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Write it Right - A guide to Harvard referencing style

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What is Paraphrasing?

Examples of paraphrasing.

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Paraphrasing is expressing someone else’s writing in your own choice of words, while keeping the same essential meaning. As Pears and Shields (2019, p. 15) explain, it is ‘ an alternative way of referring to an author’s ideas or arguments without using direct quotations from their text’. 

Paraphrasing is generally more highly valued by academics than direct quoting because it allows you to demonstrate a greater understanding of your source and helps you to maintain your personal writing style and the smooth flow of your essay.

Don’t forget to include in-text citations ( author and date) in the text of your assignment and full references at the end of your assignment every time you paraphrase someone else’s words or ideas.

The example below (Handley and Cox, 2007) shows extracts from two student essays, both based on the same original text. The first extract demonstrates unacceptable paraphrasing and referencing, while the second extract demonstrates acceptable paraphrasing and referencing.

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Harvard referencing handbook (2nd edition)

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Quoting, paraphrasing and summarising

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You need to give an in-text citation whenever you quote, paraphrase or summarise an information source.

Click on the options below for more information.

  • Paraphrasing
  • Summarising

Quoting is copying a short section of text, word for word, directly from an information source into your work. 

1.  Short quotes should:

  • have double quotation marks at the beginning and end of the text
  • be followed with the in-text citation
  • have ellipses (...) if you omit part of the text.

An example of a short quotation:

...it has frequently been identified that "the search for unattainable perfect could mean missing deadlines" (Williams and Reid, 2011, 94).  The implication of this is...​

2. Long quotations are generally longer than two lines.  You should:

  • start the quotation on a new line
  • indent the quotation
  • follow the quotation with the in-text citation
  • start your analysis of the quotation on a new line

An example of a long quotation:

When discussing your findings it is essential that you follow a pattern:

"The important point to remember is that in your review you should present a logical argument...justifying both the need for work and the methodology that is going to be used" (Ridley, 2012, 100).

Without this structure you will struggle to...

Paraphrasing is when you put a short section of text from an information source into your own words.  Although the words are your own, you are still using ideas from the original text.  You must acknowledge the source with an in-text citation.

Summarising gives a broad overview of an information source.  It describes the main ideas in your own words.  You must acknowledge the source with an in-text citation.

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Harvard Guide to Using Sources 

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In APA style, you use parenthetical citations within the text of your paper to credit your sources, to show how recently your sources were published, and to refer your reader to a more detailed citation of the source in the reference list at the end of your paper. You should use parenthetical citations when you paraphrase, quote, or make any reference to another author's work. A parenthetical citation in APA style includes the author's last name as well as the year in which the work was published, with a comma between them. If you are referring directly to a specific page in the source, you should also include the page number in your parenthetical citation. APA requires you to cite page numbers when you are quoting directly from the source. If you are paraphrasing, which is more common in the social sciences, you generally do not need to include a page number. If you have questions about whether you should include page numbers when citing in APA, you should consult your instructor.

If you mention the author's name and/or the year of publication in the sentence preceding the citation, you do not need to include them in the parenthetical citation. When you name the author in the sentence, you should include the publication year in parentheses right after the author’s name—do not wait until the end of the sentence to provide that information.

When you include a parenthetical citation at the end of a sentence, the punctuation for your sentence appears after the citation.

Citing author and date in a parenthetical citation

When you don’t mention either the author or the date of publication in your sentence, you should include both the author and the year, separated by a comma, in the parenthetical citation. 

Colleges and universities need to create policies that foster inclusion for low-income students (Jack, 2019).         

Citing when author’s name is mentioned in body of paper

When you mention the author’s name in your sentence, the year of publication should immediately follow the author’s name.

Anthony Jack’s (2019) study of low-income students on an elite college campus revealed that these schools are often unprepared to support the students they admit.

Jack (2019) studied the ways low-income students experience elite college campuses.

Citing page numbers

When you cite a direct quote from the source or paraphrase a specific point from the source, you should include the page number in the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. When you refer to a specific page or pages of the text, first list the year of publication and then list "p." followed by the page number or "pp." followed by the range of pages. If you refer to a specific chapter, indicate that chapter after the year.              

The author contends that “higher education in America is highly unequal and disturbingly stratified” (Jack, 2019, p. 4).

Jack (2019) contends that “higher education in America is highly unequal and disturbingly stratified” (p. 4).

Citing sources with more than one author

When you cite a source that has two authors, you should separate their names with an ampersand in the parenthetical citation.

The authors designed a study to determine if social belonging can be encouraged among college students (Walton & Cohen, 2011). 

If a work has three or more authors , you should only include the first author's name followed by et al. ( Et al. is the shortened form of the Latin et alia , which means “and others.”)

The implementation of postpartum contraceptive programs is both costly and time consuming (Ling et al., 2020).

Attributing a point to more than one source  

To attribute a point or idea to multiple sources, list them in one parenthetical citation, ordered alphabetically by author and separated by semicolons. Works by the same author should be ordered chronologically, from oldest to most recent, with the publication dates separated by commas.

Students who possess cultural capital, measured by proxies like involvement in literature, art, and classical music, tend to perform better in school (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1977; Dumais, 2002; Orr, 2003).

Citing multiple works by the same author 

If your reference list includes multiple works by the same author in the same year, identify them in your parenthetical citations and in your reference list by a lowercase letter after the year, assigning each letter in alphabetical order by the title of the work. When establishing the alphabetical order of works in your reference list, do not count the words "A" or "The" when they appear as the first word in a title.

One union-endorsed candidate publicly disagreed with the teachers' union on a number of issues (Borsuk, 1999a).

Citing multiple authors with the same last name        

If your reference list includes sources by multiple authors with the same last name, list each author's initials before their last name, even when the works were published in different years.

The question of whether a computer can be considered an author has been asked for longer than we might expect (B. Sobel, 2017).

Citing when no author is listed           

To refer to a work that is listed in your reference list by title rather than by author, cite the title or the first few words of the title.

The New York Times painted a bleak picture of the climate crisis (“Climate Change Is Not Negotiable,” 2022).

Citing when no date is listed

If the work you are citing has no date listed, you should put “n.d.” for “no date” in the parenthetical citation.

Writing research papers is challenging (Lam, n.d.). 

Citing a specific part of a source that is not a page number

To refer to a specific part of a source other than page number, add that after the author-date part of your citation. If it is not clear whether you are referring to a chapter, a paragraph, a time stamp, or a slide number, or other labeled part of a source, you should indicate the part you are referring to (chapter, para., etc.).

In the Stranger Things official trailer, the audience knows that something unusual is going to happen from the moment the boys get on their bicycles to ride off into the night (Duffer & Duffer, 0:16).

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Harvard Referencing

  • Summarising/Paraphrasing
  • Citations/Direct Quotations
  • Books (print or online)
  • Electronic Journal Article
  • Website/Web Document
  • Journal/Magazine Article
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Summarising

Summarising involves repeating the main ideas of a passage in your own words.  A summary concentrates on the important points rather than the details.

Original text

'... in order to learn consumers' views on beauty, Dove surveyed girls and women in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States.  Some of the results were disturbing; for example, in Britain, more than half of those surveyed said their bodies "disgusted" them.  Six out of ten girls believed they would be happier if they were thinner, but actually fewer than two out of ten were in fact overweight.  Apparently, fashion's images of artificially curvaceous models and celebrities had wreaked not a little havoc on young self-concepts.'

