or jargon (e.g., ANWR instead of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge) can result in respondent confusion and should be avoided.

Similarly, it is important to consider whether certain words may be viewed as biased or potentially offensive to some respondents, as well as the emotional reaction that some words may provoke. For example, in a 2005 Pew Research Center survey, 51% of respondents said they favored “making it legal for doctors to give terminally ill patients the means to end their lives,” but only 44% said they favored “making it legal for doctors to assist terminally ill patients in committing suicide.” Although both versions of the question are asking about the same thing, the reaction of respondents was different. In another example, respondents have reacted differently to questions using the word “welfare” as opposed to the more generic “assistance to the poor.” Several experiments have shown that there is much greater public support for expanding “assistance to the poor” than for expanding “welfare.”

We often write two versions of a question and ask half of the survey sample one version of the question and the other half the second version. Thus, we say we have two  forms  of the questionnaire. Respondents are assigned randomly to receive either form, so we can assume that the two groups of respondents are essentially identical. On questions where two versions are used, significant differences in the answers between the two forms tell us that the difference is a result of the way we worded the two versions.

how to write a survey report brainly

One of the most common formats used in survey questions is the “agree-disagree” format. In this type of question, respondents are asked whether they agree or disagree with a particular statement. Research has shown that, compared with the better educated and better informed, less educated and less informed respondents have a greater tendency to agree with such statements. This is sometimes called an “acquiescence bias” (since some kinds of respondents are more likely to acquiesce to the assertion than are others). This behavior is even more pronounced when there’s an interviewer present, rather than when the survey is self-administered. A better practice is to offer respondents a choice between alternative statements. A Pew Research Center experiment with one of its routinely asked values questions illustrates the difference that question format can make. Not only does the forced choice format yield a very different result overall from the agree-disagree format, but the pattern of answers between respondents with more or less formal education also tends to be very different.

One other challenge in developing questionnaires is what is called “social desirability bias.” People have a natural tendency to want to be accepted and liked, and this may lead people to provide inaccurate answers to questions that deal with sensitive subjects. Research has shown that respondents understate alcohol and drug use, tax evasion and racial bias. They also may overstate church attendance, charitable contributions and the likelihood that they will vote in an election. Researchers attempt to account for this potential bias in crafting questions about these topics. For instance, when Pew Research Center surveys ask about past voting behavior, it is important to note that circumstances may have prevented the respondent from voting: “In the 2012 presidential election between Barack Obama and Mitt Romney, did things come up that kept you from voting, or did you happen to vote?” The choice of response options can also make it easier for people to be honest. For example, a question about church attendance might include three of six response options that indicate infrequent attendance. Research has also shown that social desirability bias can be greater when an interviewer is present (e.g., telephone and face-to-face surveys) than when respondents complete the survey themselves (e.g., paper and web surveys).

Lastly, because slight modifications in question wording can affect responses, identical question wording should be used when the intention is to compare results to those from earlier surveys. Similarly, because question wording and responses can vary based on the mode used to survey respondents, researchers should carefully evaluate the likely effects on trend measurements if a different survey mode will be used to assess change in opinion over time.

Question order

Once the survey questions are developed, particular attention should be paid to how they are ordered in the questionnaire. Surveyors must be attentive to how questions early in a questionnaire may have unintended effects on how respondents answer subsequent questions. Researchers have demonstrated that the order in which questions are asked can influence how people respond; earlier questions can unintentionally provide context for the questions that follow (these effects are called “order effects”).

One kind of order effect can be seen in responses to open-ended questions. Pew Research Center surveys generally ask open-ended questions about national problems, opinions about leaders and similar topics near the beginning of the questionnaire. If closed-ended questions that relate to the topic are placed before the open-ended question, respondents are much more likely to mention concepts or considerations raised in those earlier questions when responding to the open-ended question.

For closed-ended opinion questions, there are two main types of order effects: contrast effects ( where the order results in greater differences in responses), and assimilation effects (where responses are more similar as a result of their order).

how to write a survey report brainly

An example of a contrast effect can be seen in a Pew Research Center poll conducted in October 2003, a dozen years before same-sex marriage was legalized in the U.S. That poll found that people were more likely to favor allowing gays and lesbians to enter into legal agreements that give them the same rights as married couples when this question was asked after one about whether they favored or opposed allowing gays and lesbians to marry (45% favored legal agreements when asked after the marriage question, but 37% favored legal agreements without the immediate preceding context of a question about same-sex marriage). Responses to the question about same-sex marriage, meanwhile, were not significantly affected by its placement before or after the legal agreements question.

how to write a survey report brainly

Another experiment embedded in a December 2008 Pew Research Center poll also resulted in a contrast effect. When people were asked “All in all, are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the way things are going in this country today?” immediately after having been asked “Do you approve or disapprove of the way George W. Bush is handling his job as president?”; 88% said they were dissatisfied, compared with only 78% without the context of the prior question.

Responses to presidential approval remained relatively unchanged whether national satisfaction was asked before or after it. A similar finding occurred in December 2004 when both satisfaction and presidential approval were much higher (57% were dissatisfied when Bush approval was asked first vs. 51% when general satisfaction was asked first).

Several studies also have shown that asking a more specific question before a more general question (e.g., asking about happiness with one’s marriage before asking about one’s overall happiness) can result in a contrast effect. Although some exceptions have been found, people tend to avoid redundancy by excluding the more specific question from the general rating.