Example of a summary   (1)

The results of a recent survey by Dove of girls and women in Britain indicated that many of the younger respondants had negative attitudes to their bodies and wanted to be thinner, even though a large proportion of them were not overweight (Rath, Bay, Petrizzi & Gill 2008, p. 139).

OR  (2)

Rath, Bay, Petrizzi and Gill (2008, p. 139) report that the results of a survey by Dove of young girls and women in Britain indicate that many young girls have false ideas about whether they are overweight or not. 

Summarising a substantial section or chapter of a book or a complete book: 

The Nazis attempted to control fashions in order to communicate a wide range of propoganda messages (Guenther 2004).

  OR  (3)

In a recent book, Guenther (2004) demonstrates the ways in which the Nazis used women's fashions to strengthen certain images of their ideal world.

Points to note :

There are different ways you can incorporate an in-text citation into your work. Usually, the author's surname/s, the date and page numbers (if necessary) appear in brackets - as in (1) above, but if you want to use the author's name/s  as part of your sentance you can do so as in examples (2) and (3) above.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is expressing what an author writes in another way. 

'For the times when silk stocking were not be had "for love or money," women had to make do.'

Example of a paraphrase

As Kirkham (2005, p. 221) points out, during the War there were times when silk stockings could not be obtained by any means and so women were forced to find alternatives.

During the War, when silk stockings were often not available at all, women were forced to find alternatives (Kirkham 2005, p. 221).

'A lifecycle inventory study confirmed that the use of the b-pak produces lower environmental burdens than a glass wine bottle.'

A b-pak is a more environmentally friendly container for wine than the traditional bottle (Evans 2007, p. 130).

As Evans (2007, p. 130) points out, the b-pak has a smaller environmental impact than a traditional wine bottle.

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Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)

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There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style. This guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version. You will find further guidance available through the OU Library on the Cite Them Right Database .

For help and support with referencing and the full Cite Them Right guide, have a look at the Library’s page on referencing and plagiarism . If you need guidance referencing OU module material you can check out which sections of Cite Them Right are recommended when referencing physical and online module material .

This guide does not apply to OU Law undergraduate students . If you are studying a module beginning with W1xx, W2xx or W3xx, you should refer to the Quick guide to Cite Them Right referencing for Law modules .

Table of contents

In-text citations and full references.

  • Secondary referencing
  • Page numbers
  • Citing multiple sources published in the same year by the same author

Full reference examples

Referencing consists of two elements:

  • in-text citations, which are inserted in the body of your text and are included in the word count. An in-text citation gives the author(s) and publication date of a source you are referring to. If the publication date is not given, the phrase 'no date' is used instead of a date. If using direct quotations or you refer to a specific section in the source you also need the page number/s if available, or paragraph number for web pages.
  • full references, which are given in alphabetical order in reference list at the end of your work and are not included in the word count. Full references give full bibliographical information for all the sources you have referred to in the body of your text.

To see a reference list and intext citations check out this example assignment on Cite Them Right .

Difference between reference list and bibliography

a reference list only includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text

a bibliography includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text AND sources that were part of your background reading that you did not use in your assignment

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Examples of in-text citations

You need to include an in-text citation wherever you quote or paraphrase from a source. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author(s), the year of publication, and a page number if relevant. There are a number of ways of incorporating in-text citations into your work - some examples are provided below. Alternatively you can see examples of setting out in-text citations in Cite Them Right .

Note: When referencing a chapter of an edited book, your in-text citation should give the author(s) of the chapter.

Online module materials

(Includes written online module activities, audio-visual material such as online tutorials, recordings or videos).

When referencing material from module websites, the date of publication is the year you started studying the module.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

OR, if there is no named author:

The Open University (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

Rietdorf, K. and Bootman, M. (2022) 'Topic 3: Rare diseases'. S290: Investigating human health and disease . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1967195 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).

The Open University (2022) ‘3.1 The purposes of childhood and youth research’. EK313: Issues in research with children and young people . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1949633&section=1.3 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).

You can also use this template to reference videos and audio that are hosted on your module website:

The Open University (2022) ‘Video 2.7 An example of a Frith-Happé animation’. SK298: Brain, mind and mental health . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=2013014&section=4.9.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).

The Open University (2022) ‘Audio 2 Interview with Richard Sorabji (Part 2)’. A113: Revolutions . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1960941&section=5.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).

Note: if a complete journal article has been uploaded to a module website, or if you have seen an article referred to on the website and then accessed the original version, reference the original journal article, and do not mention the module materials. If only an extract from an article is included in your module materials that you want to reference, you should use secondary referencing, with the module materials as the 'cited in' source, as described above.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of message', Title of discussion board , in Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).

Fitzpatrick, M. (2022) ‘A215 - presentation of TMAs', Tutor group discussion & Workbook activities , in A215: Creative writing . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/forumng/discuss.php?d=4209566 (Accessed: 24 January 2022).

Note: When an ebook looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, reference as a printed book.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title . Edition if later than first. Place of publication: publisher. Series and volume number if relevant.

For ebooks that do not contain print publication details

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title of book . Available at: DOI or URL (Accessed: date).

Example with one author:

Bell, J. (2014) Doing your research project . Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy . Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Accessed: 23 June 2021).

Example with two or three authors:

Goddard, J. and Barrett, S. (2015) The health needs of young people leaving care . Norwich: University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies.

Example with four or more authors:

Young, H.D. et al. (2015) Sears and Zemansky's university physics . San Francisco, CA: Addison-Wesley.

Note: You can choose one or other method to reference four or more authors (unless your School requires you to name all authors in your reference list) and your approach should be consistent.

Note: Books that have an editor, or editors, where each chapter is written by a different author or authors.

Surname of chapter author, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of chapter or section', in Initial. Surname of book editor (ed.) Title of book . Place of publication: publisher, Page reference.

Franklin, A.W. (2012) 'Management of the problem', in S.M. Smith (ed.) The maltreatment of children . Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83–95.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference.

If accessed online:

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference. Available at: DOI or URL (if required) (Accessed: date).

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326.

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323–326. Available at: https://libezproxy.open.ac.uk/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/log... (Accessed: 27 January 2023).

Barke, M. and Mowl, G. (2016) 'Málaga – a failed resort of the early twentieth century?', Journal of Tourism History , 2(3), pp. 187–212. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/1755182X.2010.523145

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference if available. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Mansell, W. and Bloom, A. (2012) ‘£10,000 carrot to tempt physics experts’, The Guardian , 20 June, p. 5.

Roberts, D. and Ackerman, S. (2013) 'US draft resolution allows Obama 90 days for military action against Syria', The Guardian , 4 September. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/04/syria-strikes-draft-resolut... (Accessed: 9 September 2015).

Surname, Initial. (Year that the site was published/last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Organisation (Year that the page was last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Robinson, J. (2007) Social variation across the UK . Available at: https://www.bl.uk/british-accents-and-dialects/articles/social-variation... (Accessed: 21 November 2021).

The British Psychological Society (2018) Code of Ethics and Conduct . Available at: https://www.bps.org.uk/news-and-policy/bps-code-ethics-and-conduct (Accessed: 22 March 2019).

Note: Cite Them Right Online offers guidance for referencing webpages that do not include authors' names and dates. However, be extra vigilant about the suitability of such webpages.

Surname, Initial. (Year) Title of photograph . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Kitton, J. (2013) Golden sunset . Available at: https://www.jameskittophotography.co.uk/photo_8692150.html (Accessed: 21 November 2021).

stanitsa_dance (2021) Cossack dance ensemble . Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/COI_slphWJ_/ (Accessed: 13 June 2023).

Note: If no title can be found then replace it with a short description.

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Harvard Style

  • Position of the citation
  • Secondary Referencing
  • Date of Publication
  • Page numbers
  • Citing from Web pages
  • Paraphrasing and Summarising

Paraphrasing

Summarising.

  • Examples of References in Harvard style
  • Harvard Reference Examples A-Z
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To paraphrase is to communicate the author’s work in your own words and to acknowledge the source:

  • Used to rewrite text in your own words
  • Used to clarify meaning
  • Used to shorten a longer statement, but keep the main ideas
  • Giving credit to the original author of the idea

paraphrase cite harvard

Elements of a good paraphrase:

  • Change the structure of the original passage
  • Change the words
  • Give a citation / reference

To summarise is to describe broadly the findings of a study without directly quoting from it.  Summarising involves repeating the main ideas of a passage in your own words.  A summary concentrates on the important points rather than the details.

paraphrase cite harvard

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Harvard Referencing - SETU Libraries Waterford Guide: Paraphrasing and Direct Quotations

  • SETU Waterford Libraries Harvard Referencing Basics

Paraphrasing and Direct Quotations

  • Elements in References
  • Journal Articles
  • Art: Paintings/drawings
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  • X ( formerly Twitter)
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  • Book, article or web page that has referenced something else (secondary referencing)
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Essay excerpt

Dublin is the capital of Ireland. The Discover Ireland website (Fáilte Ireland, 2013) outlines some of the main tourist attractions in Dublin. The city is ‘small, easy to get around and offers no greater challenge than struggling to be cultural the morning after the night before’ (Davenport, 2010, p. 16). Dublin aims to encourage sustainable tourism and members of the public can help by altering behaviour patterns (Miller et al ., 2010).

Paraphrase or Summary

When you paraphrase or summarise you express somebody else's ideas or theories in your own words.

Paraphrasing is not a direct quote, so there is no need to include quotation marks or page numbers. List the name(s) of the author(s) and the date of publication directly after the paraphrase. Example (see above): Miller et al., 2010.

Direct Quote

A Direct Quote is when you take an actual segment of text from another source and reproduce it word for word in your assignment.

Short quotations should be contained within your paragraph of text, but enclosed within single quotation marks. Example (see above): Davenport, 2010, p. 16.

Longer quotations should be indented as a separate paragraph and do not require quotation marks.

Unless you are quoting from material which does not have page numbers, you will always need a page number as part of your in text citation when quoting.  

Common Knowledge

Only information which is considered general knowledge, or common knowledge within your field of study, does not have to be referenced.

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Harvard referencing style: Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing.

  • What a bibliography looks like
  • In-text citation technique

Children who develop a capacity for sympathy or compassion – often through empathetic perspectival experience – understand what their aggression has done to another separate person, for whom they increasingly care. They thus come to feel guilt about their own aggression and real concern for the well-being of the other person. Empathy is not morality, but it can supply crucial ingredients of morality. As concern develops, it leads to an increasing wish to control one’s own aggression; children recognize that other people are not their slaves but separate beings with the right to lives of their own. (Nussbaum, 2010, p. 37)

Nussbaum, M.C. (2010)  Not for profit: why democracy needs the humanities.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. [Harvard style]

The text in italics above has been written by Martha Nussbaum. I want to paraphrase it so I can use it in my own work. Here are some examples, showing the stages or drafts. 

Stage or draft 1

Children who develop a capacity for sympathy or compassion – understand what their aggression has done to another separate person. They feel guilty about their own aggression and real concern for the well-being of the other person. As concern develops, it leads to an increasing wish to control their own aggression. Then children recognize that other people are separate beings with the right to lives of their own, and not to be ordered around . (Nussbaum, 2010)

This example of a paraphrase shows what happens when you cut and paste text, i.e. you tend to just change words. If you compare it to the original text, you can see it is not that much different. This is a poor paraphrase, and would be likely to be regarded as plagiarism, if submitted to a plagiarism detecting service. 

Stage or draft 2

Nussbaum (2010, p. 37) considered that children need to ‘develop a capacity for sympathy or compassion’, sometimes through experiencing common events or feelings. When they do this, they can better appreciate what their actions have done to another person, for whom they may feel more affection. In fact, children may feel guilty and this helps them to change their behavior and views about other people, who they see more as individuals, to whom they need to relate, rather than issue peremptory orders to people, without reference to the other person’s feelings. 

In this example of paraphrasing, there is more evidence of thinking about the original text (rather than just cutting and pasting) and a good attempt has been made to put it into different words. The same order of the original text remains, and a good tip is to quote a memorable phrase, i.e. a section you might find difficult to put into other words. 

Stage or draft 3

Nussbaum (2010) concluded that children begin to see other people as separate living entities, with their own emotions and activity, rather than simply beings that only exist in relation to children. This process of emotional development and change may occur through experiencing similar events to another person and guilt, when reflecting on their initial, selfish reactions. 

In this example, not only has paraphrasing happened, but the original text has been summarized too, which results in less words being used. Note that the order of the original text has been changed, so that a conclusion has been made, followed by a justification or reason.

For all paraphrasing, the original source needs to be cited in the text, and the source included in the bibliography of your work. 

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  • Harvard Referencing Generator

Free Harvard Referencing Generator

Generate accurate Harvard reference lists quickly and for FREE, with MyBib!

🤔 What is a Harvard Referencing Generator?

A Harvard Referencing Generator is a tool that automatically generates formatted academic references in the Harvard style.

It takes in relevant details about a source -- usually critical information like author names, article titles, publish dates, and URLs -- and adds the correct punctuation and formatting required by the Harvard referencing style.

The generated references can be copied into a reference list or bibliography, and then collectively appended to the end of an academic assignment. This is the standard way to give credit to sources used in the main body of an assignment.

👩‍🎓 Who uses a Harvard Referencing Generator?

Harvard is the main referencing style at colleges and universities in the United Kingdom and Australia. It is also very popular in other English-speaking countries such as South Africa, Hong Kong, and New Zealand. University-level students in these countries are most likely to use a Harvard generator to aid them with their undergraduate assignments (and often post-graduate too).

🙌 Why should I use a Harvard Referencing Generator?

A Harvard Referencing Generator solves two problems:

  • It provides a way to organise and keep track of the sources referenced in the content of an academic paper.
  • It ensures that references are formatted correctly -- inline with the Harvard referencing style -- and it does so considerably faster than writing them out manually.

A well-formatted and broad bibliography can account for up to 20% of the total grade for an undergraduate-level project, and using a generator tool can contribute significantly towards earning them.

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's Harvard Referencing Generator?

Here's how to use our reference generator:

  • If citing a book, website, journal, or video: enter the URL or title into the search bar at the top of the page and press the search button.
  • Choose the most relevant results from the list of search results.
  • Our generator will automatically locate the source details and format them in the correct Harvard format. You can make further changes if required.
  • Then either copy the formatted reference directly into your reference list by clicking the 'copy' button, or save it to your MyBib account for later.