Assimilation effects occur when responses to two questions are more consistent or closer together because of their placement in the questionnaire. We found an example of an assimilation effect in a Pew Research Center poll conducted in November 2008 when we asked whether Republican leaders should work with Obama or stand up to him on important issues and whether Democratic leaders should work with Republican leaders or stand up to them on important issues. People were more likely to say that Republican leaders should work with Obama when the question was preceded by the one asking what Democratic leaders should do in working with Republican leaders (81% vs. 66%). However, when people were first asked about Republican leaders working with Obama, fewer said that Democratic leaders should work with Republican leaders (71% vs. 82%).

The order questions are asked is of particular importance when tracking trends over time. As a result, care should be taken to ensure that the context is similar each time a question is asked. Modifying the context of the question could call into question any observed changes over time (see  measuring change over time  for more information).

A questionnaire, like a conversation, should be grouped by topic and unfold in a logical order. It is often helpful to begin the survey with simple questions that respondents will find interesting and engaging. Throughout the survey, an effort should be made to keep the survey interesting and not overburden respondents with several difficult questions right after one another. Demographic questions such as income, education or age should not be asked near the beginning of a survey unless they are needed to determine eligibility for the survey or for routing respondents through particular sections of the questionnaire. Even then, it is best to precede such items with more interesting and engaging questions. One virtue of survey panels like the ATP is that demographic questions usually only need to be asked once a year, not in each survey.

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About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .

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  • How to Write a Literature Review | Guide, Examples, & Templates

How to Write a Literature Review | Guide, Examples, & Templates

Published on January 2, 2023 by Shona McCombes . Revised on September 11, 2023.

What is a literature review? A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research that you can later apply to your paper, thesis, or dissertation topic .

There are five key steps to writing a literature review:

  • Search for relevant literature
  • Evaluate sources
  • Identify themes, debates, and gaps
  • Outline the structure
  • Write your literature review

A good literature review doesn’t just summarize sources—it analyzes, synthesizes , and critically evaluates to give a clear picture of the state of knowledge on the subject.

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Table of contents

What is the purpose of a literature review, examples of literature reviews, step 1 – search for relevant literature, step 2 – evaluate and select sources, step 3 – identify themes, debates, and gaps, step 4 – outline your literature review’s structure, step 5 – write your literature review, free lecture slides, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions, introduction.

  • Quick Run-through
  • Step 1 & 2

When you write a thesis , dissertation , or research paper , you will likely have to conduct a literature review to situate your research within existing knowledge. The literature review gives you a chance to:

  • Demonstrate your familiarity with the topic and its scholarly context
  • Develop a theoretical framework and methodology for your research
  • Position your work in relation to other researchers and theorists
  • Show how your research addresses a gap or contributes to a debate
  • Evaluate the current state of research and demonstrate your knowledge of the scholarly debates around your topic.

Writing literature reviews is a particularly important skill if you want to apply for graduate school or pursue a career in research. We’ve written a step-by-step guide that you can follow below.

Literature review guide

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Writing literature reviews can be quite challenging! A good starting point could be to look at some examples, depending on what kind of literature review you’d like to write.

  • Example literature review #1: “Why Do People Migrate? A Review of the Theoretical Literature” ( Theoretical literature review about the development of economic migration theory from the 1950s to today.)
  • Example literature review #2: “Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines” ( Methodological literature review about interdisciplinary knowledge acquisition and production.)
  • Example literature review #3: “The Use of Technology in English Language Learning: A Literature Review” ( Thematic literature review about the effects of technology on language acquisition.)
  • Example literature review #4: “Learners’ Listening Comprehension Difficulties in English Language Learning: A Literature Review” ( Chronological literature review about how the concept of listening skills has changed over time.)

You can also check out our templates with literature review examples and sample outlines at the links below.

Download Word doc Download Google doc

Before you begin searching for literature, you need a clearly defined topic .

If you are writing the literature review section of a dissertation or research paper, you will search for literature related to your research problem and questions .

Make a list of keywords

Start by creating a list of keywords related to your research question. Include each of the key concepts or variables you’re interested in, and list any synonyms and related terms. You can add to this list as you discover new keywords in the process of your literature search.

  • Social media, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, TikTok
  • Body image, self-perception, self-esteem, mental health
  • Generation Z, teenagers, adolescents, youth

Search for relevant sources

Use your keywords to begin searching for sources. Some useful databases to search for journals and articles include:

  • Your university’s library catalogue
  • Google Scholar
  • Project Muse (humanities and social sciences)
  • Medline (life sciences and biomedicine)
  • EconLit (economics)
  • Inspec (physics, engineering and computer science)

You can also use boolean operators to help narrow down your search.

Make sure to read the abstract to find out whether an article is relevant to your question. When you find a useful book or article, you can check the bibliography to find other relevant sources.

You likely won’t be able to read absolutely everything that has been written on your topic, so it will be necessary to evaluate which sources are most relevant to your research question.

For each publication, ask yourself:

  • What question or problem is the author addressing?
  • What are the key concepts and how are they defined?
  • What are the key theories, models, and methods?
  • Does the research use established frameworks or take an innovative approach?
  • What are the results and conclusions of the study?
  • How does the publication relate to other literature in the field? Does it confirm, add to, or challenge established knowledge?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the research?

Make sure the sources you use are credible , and make sure you read any landmark studies and major theories in your field of research.

You can use our template to summarize and evaluate sources you’re thinking about using. Click on either button below to download.

Take notes and cite your sources

As you read, you should also begin the writing process. Take notes that you can later incorporate into the text of your literature review.

It is important to keep track of your sources with citations to avoid plagiarism . It can be helpful to make an annotated bibliography , where you compile full citation information and write a paragraph of summary and analysis for each source. This helps you remember what you read and saves time later in the process.