MyBib supports the following for Harvard style:

🍏 What other versions of Harvard referencing exist?

There isn't "one true way" to do Harvard referencing, and many universities have their own slightly different guidelines for the style. Our generator can adapt to handle the following list of different Harvard styles:

  • Cite Them Right
  • Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU)
  • University of the West of England (UWE)

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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

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  • Select style:
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  • Encyclopedia article
  • Government publication
  • Music or recording
  • Online image or video
  • Presentation
  • Press release
  • Religious text

What is the Harvard Referencing System?

The Harvard style is a system that students, writers and researchers can use to incorporate other people’s quotes, findings and ideas into their work. This is done in order to support and validate their conclusions without breaching any intellectual property laws. The popular Harvard format is typically used in assignments and publications for humanities as well as natural, social and behavioural sciences.

It is a parenthetical referencing system that is made up of two main components:

  • In-text references including the author’s surname and the year of publication should be shown in brackets wherever another source has contributed to your work
  • A reference list outlining all of the sources directly cited in your work

While in-text references are used in the Harvard referencing system to briefly indicate where you have directly quoted or paraphrased a source, your reference list is an alphabetised list of complete references that enables your reader to locate each source with ease. Each entry should be keyed to a corresponding parenthetical reference in the main body of your work so that a reader can take an in-text citation and quickly retrieve the source from your reference list.

Note that some universities, and certain disciplines, may also require you to provide a bibliography. This is a detailed list of all of the material you have consulted throughout your research and preparation, and it will demonstrate the lengths you have gone to in researching your chosen topic.

‘Harvard referencing’ is an umbrella term for any referencing style that uses the author name and year of publication within the text to indicate where you have inserted a source. This author-date system appeals to both authors and readers of academic work. Scholars find the format an economical way of writing, and it is generally more accessible to the reader as there are no footnotes crowding the page. Only the name of the author, the publication date of the source and, if necessary, the page numbers are included in parenthetical references, for example:

(Joyce, 2008).

Use the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing generator to create your fully-formatted in-text references and reference list in the blink of an eye.

Popular Harvard Referencing Examples

  • Chapter of a book
  • Conference proceedings 
  • Court case 
  • Dissertation 
  • Encyclopedia article 
  • Image online or video
  • Presentation or lecture
  • Video, film, or DVD

Cite This For Me Harvard Referencing Guide

Not sure how to format your Harvard references, what references are, or simply curious about the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing tool? Our guide can answer your questions and offer you a comprehensive introduction to the style. (Note that Cite This For Me is not officially associated with the style.)

Sometimes, students do not encounter referencing until they embark onto degree-level studies, yet it is a crucial academic skill that will propel you towards establishing yourself in the academic community. So, if you need a helping hand with your referencing then why not try the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing generator? The Cite This For Me automated referencing generator accesses knowledge from across the web, assembling all of the relevant information into a formatted reference list that clearly presents all of the sources that have contributed to your work. Using this citation generator to cite your sources enables you to cross the finish line in style.

It is important to bear in mind that there is a plethora of different referencing styles out there – the use of any particular one depends on the preference of your university, subject, professor or the publication you are submitting the work to. If you’re unsure which style you should be using, consult your tutor and follow their guidelines. The Cite This For Me Harvard referencing generator above will create your references in the Harvard – Cite Them Right (10th Edition) format as standard, but it can auto-generate references in 7,000+ styles. So, whether your professor has asked you to adopt APA referencing , or your discipline requires you to use OSCOLA referencing , Vancouver or MLA , we have the style you need. To accurately create references in a specific format, simply sign up to Cite This For Me and select your chosen style.

Are you struggling with referencing an unfamiliar source type? Or feeling confused about whether to cite a piece of common knowledge? Our Harvard reference generator and this guide will help provide you with everything you need to get both your parenthetical references and reference list completed quickly and accurately.

Why do I Need to Reference?

Referencing can be a confusing task, especially if you are new to the concept, but it’s essential. Simply put, referencing is the citing of sources you have utilised to support your essay, research, conference, article etc. Even if you are using the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing tool, understanding why you need to reference will go a long way in helping you to naturally integrate the process into your research and writing routine.

Firstly, whenever another source contributes to your work you must give the original author the appropriate credit in order to avoid plagiarism, even when you have completely reworded the information. The only exception to this rule is common knowledge – e.g., London is the capital city of England. Whilst plagiarism is not always intentional, it is easy to accidentally plagiarise your work when you are under pressure from imminent deadlines, you have managed your time ineffectively, or if you lack confidence when putting ideas into your own words. The consequences can be severe; deduction of marks at best, expulsion from university or legal action from the original author at worst. Find out more here.

This may sound overwhelming, but plagiarism can be easily avoided by citing your sources and carrying out your research and written work thoughtfully and responsibly. Use the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing generator to do so! We have compiled a handy checklist to follow whilst you are working on an assignment.

How to avoid plagiarism:

  • Formulate a detailed plan – carefully outline both the relevant content you need to include, as well as how you plan on structuring your work
  • Manage your time effectively – make use of time plans and targets, and give yourself enough time to read, write and proofread
  • Keep track of your sources – record all of the relevant publication information as you go (e.g., If you are referencing a book you should note the author or editor’s name(s), year of publication, title, edition number, city of publication, name of publisher). Carefully save each quote, word-for-word, and place it in inverted commas to differentiate it from your own words
  • When you are paraphrasing information, make sure that you use only your own words and a sentence structure that differs from the original text
  • Save all of your research and references in a safe place – organise and manage your references using the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing generator.

Secondly, proving that your writing is informed by appropriate academic reading will enhance your work’s authenticity. Academic writing values original thought that analyses and builds upon the ideas of other scholars. It is therefore important to use a Harvard referencing generator to accurately signpost where you have used someone else’s ideas. This will show your reader that you have delved deeply into your chosen topic and supported your thesis with expert opinions.

Here at Cite This For Me we understand how precious your time is. This is why we created the Cite This For Me referencing tool and Harvard referencing guide to help relieve the unnecessary stress of referencing.

Harvard Referencing Guidelines by School

  • Anglia University Harvard Referencing
  • Bournemouth University Harvard Referencing
  • Cardiff University Harvard Referencing
  • Coventry University Harvard Referencing
  • DMU Harvard Referencing
  • Edge Hill University Harvard Referencing
  • Imperial College University Harvard Referencing
  • Leeds University Harvard Referencing
  • LSBU Harvard Referencing
  • MMU Harvard Referencing
  • SHU Harvard Referencing
  • Staffordshire University Harvard Referencing
  • UCA Harvard Referencing
  • UWE Harvard Referencing
  • UWS Harvard Referencing
  • Wolverhampton University Harvard Referencing

How do I Create and Format Harvard Style In-text References?

When adopting Harvard style referencing in your work, if you are inserting a quote, statement, statistic or any other kind of source information into the main body of your essay you should:

  • Provide the author’s surname and date of publication in brackets right after the taken information or at the end of the sentence.

There are many assumptions when it comes to the information processing approach to cognition… (Lutz and Huitt, 2004).

  • If you have already mentioned the author in the sentence, you should enter only the year of publication in brackets directly after where the author’s surname is mentioned.

In the overview of these developmental theories, Lutz and Huitt (2004) suggest that…

  • If you are quoting a particular section of the source (rather than the entire work), you should also include a page number or page range within the brackets after the date.

“…the development of meaning is more important than the acquisition of a large set of knowledge or skills …” (Lutz and Huitt, 2004, p. 8), which means that …

  • Note that if the source has four or more authors, you do not need to write out all of their surnames; simply use the first author’s surname followed by the abbreviation ‘et al.’ (meaning ‘and others’) in italics.

As well as saving you valuable time, the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing tool will enable you to easily avoid common referencing errors.

How Do I Format My Harvard Style Reference List?

The brief in-text Harvard references in your work should directly link to your reference list. Utilising and building on a wide range of relevant sources is a guaranteed way of impressing your reader, and a comprehensive list of the source material you have used is the perfect platform to exhibit your research efforts.

Follow these Harvard referencing guidelines when compiling your reference list:

  • Start your reference list on a new page at the end of your document
  • Use ‘Reference List’ as the heading
  • Copy each of your full-length references from the Harvard referencing tool into a list
  • Arrange the list in alphabetical order by the author’s last name (titles with no author are alphabetised by the work’s title, and if you are citing two or more sources by the same author they should be listed in chronological order of the year of publication)
  • General formatting should be in keeping with the rest of your work
  • Italicise titles of books, reports, conference proceedings etc. For journal articles, the title of the journal should be printed in italics, rather than the title of the journal article
  • Capitalise the first letter of the publication title, the first letters of all main words in the title of a journal, and all first letters of a place name and publisher

As a general rule a Harvard reference list includes every source that you have cited in your work, whilst a bibliography also contains any relevant background reading which you have consulted (even those sources that are never mentioned in the narrative). Your bibliography should start on its own page, with the same formatting as the rest of the paper and aligned to the left with the sources listed alphabetically. You may be required to provide a bibliography as well as a reference list, so check this with your tutor.

Reference list / bibliography examples:

  • Book, one author:

Martin, K. (2019) The queen of hearts . New York: Berkley.

  • Edited book with a chapter written by an author:

Mooney, L.R. (2011) ‘Vernacular literary manuscripts and their scribes’, in Gillespie, A. and Wakelin, D. (eds.) The production of books in England 1350-1500 . New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 192-211.

  • One author, book, multiple editions:

Hawking, S.W. (1998) A brief history of time: From the big bang to black holes . 10th edn. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group.

If all information resembles a book, use the template for a book reference.

If a page number is unavailable, use chapter number. URL links are not necessary, but can be useful. When including a URL, include the date the book was downloaded at the end of the reference:

Available at: URL (Downloaded: DD Month YYYY)

  • More than three authors, journal article:

Shakoor, S., Jaffee, S.R., Bowes, L., Ouellet-Morin, l., Andreou, P., Happé, F., Moffitt, T.E. and Arseneault, L. (2011) ‘A prospective longitudinal study of children’s theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry , 53(3), pp. 254–261. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02488.x.

  • Conference papers:

Drogen, E. (2014) ‘Changing how we think about war: The role of psychology’, The British Psychological Society 2014 annual conference . The ICC, Birmingham British Psychological Society, 07-09 May 2014.

  • Web pages with one author:

Raiford, T. (2015) 20 amazing dog breeds from England . Available at https://puppytoob.com/ (Accessed: 6 November 2019).

If your web page is missing a date of publication, or information about when it was last updated, place (no date) directly after the author’s name. Make sure to include the accessed date at the end of the reference.

Butterfield, L. (2019) ‘Research spotlight: I want to get high enough up the chain to pull others over the wall with me’, Oxford science blog , 1 November. Available at: http://www.ox.ac.uk/news/science-blog (Accessed 5 November 2019).

When referencing blog posts, the year of publication is placed in parentheses directly after the author of the posting. The day and month of publication are placed in the reference after the title of the blog site. Make sure to include the accessed date at the end of the reference as well.

If the author uses a pseudonym, use it in in the author’s position. Do not attempt to seek out the author’s full name. Remember, the goal of a reference to make it simple for the reader of your work to seek out the source for themselves.

  • Social Media Posts:

Whilst scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles, books, conference papers, and research reports are considered high-quality source materials, it is not uncommon to come across social media posts featured and discussed in projects. Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram provide easy access to information on a number of personally owned devices. In addition, they promote interaction among its participants, thus allowing for deliberation and debate.

When creating a reference for a social media post, it is recommended to include the main URL of the social media platform, not the URL of the individual post. This prevents readers from clicking on links that may lead to a blocked post behind a private account.

Do not include the content of the individual post in the full reference. If the reader strives to see the contents of the post in its entirety, the information provided in both the text and on the final page of the project provide enough information for the reader to locate it on their own.

John, E. (2019) [ Facebook ] 31 October. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/EltonJohn/ (Accessed 12 November 2019).

Rushdie, S. (2019) [ Twitter ] 10 October. Available at: https://twitter.com/SalmanRushdie (Accessed 2 November 2019).

Are you struggling to find all of the publication information to complete a reference? Did you know that our Harvard reference generator can help you do it?

Time is of the essence when you’re finishing a paper, but there’s no need to panic because you can compile your reference list using the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing generator. Sign in to your Cite This For Me account to save and export your reference list.

Harvard Style Formatting Guidelines

Accurate referencing doesn’t only help protect your work from plagiarism – presenting your source material in a consistent and clear way also enhances the readability of your work. Closely follow the Harvard referencing system’s formatting rules on font type, font size, text-alignment and line spacing to ensure that your work is easily legible. Before submitting your work check that you have formatted your whole paper – including your reference list – according to the style’s formatting guidelines.

How to format in Harvard:

  • Margins: 2.5cm on all sides
  • Suggested fonts: Times New Roman, Arial and Courier New for Windows; Times New Roman, Helvetica and Courier for Mac, 12pt size. Ensure that all references are in the same font as the rest of the work
  • Shortened title followed by the page number in the header, aligned to the right
  • Double-space the entirety of the paper
  • ½ inch indentation for every new paragraph (press tab bar)
  • Unlike other popular reference styles, this particular style does not call for a hanging indent for the second and any subsequent lines of references. Instead, this style requires all lines to sit flush against the left margin.
  • Reference list on a separate page at the end of the body of your work. If your professor requests a bibliography too (a list of sources that were used to help gain background knowledge on the topic), it can be placed at the end of the assignment as well.

Even when using a Harvard referencing generator, always check with your professor for specified guidelines – there is no unified ‘Harvard Style’ for the formatting of a paper.

A Brief History of the Harvard Style

The author-date system is attributed to eminent zoologist Edward Laurens Mark (1847-1946), Hersey professor of anatomy and director of Harvard’s zoological laboratory. It is widely agreed that the first evidence of the citation style can be traced back to Mark’s landmark cytological paper (Chernin, 1988). The paper breaks away from previous uses of inconsistent and makeshift footnotes through its use of a parenthetical author-date citation accompanied by an explanatory footnote.

  • Parenthetic author-year citation, page 194 of Mark’s 1881 paper:

[…] The appearance may be due solely to reflection from the body itself. (Comp. Flemming, ‘78b, p. 310.*)

  • Mark’s rationale for his citational scheme:

*The numbers immediately following an author’s name serve the double purpose of referring the reader to the list (p. 591) where the titles of papers are given, and of informing him at once of the approximate date of the paper in question.