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To begin organizing your literature review’s argument and structure, be sure you understand the connections and relationships between the sources you’ve read. Based on your reading and notes, you can look for:

  • Trends and patterns (in theory, method or results): do certain approaches become more or less popular over time?
  • Themes: what questions or concepts recur across the literature?
  • Debates, conflicts and contradictions: where do sources disagree?
  • Pivotal publications: are there any influential theories or studies that changed the direction of the field?
  • Gaps: what is missing from the literature? Are there weaknesses that need to be addressed?

This step will help you work out the structure of your literature review and (if applicable) show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge.

  • Most research has focused on young women.
  • There is an increasing interest in the visual aspects of social media.
  • But there is still a lack of robust research on highly visual platforms like Instagram and Snapchat—this is a gap that you could address in your own research.

There are various approaches to organizing the body of a literature review. Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategies (for example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically).

Chronological

The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time. However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarizing sources in order.

Try to analyze patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field. Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred.

If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organize your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic.

For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access.

Methodological

If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods , you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches. For example:

  • Look at what results have emerged in qualitative versus quantitative research
  • Discuss how the topic has been approached by empirical versus theoretical scholarship
  • Divide the literature into sociological, historical, and cultural sources

Theoretical

A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework . You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts.

You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research.

Like any other academic text , your literature review should have an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion . What you include in each depends on the objective of your literature review.

The introduction should clearly establish the focus and purpose of the literature review.

Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach.

As you write, you can follow these tips:

  • Summarize and synthesize: give an overview of the main points of each source and combine them into a coherent whole
  • Analyze and interpret: don’t just paraphrase other researchers — add your own interpretations where possible, discussing the significance of findings in relation to the literature as a whole
  • Critically evaluate: mention the strengths and weaknesses of your sources
  • Write in well-structured paragraphs: use transition words and topic sentences to draw connections, comparisons and contrasts

In the conclusion, you should summarize the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasize their significance.

When you’ve finished writing and revising your literature review, don’t forget to proofread thoroughly before submitting. Not a language expert? Check out Scribbr’s professional proofreading services !

This article has been adapted into lecture slides that you can use to teach your students about writing a literature review.

Scribbr slides are free to use, customize, and distribute for educational purposes.

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If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility

 Statistics

  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) related to a specific topic or research question .

It is often written as part of a thesis, dissertation , or research paper , in order to situate your work in relation to existing knowledge.

There are several reasons to conduct a literature review at the beginning of a research project:

  • To familiarize yourself with the current state of knowledge on your topic
  • To ensure that you’re not just repeating what others have already done
  • To identify gaps in knowledge and unresolved problems that your research can address
  • To develop your theoretical framework and methodology
  • To provide an overview of the key findings and debates on the topic

Writing the literature review shows your reader how your work relates to existing research and what new insights it will contribute.

The literature review usually comes near the beginning of your thesis or dissertation . After the introduction , it grounds your research in a scholarly field and leads directly to your theoretical framework or methodology .

A literature review is a survey of credible sources on a topic, often used in dissertations , theses, and research papers . Literature reviews give an overview of knowledge on a subject, helping you identify relevant theories and methods, as well as gaps in existing research. Literature reviews are set up similarly to other  academic texts , with an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion .

An  annotated bibliography is a list of  source references that has a short description (called an annotation ) for each of the sources. It is often assigned as part of the research process for a  paper .  

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How to create an effective survey in 15 simple tips

Updated August 15, 2023

You don’t have to be an expert to create a survey, but by following a few survey best practices you can make sure you’re collecting the best data possible.

Access 50+ expert-designed survey templates with a free Qualtrics Surveys account

From working out what you want to achieve to providing incentives for respondents, survey design can take time.

But when you don’t have hours to devote to becoming a survey-creation guru, a quick guide to the essentials is a great way to get started.

In this article, we’re going to reveal how to create a survey that’s easy to complete, encourages collecting feedback, hits the research questions you’re interested in, and produces data that’s easy to work with at the analysis stage .

15 Tips when creating surveys

1. define the purpose of the survey.

Before you even think about your survey questions , you need to define their purpose.

The survey’s purpose should be a clear, attainable, and relevant goal. For example, you might want to understand why customer engagement is dropping off during the middle of the sales process.

Your goal could then be something like: “I want to understand the key factors that cause engagement to dip at the middle of the sales process, including both internal and external elements.”

Or maybe you want to understand customer satisfaction post-sale. If so, the goal of your survey could be: “I want to understand how customer satisfaction is influenced by customer service and support post-sale, including through online and offline channels.”

The idea is to come up with a specific, measurable, and relevant goal for your survey. This way you ensure that your questions are tailored to what you want to achieve and that the data captured can be compared against your goal.

2. Make every question count

You’re building your survey questionnaire to obtain important insights, so every question should play a direct role in hitting that target.

Make sure each question adds value and drives survey responses that relate directly to your research goals. For example, if your participant’s precise age or home state is relevant to your results, go ahead and ask. If not, save yourself and your respondents some time and skip it.

It’s best to plan your survey by first identifying the data you need to collect and then writing your questions.

You can also incorporate multiple-choice questions to get a range of responses that provide more detail than a solid yes or no. It’s not always black and white.

For a deeper dive into the art and science of question-writing and survey best practices, check out Survey questions 101 .

3. Keep it short and simple

Although you may be deeply committed to your survey, the chances are that your respondents... aren’t.

As a survey designer, a big part of your job is keeping their attention and making sure they stay focused until the end of the survey.

Respondents are less likely to complete long surveys or surveys that bounce around haphazardly from topic to topic. Make sure your survey follows a logical order and takes a reasonable amount of time to complete.

Although they don’t need to know everything about your research project, it can help to let respondents know why you’re asking about a certain topic. Knowing the basics about who you are and what you’re researching means they’re more likely to keep their responses focused and in scope.