A tribute dedicated to Mark in 1903 by 140 students credits Mark’s paper with having ‘introduced into zoology a proper fullness and accuracy of citation and a convenient and uniform method of referring from text to bibliography’ (Parker, 1903). Today Harvard referencing is widely considered one of the most accessible styles and is used across most subjects.

The Evolution of the Harvard Referencing Style

Due to its simplicity and ease of use, the format has become one of the most widely adopted citation styles in the world. However, many universities offer their own unique style guide, and each has its own nuances when it comes to punctuation, order of information and formatting rules. UK university-specific styles, such as Bristol University Harvard, are available via the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing generator. Simply go to the Cite This For Me website to login to your Cite This For Me account and search for the version you need. Make sure you apply consistency throughout your work.

The Cite This For Me Harvard reference generator currently uses the Cite Them Right 10th Edition, which has evolved in recent years to match the ever advancing digital age. It is increasingly easy for writers to access information and knowledge via the internet, and in turn the Harvard referencing guidelines are continually updated to include developments in electronic publishing. This guide is not affiliated with Cite Them Right, but it does cover the basics of the Harvard style.

Key differences we identified from previous Cite Them Right editions:

  • Previous editions required printed books and eBooks to be referenced differently – in the 9th edition, both were referenced using the same template (if all the necessary information is available). An Ebook is considered to be the digital format of a published book (or a book that is only published in digital format) that is meant for reading on an electronic device.
  • URLs are no longer a requirement for digital media if the information provided in the reference is sufficient to find the source without it. They should be included if the source is difficult to find, or if pieces of information needed for Harvard referencing are missing.
  • The 10th edition of the guide includes structures for Twitter and play performances.

These days students draw on a diverse range of digital sources to support their written work. Whether you are citing a hashtag on Instagram, a podcast or a mobile app, the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing tool will help you take care of your references and generate them for the sources you want to cite.

How do I Create Accurate References?

Disheartened by the stressful process of referencing? Got a fast-approaching deadline? Using the Cite This For Me accessible and free Harvard generator makes creating accurate references easier, leaving more time for you to focus on achieving your academic goals.

Create an account to add and edit references on the spot, import and export full projects or individual entries, utilise our add-ons and save your work in the cloud. Things get even easier with Cite This For Me for Chrome – a handy browser extension that allows you to instantly create and edit a reference while you browse the web. Use the Harvard referencing tool on any webpage that you want to reference, and add it to your chosen project without interrupting your workflow.

The Cite This For Me reference management tool is here to help you, so what are you waiting for? Help creating accurate Harvard style references is just a few clicks away!

Reference List

Chernin, E. (1988) The ‘Harvard System’: A mystery dispelled. Available at: http://www.uefap.com/writing/referenc/harvard.pdf (Accessed: 4 July 2016)

Parker, G. (ed.) (1903) Mark anniversary volume . New York: Henry Holt.

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right . London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Manage all your references in one place

Create reference lists and cite directly from the browser.

Sign up to Cite This For Me – the ultimate reference management tool.

Home / Guides / Citation Guides / Harvard Referencing / Harvard Referencing Style Examples / How to reference an article in Harvard referencing style

How to reference an article in Harvard referencing style

What is an article.

Almost all writers and academics reference other people’s writing in their works. Referencing demonstrates that you have researched your topic, are well versed in its arguments and theories, and it also helps avoid charges of plagiarism.  

The Harvard citation system is just one of many referencing styles – and which style you choose is normally guided by the institution or publication you are writing for.

In this article, you will learn how to use the Harvard citation system to reference the following types of articles:

  • journal article
  • newspaper article
  • magazine article

Properly citing article details in the reference list will help the readers to locate your source material if they wish to read more about a particular area or topic.

Information you need:

  • Author name
  • (Year published)  
  • ‘Article title’  
  • Journal/newspaper/magazine name  
  • Day and month published, if available
  • Volume number, if available
  • (Issue) number, if available
  • Page number(s), if available

If accessed online:

  • Available at: URL or DOI  
  • (Accessed: date).

Journal articles

Academic or scholarly journals are periodical publications about a specific discipline. No matter what your field is, if you are writing an academic paper, you will inevitably have to cite a journal article in your research. Journal articles often have multiple authors, so make sure you know when to use et al. in Harvard style . The method for referencing a journal article in the reference list is as follows:

Reference list (print) structure:

Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Journal name , Volume(Issue), Page(s).

Shepherd, V. (2020) ‘An exploration around peer support for secondary pupils in Scotland with experience of self-harm’, Educational Psychology in Practice, 36(3), pp. 297-312.

Note that the article title uses sentence case. However, the title of the journal uses title case. Additionally, the volume number comes immediately after the journal title followed by the issue number in round brackets.

If the original material you are referencing was accessed online, then the method for citing it in the reference list will be the same as that in print, but with an additional line at the end.  

Reference list (online) structure:

Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Journal Name , Volume(Issue), Page(s). Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: date).  

Shepherd, V. (2020) ‘An exploration around peer support for secondary pupils in Scotland with experience of self-harm’, Educational Psychology in Practice, 36(3), pp. 297-312. Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02667363.2020.1772726 (Accessed: 08 October 2020).

In-text citation (print or online) structure:

In-text citations are written within round brackets and start with the last name of the author followed by the year published, both separated by a comma.

You can also mention the author within the text and only include the publication year in round brackets.

Examples:  

In this article (Shepherd, 2020) deals with…  

According to Shepherd (2020), when peer support is available…  

Talking about the secondary education system, Shepherd (2020, p.299) suggests that…

Newspaper articles

Even if you are referring to an incident which is public knowledge, you still need to cite the source.  

The name of the author in a newspaper article is referred to as a byline. Below are examples for citing an article both with and without a byline.  

Reference list (print) structure:  

Last name, F. (Year published). ‘Article title’, Newspaper name , Day Month, Page(s).

Hamilton, J. (2018). ‘Massive fire at local department store’, The Daily Local, 10 August, p. 1.

Last name, F. (Year published). ‘Article title’, Newspaper name , Day Month, Page(s). Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

Gambino, L. (2020) ‘Kamala Harris and Mike Pence clash over coronavirus response in vice-presidential debate,’ The Guardian, 8 October. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/oct/07/debate-kamala-harris-mike-pence-latest-news (Accessed: 8 October 2020).

Reference list structure, no byline:

The basic reference list structure for the reference is the same for both print and online articles. If information isn’t available, simply omit it from the reference.

Newspaper name (Year published) ‘Article Title’, Day Month, Page(s). Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).

The Chronicler (2016) ‘Local man wins lottery jackpot twice in one year’, 30 May, p. 14. Available at: https://thechroniclerpaper.com/local-man-wins-lottery-twice (Accessed: 1 October 2020).

In-text citation structure (print or online):

The last name of the author and date are written in round brackets, separated by a comma. The method is similar to referencing journal articles in in-text citations.

(Hamilton, 2018)

In his paper, Gambino (2020) mentioned that…

For articles accessed online which do not have an author, the name of the publication is mentioned in place of the author’s name and is italicized.

( The Chronicler , 2016)

Magazine articles  

The structure of magazine articles is similar to that of a journal article.

Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Magazine Name , Volume(Issue), Page(s).

Ornes, S. (2020). “To save Appalachia’s endangered mussels, scientists hatched a bold plan”, ScienceNews, (198), p.2.

Last name, F. (Year published) ‘Article title’, Magazine name , Volume(Issue), Page(s). Available at: URL (Accessed: Date).

Ornes, S. (2020) ‘To save Appalachia’s endangered mussels, scientists hatched a bold plan’, ScienceNews, (198), p.2. Available at: https://www.sciencenews.org/article/endangered-mussels-appalachia-rivers-biologists-conservation-plan (Accessed: 3 October 2020).

  In-text citation (print or online) structure:

(Author last name, Year published)

(Ornes, 2020)

Published October 29, 2020.

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Inside Business | What is plagiarism? Why is it a problem? | Expert column

Teachers work an average of 50 hours a week according to the National Educators Association, which means either staying late at school or bringing their own homework with them to ensure you know whether you're sitting at an A or a B.

If you’ve been sleeping under a rock, you may have missed the issues alleging plagiarism by ex-Harvard President Claudine Gay. Rarely has the plagiarism topic been “front and center” when dealing with public authorities and celebrities. However, with Dr. Gay, the plagiarism topic has risen to the forefront of discussion.

In the academic world, plagiarism is serious business. Students have been dismissed from colleges and universities due to plagiarism issues.

Many faculty, including me, warn students to make their written work as plagiarism-free as possible by running their academic work through plagiarism-detection tools such as Turnitin or SafeAssign before their written work is submitted. Students are advised to use quotes for exact phrases and to attribute the words to the other published work, when necessary, and to cite, cite, cite any words paraphrased or research and words supporting the students’ work if Turnitin and SafeAssign show a pattern of duplication.

No written work is without words and phrases that have not been used before. By its nature, the English language is repetitive. However, Turnitin and other plagiarism-detection software catch the more egregious literary patches that are indicated as being “borrowed” from someone else.

Bob Stowers (Courtesy photo)

Williamsburg-James City County school board member Julie Hummel and I wrote a paper together a number of years ago about the plagiarism topic. The article appeared in the Business Communication Quarterly and was titled, “The Use of Technology to Combat Plagiarism in Business Communication Classes.” We proposed that plagiarism is intellectual theft. The plagiarism act takes someone else’s intellectual property and makes it their own.

In a sense, a plagiarizer is reaching into another’s brain and stealing that person’s ideas. We made the point (in our paper) that plagiarism may occur by “ignorance, sloppy authorship, or lack of knowledge about proper sourcing.”

How or why plagiarism occurs generally is not the overall concern. Yes, intent is hard to prove if a person didn’t mean to plagiarize. Given the availability of plagiarism technological tools, the intent to not plagiarize has gotten far less defensible than it was a few years ago.

Where the line about plagiarism gets even more blurry is that certain societies and cultures see nothing wrong copying someone else’s work (and not citing it) as the highest honor someone can give to another. This opinion prevails in many Eastern cultures and is accepted there today as a sign of respect. However, here in the United States and other westernized countries, it is not OK to do so without crediting the other person.

There is no doubt that plagiarism is a serious offense. If one is accused of plagiarism, the evidence is usually in black and white because everything is available on the internet. It takes only milliseconds to retrieve original work and compare it with something being accused of plagiarism.

It is best to avoid that accusation. You may not be asked to step down as the president of Harvard, but it may call into question the originality of your work.

Bob Stowers is a clinical associate professor emeritus at the Raymond A. Mason School of Business at William & Mary. Contact him at [email protected] .

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Harvard’s Plagiarism Problem Multiplies

Another administrator at the Ivy League university appears to have plagiarized her dissertation.

Harvard has a plagiarism problem. At the beginning of the year, Claudine Gay resigned as university president following a plagiarism scandal. Weeks later, the Washington Free Beacon published a report indicating that Harvard’s chief diversity officer, Sherri Ann Charleston, apparently plagiarized passages in multiple academic papers.

Now allegations have emerged that another Harvard DEI administrator, Shirley Greene, of Harvard Extension School, plagiarized more than 40 passages of her 2008 dissertation , “Converging Frameworks: Examining the Impact of Diversity-Related College Experiences on Racial/Ethnic Identity Development.” According to the Harvard directory, Greene is a Title IX coordinator affiliated with the Office for Gender Equity. She has worked to advance “Diversity, Inclusion, and Belonging,” and hosted a panel on “The Past, Present, and Future of Juneteenth” in conjunction with the DEI department. (Harvard did not respond to an emailed request for comment.)

The Harvard Crimson previously reported on the allegations against Greene, which a whistleblower lodged anonymously. I have obtained the full complaint , which paints a much more damning indictment of Greene’s scholarship than the student newspaper had let on. Seen in its entirety, the complaint raises serious questions about Greene’s scholarship and academic integrity.

In the most serious instance, Greene lifts directly from Janelle Lee Woo’s 2004 dissertation , “Chinese American Female Identity.” In two significant sections, Greene copied words, phrases, passages, and almost entire paragraphs verbatim, without proper attribution or quotation. She also copies most of an entire table on “Racial/Ethnic Identity Development Models,” a foundational concept in the paper, without acknowledging the source.

We can examine one representative paragraph that illustrates the brazen nature of this adaptation. In her paper, Woo writes:

Stage 2, White Identification (WI), is a direct consequence of the increase in significant contact between the individual and white society. This stage entails the sense of being different from other people and not belonging anywhere. The individual’s self-perception changes from neutral/positive to negative, and she begins to internalize the belief systems of white society. Consequently, the individual does not question what it means to be Asian American. The individual alienates herself from other Asian Americans, while simultaneously experiencing social alienation from her white peers. Only when the individual seeks to “acquire a political understanding of [her] social status” (Kim 1981: 138) does she enter into the next stage.

Here is Greene’s version, with the duplicated portions of Woo and Woo’s citations italicized:

White Identification (WI), is a direct consequence of the increase in significant contact between the individual and white society. Individuals in this stage have the sense of being different from other people and not belonging anywhere. Their self-perception changes from neutral/positive to negative and they begin to internalize the belief systems of white society. Consequently, the individual fails to question what it means to be Asian American and alienates themselves from other Asian Americans, while simultaneously experiencing social alienation from their white peers. In order to move to the next stage, the individual must acquire a political understanding of social status.

The complaint, which has been sent to Harvard’s research-integrity officials, features more than three dozen other examples of Greene allegedly lifting language from other scholars, without proper attribution or quotations. For another typical example, we can compare a passage from Anthony Antonio’s paper, “Developing Leadership Skills for Diversity,” with Greene’s dissertation.

Here is Antonio’s original text:

Astin found that independent of students' entering characteristics and different types of college environments, frequent interracial interaction in college was associated with increases in cultural awareness, commitment to racial understanding, commitment to cleaning up the environment, and higher levels of academic development (critical thinking skills, analytical skills, general and specific knowledge, and writing skills) and satisfaction with college.

Compare this with Greene’s dissertation, which copies the entire paragraph verbatim, adds the word “ethnic,” and, though it cites the source, does not include quotation marks. Here is Greene, with italics added to mark the plagiarized content:

Astin found that independent of students’ entering characteristics and different types of college environments, frequent interracial interaction in college was associated with increases in cultural awareness, commitment to racial/ethnic understanding, commitment to cleaning up the environment, and higher levels of academic development (critical thinking skills, analytical skills, general and specific knowledge, and writing skills) and satisfaction with college.