Access 50+ expert-designed survey templates now

4. Ask direct questions

Vaguely worded survey questions confuse respondents and make your resulting data less useful. Be as specific as possible, and strive for clear and precise language that will make your survey questions easy to answer.

It can be helpful to mention a specific situation or behavior rather than a general tendency. That way you focus the respondent on the facts of their life rather than asking them to consider abstract beliefs or ideas .

See an example:

Good survey design isn’t just about getting the information you need, but also encouraging respondents to think in different ways.

Get access to the top downloaded survey templates here

5. Ask one question at a time

Although it’s important to keep your survey as short and sweet as possible, that doesn’t mean doubling up on questions. Trying to pack too much into a single question can lead to confusion and inaccuracies in the responses.

Take a closer look at questions in your survey that contain the word “and” – it can be a red flag that your question has two parts. For example: “Which of these cell phone service providers has the best customer support and reliability?” This is problematic because a respondent may feel that one service is more reliable, but another has better customer support.

Also, if you want to go beyond surveys and develop a multi-faceted listening approach to drive meaningful change and glean actionable insights, make sure to download our guide .

6. Avoid leading and biased questions

Although you don’t intend them to, certain words and phrases can introduce bias into your questions or point the respondent in the direction of a particular answer.

As a rule of thumb, when you conduct a survey it’s best to provide only as much wording as a respondent needs to give an informed answer. Keep your question wording focused on the respondent and their opinions, rather than introducing anything that could be construed as a point of view of your own.

In particular, scrutinize adjectives and adverbs in your questions. If they’re not needed, take them out.

7. Speak your respondent's language

This tip goes hand in hand with many others in this guide – it’s about making language only as complex or as detailed as it needs to be when conducting great surveys.

Create surveys that use language and terminology that your respondents will understand. Keep the language as plain as possible, avoid technical jargon and keep sentences short. However, beware of oversimplifying a question to the point that its meaning changes.

8. Use response scales whenever possible

Response scales capture the direction and intensity of attitudes, providing rich data. In contrast, categorical or binary response options, such as true/false or yes/no response options, generally produce less informative data.

If you’re in the position of choosing between the two, the response scale is likely to be the better option.

Avoid using scales that ask your target audience to agree or disagree with statements, however. Some people are biased toward agreeing with statements , and this can result in invalid and unreliable data.

9. Avoid using grids or matrices for responses

Grids or matrices of answers demand a lot more thinking from your respondent than a scale or multiple choice question. They need to understand and weigh up multiple items at once, and oftentimes they don’t fill in grids accurately or according to their true feelings .

Another pitfall to be aware of is that grid question types aren’t mobile-friendly. It’s better to separate questions with grid responses into multiple questions in your survey with a different structure such as a response scale.

See an example using our survey tool:

10. Rephrase yes/no questions if possible in online survyes

As we’ve described, yes/no questions provide less detailed data than a response scale or multiple-choice, since they only yield one of two possible answers.

Many yes/no questions can be reworked by including phrases such as “How much,” “How often,” or “How likely.” Make this change whenever possible and include a response scale for richer data.

By rephrasing your questions in this way, your survey results will be far more comprehensive and representative of how your respondents feel.

Next? Find out how to write great questions .

11. Start with the straightforward stuff

Ease your respondent into the survey by asking easy questions at the start of your questionnaire, then moving on to more complex or thought-provoking elements once they’re engaged in the process.

This is especially valuable if you need to cover any potentially sensitive topics in your survey. Never put sensitive questions at the start of the questionnaire where they’re more likely to feel off-putting.

Your respondent will probably become more prone to fatigue and distraction towards the end of the survey, so keep your most complex or contentious questions in the middle of the survey flow rather than saving them until last.

12. Use unbalanced scales with care

Unbalanced response scales and poorly worded questions can mislead respondents.

For example, if you’ve asked them to rate a product or service and you provide a scale that includes “poor”, “satisfactory”, “good” and “excellent”, they could be swayed towards the “excellent” end of the scale because there are more positive options available.

Make sure your response scales have a definitive, neutral midpoint (aim for odd numbers of possible responses) and that they cover the whole range of possible reactions to the question .

13. Consider adding incentives

To increase the number of responses, incentives — discounts, offers, gift cards, or sweepstakes — can prove helpful.

Of course, while the benefits of offering incentives sound appealing (more respondents), there’s the possibility of attracting the opinions of the wrong audiences, such as those who are only in it for the incentive.

With this in mind, make sure you limit your surveys to your target population and carefully assess which incentives would be most valuable to them.

14. Take your survey for a test drive

Want to know how to make a survey a potential disaster? Send it out before you pre-test .

However short or straightforward your questionnaire is, it’s always a good idea to pre-test your survey before you roll it out fully so that you can catch any possible errors before they have a chance to mess up your survey results.

Share your survey with at least five people, so that they can test your survey to help you catch and correct problems before you distribute it.

15. Let us help you

Survey design doesn’t have to be difficult — even less so with the right expertise, digital solutions, and survey templates.

At Qualtrics, we provide survey software that’s used by more than 11,000 of the top brands and 99 of the top business schools worldwide.

Furthermore, we have a library of high-quality, ready-to-use, and easy-to-configure survey templates that can improve your surveys significantly.

You can check out our template marketplace here . As a free or existing customer, you have access to the complete collection and can filter by the core experiences you want to drive.

As for our survey software , it’s completely free to use and powers more than 1 billion surveys a year. Using it, you can get answers to your most important brand, market, customer, and product questions, build your own surveys, get insights from your audience wherever they are, and much, much more.

If you want to learn more about how to use our survey tool to create a survey, as well as what else it can do — check out our blog on how to create a free online survey using Qualtrics .

See instant results with our online free survey maker

Sarah Fisher

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How Brainly Powers Viral Marketing with Customer Feedback

You won’t know what your customers think unless you ask.

To make smart business decisions, you need customer feedback . But sometimes, staying in touch with your user base is easier said than done.

For companies with huge international audiences, the process of gathering, sharing, and analyzing feedback needs to be a well-oiled machine ready to operate on a massive scale. When you have millions of customers and opinions to account for, you need larger sample sizes.

At the same time, enterprise-level survey solutions are often a hassle to implement. And that doesn’t help small marketing teams that want to capture opinions about current events.

Those factors led Brainly , the global online learning platform, to turn to Survicate. Our tool lets them set up a multi-team surveying process. The customer data helps every department make more data-driven decisions and learn their audience’s current thoughts and insights.

We talked to Noah Berg, the Outreach Manager at Brainly, about how Survicate surveys help power his company’s marketing strategy. Noah told us:

  • Why Brainly chose Survicate
  • How Survicate helps Brainly create viral content (that doubled their blog traffic)
  • How recurring surveys help them stay on top of user needs

If you’re looking for inspiration on how surveys can power your marketing – read on!

Why Brainly turned to customer feedback surveys 

Brainly is the largest online knowledge-sharing community of over 300 million students, parents, and experts. The company has users in over 35 countries, and with the funding of $150M, it’s an indisputable market leader.

Brainly’s staff knew that with a user base that large, they needed to capture feedback efficiently to keep up with their audiences’ needs. The sheer number of visitors going through their page every day made numerical user behavior data insufficient. Brainly needed to know the “why” behind the visitors’ actions to improve their platform, tailor the message to the users, and define their personas .

In the beginning, Brainly looked for a survey software that would let them ask focus groups about new product features . All product improvements at the company are heavily based on the users’ opinions, so collecting their feedback at scale was necessary to grow.

Survicate struck a perfect balance between ease of use and advanced features. The product team at Brainly appreciated the targeted website surveys that made it easier to segment the vast user base.

Soon, other departments realized that they could also use the power of customer feedback. And thanks to the unlimited seats and workspaces that let different teams share the same Survicate account, they quickly got on board.

Survicate: Unlimited users, speed, and reliability 

Brainly has been with Survicate since 2015. They have run over 800 surveys and gathered almost two million responses – with an average of a total of 25 790 responses every month. 

Currently, ten people at Brainly regularly set up their surveys (with more people being able to access the data). Here are their most common use cases:

  • The product team uses Survicate to learn more about the motivations behind user behavior, collect feedback on new changes and gather product ideas
  • The marketing team runs Net Promoter Score surveys to measure the loyalty of different customer segments and identify product issues
  • The communications team uses surveys to gather data for content used in their PR and marketing campaigns. They also run a recurring “Brainly value” survey to stay on top of their users' opinions and impressions.

But there are more reasons why Brainly has stuck with Survicate for so long than just unlimited users and flexibility.

For Noah’s team, speed is of the essence. They want to capture their audience’s opinion on current events to prepare viral case studies and reports. At the same time, they want to reach as many respondents as possible. And Survicate lets Noah’s team launch website surveys fast and exactly where they want them – without the help of software developers or a dedicated research team.

Other than that, Survicate proved to be reliable and trouble-free. As Noah said: 

"Every time I've tried to contact support, it's been very quick. There are no issues nor missing features that I can think of.”

So now that we know why Brainly uses Survicate let’s drill down into the “how.” In this case study, we’ll focus on the two initiatives run by the outreach team: viral content creation and “the value of Brainly” survey. 

Free-to-use NPS survey template

Doubling the blog traffic with feedback-fueled reports

Noah noticed the potential of using customer feedback in his content marketing efforts right as he joined Brainly. With the number of students visiting their site every day, missing their feedback would have been a waste:

“When I joined, we were using [Survicate] to take opportunities, like with current events (...), to get some data from students, who are our core user base. We could use it to write interesting research-based articles.”

Survey data has been a starting point for many in-depth reports and infographics on Brainly’s blog. That already guaranteed Brainly the status of industry thought leader and generated steady media buzz around their content.

But Noah quickly understood that their reports needed to become more high-level to go viral. And the more frequently they appear, the more value they bring. Therefore, the surveys needed to be easier to answer so that they could gather a maximum number of responses in a short amount of time.

Noah’s team has gone for concise, close-ended surveys. The feedback they provide lets them quickly report on the most pressing issues.

One of the best examples of such content is Brainly’s report on students’ anxiety about returning to school during the pandemic . In 2021, as schools started reopening in the USA, the topic was on everybody’s lips. The media was full of politicians’, experts’, and teachers’ opinions. Yet one crucial voice was largely missing: the students’. Noah told us:

“Parents and students were really nervous about [going back to school]. And we got very unique insights – the student angle on that (...). The student voice about current events is often tough to get, especially on a mass level. And we were able to get that feedback very quickly, which was really cool. I think that became a theme for that year. Fear was at a high, and education was a huge question mark(...). Journalists and our readers found that really interesting.”

Brainly presented their findings in a report. They decided to share all the survey questions and answers, which resulted in a quick-to-write yet knowledge-packed report.

how to write a survey report brainly

The report resulted in a boom in blog traffic that surprised the team. According to Noah, they got 1.8x the blog traffic they had expected. 

“We got plenty of reactions and conversations (...). That was certainly a big success that people remembered us talking about something important that matters to us.”

But how did Brainly manage to collect so many responses so quickly? It was all thanks to website surveys placed on the right pages.

Instead of limiting the respondents to users who were already signed up to Brainly, the outreach team launched website surveys on their most visited pages. The surveys fit naturally into the visitors' journeys and ensured a high response rate .

Feedback-based content helps Brainly create reports on current events relevant to their user base. This viral content fuels their PR and marketing efforts and creates media buzz around the brand. Survicate’s ease of use helps Noah’s team win the race with time.

Free-to-use content preferences survey template

Finding value proposition and gathering product feedback with “the value of Brainly” survey

Surveys are not just about catching the hottest topics for Brainly’s marketing teams. They also use them to gather feedback from their user base consistently.

As Noah told us, the online education landscape changes all the time. With lots of stakeholders and external factors influencing the niche, you have to keep the dialogue with your audience going to stay on top of their needs. It’s important to adjust buyer personas and value propositions constantly.

Recurring surveys help Brainly make sure their communication strategy is correct and give their audience exactly what they want.

Their biggest recurring survey, which Noah calls “the value of Brainly,” is run every six months and targets about 5.000 sample users (parents and students who are paying subscribers). It helps the marketing team see the subjective value of their products across several life stages of the customer base.

“The value of Brainly” survey starts with multiple-choice questions, such as:

  • What do you use Brainly for?
  • When do you use it?
  • What is Brainly best for?

For each question, there’s an “other” option available. The respondents can type their own answers. 

These questions are followed by a series of statements that the respondents have to agree or disagree with (on a 5-point scale ranging from “completely agree” to “completely disagree”).

Here are the examples:

  • Thanks to Brainly, I’m better prepared for school.
  • Brainly helps me get higher grades.
  • Brainly helps me finish my homework faster.

The last question is the open-ended “What is missing from Brainly?”. It lets the respondents freely voice their opinions and ideas.

The survey runs on Brainly’s website, and Noah uses targeting options to make it appear only to the desired audience segment.

The outreach team keeps the questions more or less the same in every survey iteration. It lets them effectively compare results over time.

The survey lets the outreach team:

  • Understand how different user segments (e.g., parents and students, users on a higher-tier plan, and non-paying users) compare to one another – to improve communication and get ideas for targeted marketing campaigns
  • Spot the most popular themes among all users to adjust the messaging on their website

As Noah told us:

“Doing homework is the most popular answer for ‘What do you use Brainly for?’ question. And that tells us we have to have a lot of keywords around ‘Homework help.’ It's our headline on our site. There are other things that kids can use us for, but people are sticking to the main use case, which is a good sign that our take on advertising is right. Some other answers, like ‘preparing for tests,’ ‘checking answers to questions,’ ‘learning more about subjects I'm interested in’ (...) are also popular, but not as much as the one that we put the most effort into.”

The recurring surveys also helped Noah’s team collect data points that become value propositions, selling points, or social proof for ad campaigns.

One more benefit comes from “the value of Brainly” survey: ideas for product improvements and new features. According to Noah, the respondents often leave their suggestions in the open-ended question text field. Then, the outreach team passes the insights to the product team.

Overall, “the value of Brainly” survey helps the marketing team connect with their audience and ensure their users get what they need.

Building a data-driven company with Survicate

As Noah told us, Survicate is the marketing team’s main data source.

With Brainly’s huge scale, quantitative data is not enough. To get to know their audience, they needed to know the “why” behind their actions and let them speak in their own voice. 

Survicate’s workspace organization and unlimited seats allowed them to overcome the challenge of running large-scale international surveys across different departments. At the same time, the ease of use still let them set up surveys quickly to gather insights about current events.

Brainly first used Survicate to look for product improvements. Still, it turned out the tool can fulfill all their customer feedback needs – measuring NPS, investigating the value of their product, and interviewing the audience for viral reports.

Survicate helped Brainly:

  • Stay in touch with their user base
  • Refine their value proposition, as well as the website and ad copy
  • Double their blog traffic and increase social media hits and mentions
  • Collect product improvement ideas

Now, it's all about you. Don't miss out on data-driven success - sign up for Survicate today!

We’re here to support you along the way

  • human live chat support, no bots
  • 97% satisfaction rate
  • 2 minutes first response

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Create a form in Word that users can complete or print

In Word, you can create a form that others can fill out and save or print.  To do this, you will start with baseline content in a document, potentially via a form template.  Then you can add content controls for elements such as check boxes, text boxes, date pickers, and drop-down lists. Optionally, these content controls can be linked to database information.  Following are the recommended action steps in sequence.  

Show the Developer tab

In Word, be sure you have the Developer tab displayed in the ribbon.  (See how here:  Show the developer tab .)

Open a template or a blank document on which to base the form

You can start with a template or just start from scratch with a blank document.

Start with a form template

Go to File > New .

In the  Search for online templates  field, type  Forms or the kind of form you want. Then press Enter .

In the displayed results, right-click any item, then select  Create. 

Start with a blank document 

Select Blank document .

Add content to the form

Go to the  Developer  tab Controls section where you can choose controls to add to your document or form. Hover over any icon therein to see what control type it represents. The various control types are described below. You can set properties on a control once it has been inserted.

To delete a content control, right-click it, then select Remove content control  in the pop-up menu. 

Note:  You can print a form that was created via content controls. However, the boxes around the content controls will not print.

Insert a text control

The rich text content control enables users to format text (e.g., bold, italic) and type multiple paragraphs. To limit these capabilities, use the plain text content control . 

Click or tap where you want to insert the control.

Rich text control button

To learn about setting specific properties on these controls, see Set or change properties for content controls .

Insert a picture control

A picture control is most often used for templates, but you can also add a picture control to a form.

Picture control button

Insert a building block control

Use a building block control  when you want users to choose a specific block of text. These are helpful when you need to add different boilerplate text depending on the document's specific purpose. You can create rich text content controls for each version of the boilerplate text, and then use a building block control as the container for the rich text content controls.

building block gallery control

Select Developer and content controls for the building block.

Developer tab showing content controls

Insert a combo box or a drop-down list

In a combo box, users can select from a list of choices that you provide or they can type in their own information. In a drop-down list, users can only select from the list of choices.

combo box button

Select the content control, and then select Properties .

To create a list of choices, select Add under Drop-Down List Properties .

Type a choice in Display Name , such as Yes , No , or Maybe .

Repeat this step until all of the choices are in the drop-down list.

Fill in any other properties that you want.

Note:  If you select the Contents cannot be edited check box, users won’t be able to click a choice.

Insert a date picker

Click or tap where you want to insert the date picker control.

Date picker button

Insert a check box

Click or tap where you want to insert the check box control.

Check box button

Use the legacy form controls

Legacy form controls are for compatibility with older versions of Word and consist of legacy form and Active X controls.

Click or tap where you want to insert a legacy control.

Legacy control button

Select the Legacy Form control or Active X Control that you want to include.

Set or change properties for content controls

Each content control has properties that you can set or change. For example, the Date Picker control offers options for the format you want to use to display the date.

Select the content control that you want to change.

Go to Developer > Properties .

Controls Properties  button

Change the properties that you want.

Add protection to a form

If you want to limit how much others can edit or format a form, use the Restrict Editing command:

Open the form that you want to lock or protect.

Select Developer > Restrict Editing .

Restrict editing button

After selecting restrictions, select Yes, Start Enforcing Protection .

Restrict editing panel

Advanced Tip:

If you want to protect only parts of the document, separate the document into sections and only protect the sections you want.

To do this, choose Select Sections in the Restrict Editing panel. For more info on sections, see Insert a section break .

Sections selector on Resrict sections panel

If the developer tab isn't displayed in the ribbon, see Show the Developer tab .

Open a template or use a blank document

To create a form in Word that others can fill out, start with a template or document and add content controls. Content controls include things like check boxes, text boxes, and drop-down lists. If you’re familiar with databases, these content controls can even be linked to data.

Go to File > New from Template .

New from template option

In Search, type form .

Double-click the template you want to use.

Select File > Save As , and pick a location to save the form.

In Save As , type a file name and then select Save .

Start with a blank document

Go to File > New Document .

New document option

Go to File > Save As .

Go to Developer , and then choose the controls that you want to add to the document or form. To remove a content control, select the control and press Delete. You can set Options on controls once inserted. From Options, you can add entry and exit macros to run when users interact with the controls, as well as list items for combo boxes, .

Adding content controls to your form

In the document, click or tap where you want to add a content control.

On Developer , select Text Box , Check Box , or Combo Box .

Developer tab with content controls

To set specific properties for the control, select Options , and set .

Repeat steps 1 through 3 for each control that you want to add.

Set options

Options let you set common settings, as well as control specific settings. Select a control and then select Options to set up or make changes.

Set common properties.

Select Macro to Run on lets you choose a recorded or custom macro to run on Entry or Exit from the field.

Bookmark Set a unique name or bookmark for each control.

Calculate on exit This forces Word to run or refresh any calculations, such as total price when the user exits the field.

Add Help Text Give hints or instructions for each field.

OK Saves settings and exits the panel.

Cancel Forgets changes and exits the panel.

Set specific properties for a Text box

Type Select form Regular text, Number, Date, Current Date, Current Time, or Calculation.

Default text sets optional instructional text that's displayed in the text box before the user types in the field. Set Text box enabled to allow the user to enter text into the field.

Maximum length sets the length of text that a user can enter. The default is Unlimited .

Text format can set whether text automatically formats to Uppercase , Lowercase , First capital, or Title case .

Text box enabled Lets the user enter text into a field. If there is default text, user text replaces it.

Set specific properties for a Check box .

Default Value Choose between Not checked or checked as default.

Checkbox size Set a size Exactly or Auto to change size as needed.

Check box enabled Lets the user check or clear the text box.

Set specific properties for a Combo box

Drop-down item Type in strings for the list box items. Press + or Enter to add an item to the list.

Items in drop-down list Shows your current list. Select an item and use the up or down arrows to change the order, Press - to remove a selected item.

Drop-down enabled Lets the user open the combo box and make selections.

Protect the form

Go to Developer > Protect Form .

Protect form button on the Developer tab

Note:  To unprotect the form and continue editing, select Protect Form again.

Save and close the form.

Test the form (optional)

If you want, you can test the form before you distribute it.

Protect the form.

Reopen the form, fill it out as the user would, and then save a copy.

Creating fillable forms isn’t available in Word for the web.

You can create the form with the desktop version of Word with the instructions in Create a fillable form .

When you save the document and reopen it in Word for the web, you’ll see the changes you made.

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IMAGES

  1. How to Write a Survey Report (with Pictures)

    how to write a survey report brainly

  2. How to write a survey report report

    how to write a survey report brainly

  3. In creating your survey form, it is important to be guided by the

    how to write a survey report brainly

  4. How to write a survey questionnaire. Below is an example.

    how to write a survey report brainly

  5. Writing a survey report

    how to write a survey report brainly

  6. How To Write A Survey Report

    how to write a survey report brainly

VIDEO

  1. REPORT WRITING|| HOW TO WRITE REPORT|| REPORT WRITING BY SK JAKHAR

  2. How to write Report writing🤔

  3. Surveying: How to Read and Write Survey Stakes

  4. Report Writing। How To Write A Report । Report Writing Class 12 । Report Writing Format/Pattern।

  5. Writing Unit 3: "My survey results"

  6. How to conduct Survey Research

COMMENTS

  1. How to write a survey report?

    Answer: A survey report is a document that presents the results of a survey. It should be written in a clear and concise way that is easy to understand. The report should include the following sections: Introduction: The introduction should state the purpose of the survey and the target population.

  2. How to Write a Survey Report (with Pictures)

    Part 1 Writing the Summary and Background Info Download Article 1 Break the report up into separate sections with headings. Survey reports usually use headings for each section. While there may be slight differences between reports, the headings are typically the same. The standard headings for a report are: [1] Title Page Table of Contents

  3. How to Write a Complete Survey Report

    Completion rate. The completion rate is the number of questions answered divided by the total number of questions in your survey. If you have a survey of 12 questions but most respondents only answered 6 of those, you have a completion rate of 50%. Depending on the survey tool you use, the completion rate can indicate many things.

  4. How to write a survey report

    How to write a survey report Last Update Date: December 29, 2023 Tips for an effective survey report Start with an introduction Use visualizations Focus on key facts first Categorize results Summarize your findings Integrate company branding Conducting a survey is a great way to gather insights from your target demographic.

  5. How to Create a Survey Results Report (+7 Examples to Steal)

    Let's walk through some tricks and techniques with real examples. 1. Use Data Visualization. The most important thing about a survey report is that it allows readers to make sense of data. Visualizations are a key component of any survey summary.

  6. Doing Survey Research

    Step 1: Define the population and sample Step 2: Decide on the type of survey Step 3: Design the survey questions Step 4: Distribute the survey and collect responses Step 5: Analyse the survey results Step 6: Write up the survey results Frequently asked questions about surveys What are surveys used for?

  7. How to Create a Survey Report in 5 Steps

    Step 4 - Beautify Your Survey. After adding the required form field to your survey, the next step is to make it attractive to respondents. Formplus has some built-in customization features that can be used to create a beautiful survey. This option allows you to add colours, fonts, images, backgrounds, etc.

  8. An ultimate guide to survey report: Best practices & tools

    Here are the guidelines to remember while building a survey report: Make an introduction: At the start of the report, specify what the main aim of this survey was when you were starting off. Explaining the survey's purpose will help establish the mood. Give the facts you are delivering context.

  9. Constructing Survey Questionnaires

    Formatting the Questionnaire. Writing effective items is only one part of constructing a survey questionnaire. For one thing, every survey questionnaire should have a written or spoken introduction that serves two basic functions (Peterson, 2000)[10]. One is to encourage respondents to participate in the survey.

  10. Conclusion of a Survey

    Here are some strategies that can help you write an effective conclusion for your survey: 1. Focus On Satisfying Your Survey Goal The conclusion must answer the queries presented by your survey goals and objectives. In writing the conclusion, your mind must be set on fulfilling the very purpose of conducting the survey.

  11. Writing Survey Questions

    Writing Survey Questions. Perhaps the most important part of the survey process is the creation of questions that accurately measure the opinions, experiences and behaviors of the public. Accurate random sampling will be wasted if the information gathered is built on a shaky foundation of ambiguous or biased questions.

  12. How to Write a Survey Report

    Sign up for a free Jotform account at: https://link.jotform.com/xrpx87Z6NR Conducting surveys is a great way to gather insight and feedback from your target ...

  13. what is the purpose of a survey report?

    Answer: The purpose of writing a survey report is to study a research topic thoroughly, and to summarize the existing studies in an organized manner. It is an important step in any research project. Also so you can evaluate it and get feedback from other people. And you can so you can collect data based of the survey report Hope this help.

  14. How to Write a Report: A Guide to Report Formats with Examples

    1 Choose a topic based on the assignment. Before you start writing, you need to pick the topic of your report. Often, the topic is assigned for you, as with most business reports, or predetermined by the nature of your work, as with scientific reports. If that's the case, you can ignore this step and move on.

  15. How to Write a Literature Review

    Examples of literature reviews. Step 1 - Search for relevant literature. Step 2 - Evaluate and select sources. Step 3 - Identify themes, debates, and gaps. Step 4 - Outline your literature review's structure. Step 5 - Write your literature review.

  16. How to Create an Effective Survey (Updated 2022)

    Digital. Root out friction in every digital experience, super-charge conversion rates, and optimize digital self-service. Care. Uncover insights from any interaction, deliver AI-powered agent coaching, and reduce cost to serve. Locations. Increase revenue and loyalty with real-time insights and recommendations delivered straight to teams on the ...

  17. How Brainly Powers Viral Marketing with Customer Feedback

    They decided to share all the survey questions and answers, which resulted in a quick-to-write yet knowledge-packed report. An excerpt from Brainly's back-to-school report. ... Overall, "the value of Brainly" survey helps the marketing team connect with their audience and ensure their users get what they need.

  18. how to write a survey report

    Answer: how to write a survey report? Use Visualizations to Show Data. Write the Key Facts First. Write a Short Survey Summary. Explain the Motivation For Your Survey. Put Survey Statistics in Context. Tell the Reader What the Outcome Should Be. Export Your Survey Result Graphs. Explanation: #CarryOnLearning Advertisement Still have questions?

  19. Brainly

    Get personalized homework help for free — for real. Join for free. Get the app. Brainly is the knowledge-sharing community where hundreds of millions of students and experts put their heads together to crack their toughest homework questions.

  20. Create a form in Word that users can complete or print

    Show the Developer tab. If the developer tab isn't displayed in the ribbon, see Show the Developer tab.. Open a template or use a blank document. To create a form in Word that others can fill out, start with a template or document and add content controls.

  21. how to write a report

    How to write survey report? heart 1 How to write a scientific report? heart 1 how did i do on this pls tell me how i can do better It's fascinating to observe how two seemingly similar pieces of literature can evoke such