In total, the complaint identifies dozens of such passages in Greene’s dissertation, ranging from minor infringements to what appears to be outright theft of concepts and language. Most of these instances would appear to violate Harvard’s own plagiarism policy , which states: “If you copy language word for word from another source and use that language in your paper, you are plagiarizing  verbatim … you  must  give credit to the author of the source material, either by placing the source material in quotation marks and providing a clear citation, or by paraphrasing the source material and providing a clear citation.”

In its initial report, the Crimson chose to downplay these violations and focus on the fact that the complaint against Greene “marks the third set of anonymous plagiarism allegations against Black women who hold or held leadership positions at Harvard.” The implication, of course, is that the anonymous critics are motivated by racism—which other commentators have made explicit in defending Gay, Charleston, and Greene.

This should sound familiar. For years, America’s elite institutions have maintained the convenient fiction that all racial disparities can be explained by racism, not disparities in behavior. For the subjects of Harvard’s plagiarism scandal, however, another plausible explanation exists: namely, that academics who focus on DEI and advocate lower standards for “oppressed” racial groups might hold themselves to lower standards of academic integrity than academics in more legitimate disciplines.

Regardless of the cause, Harvard should ask itself a simple question: how did so many alleged plagiarists rise to positions of power at the nation’s most prestigious university? If Harvard officials believe that they can shrug off the university’s growing plagiarism crisis, they should know that this may just be the beginning. My sources indicate that many more allegations may be coming.

Christopher F. Rufo  is a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute, a contributing editor of  City Journal , and the author of  America’s Cultural Revolution .

Photo by: Sergi Reboredo/VW Pics/Universal Images Group via Getty Images

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At Harvard, Some Wonder What It Will Take to Stop the Spiral

At a summit of university presidents, the talk was about Harvard and its plummeting reputation.

The Widener Memorial Library in Harvard Yard, with its wide entrance.

By Anemona Hartocollis

When 70 university presidents gathered for a summit at the end of January, the topic on everyone’s mind was the crisis at Harvard.

The hosts of the summit treated the university, battered by accusations of coddling antisemitism, as a business-school case study on leadership in higher education, complete with a slide presentation on its plummeting reputation.

The killer slide: “Boeing & Tesla Have Similar Levels of Negative Buzz as Harvard.”

In other words, Harvard, a centuries-old symbol of academic excellence, was generating as much negative attention as an airplane manufacturer that had a door panel drop from the sky and a car company with a mercurial chief executive and multiple recalls.

Jeffrey Sonnenfeld, a professor at Yale’s School of Management, organized the summit. “Despite near 400 years of history, the value of brand equity is nowhere near as permanent as Harvard trustees think it is,” he said in an interview. “There used to be a term in the industry of something being the Cadillac of the industry. Well, Cadillac itself is, you know, sadly not the Cadillac of the industry anymore.”

Many of the presidents attending the summit saw the erosion of Harvard’s brand as a problem not only for the school, but also by extension for the entire enterprise of higher education. If Harvard could not protect itself, then what about every other institution? Could Harvard’s leadership find an effective response?

There was a hint of a more assertive approach by Harvard on Monday, when the university announced that it was investigating “deeply offensive antisemitic tropes” posted on social media by pro-Palestinian student and faculty groups. The groups had posted or reposted material containing an old cartoon of a puppeteer, his hand marked by a dollar sign inside a Star of David, lynching Muhammad Ali and Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Harvard took the action at a time when the House Committee on Education and the Workforce has begun to scrutinize its record on antisemitism. On Friday, the committee issued subpoenas to Harvard’s interim president, the head of the school’s governing board and its investment manager, in a wide-ranging hunt for documents relating to the university’s handling of campus antisemitism claims. The threat of the subpoenas led PEN America, a writers’ group that defends academic freedom, to warn against a fishing expedition.

There is also a lawsuit against Harvard, calling the university “a bastion of rampant anti-Jewish hatred and harassment,” as well as federal investigations into charges that the university ignored both antisemitism and Islamophobia on campus.

Corporate executives and major donors, including the hedge fund executive Ken Griffin , have threatened to withhold money and to refrain from hiring Harvard students who defended atrocities committed by Hamas in attacking Israel on Oct. 7. Right-wing media outlets and anonymous researchers continue to make plagiarism claims against university officials, as part of an attack on diversity, equity and inclusion programs.

There is already evidence of reputational damage: a 17 percent drop in the number of students applying to Harvard for early admission decisions this year. Other Ivy League schools saw increases.

The attacks “have obviously unsettled Harvard, in terms of its highest leadership,” said Randall Kennedy, a Harvard law professor. “They have undermined morale. It has been a very effective attack.”

Inside Harvard, faculty members and students are looking for some signal from university officials, including the main governing board, the Harvard Corporation, about its future direction.

In an interview last week with Harvard magazine, Alan Garber, the university’s interim president, outlined some efforts to relieve the tension by enforcing rules against disruptive demonstrations and offering a series of events meant to encourage dialogue rather than conflict among students and faculty members.

Those are good moves, said Dara Horn, a novelist who served last year on a committee to advise Harvard’s president on how to combat antisemitism. She had observed that many students did not engage with people they disagreed with, and did not know how.

“That attitude is the end of education,” said Dr. Horn, who has published an article about her experience at Harvard in The Atlantic. “To me, that’s sort of like the baseline thing.”

Alex Bernat, a Harvard junior and board member of Chabad, a Jewish student group, said on Tuesday that the university’s swift response to the antisemitic posts this week was a good sign. But he worried that some members of a pro-Palestinian faculty group that reposted the antisemitic material had power over Jewish and Israeli students’ academic careers.

The groups that had posted the material removed it on Monday and said their apparent endorsement of antisemitic imagery was inadvertent.

Even so, the Harvard Corporation has been relatively quiet, other than to confirm that its leader, Penny Pritzker, a philanthropist and former Obama administration official, would stay on and conduct a new presidential search, just as she led the one that chose the previous president, Claudine Gay.

The Corporation has drawn criticism for its selection and support of Dr. Gay, who resigned on Jan. 2 after an uproar over her testimony to Congress that calling for the genocide of Jews was not necessarily a violation of Harvard’s code of conduct, depending on the context.

The Corporation has been faulted for not acting more quickly to address the matter, “letting the university twist in the wind,” as Steven Pinker, an outspoken psychology professor, put it in an interview. (He was quick to note that he had not called for Dr. Gay’s ouster.)

Among some members of the faculty, though, there is a sense that the university may go too far in appeasing its critics.

At the December congressional hearing that doomed Dr. Gay, Virginia Foxx, a North Carolina Republican, singled out a class at Harvard, “Race and Racism in the Making of the United States as a Global Power,” as an example of “ideology at work.”

The teacher of that class, Khalil Gibran Muhammad, said the charge was “absurd,” and that the class includes readings on the history of antisemitism in the United States. He said he was concerned that new conduct rules adopted in September, prohibiting discrimination by “political beliefs,” would lead students to complain if, like Dr. Foxx, they objected to the content of his classes.

“Prominent Black folks at this university do have reasons to worry” that their credentials will be questioned, he said.

In the fraught atmosphere, good intentions have sometimes led to problems.

Harvard’s decision to create task forces on antisemitism and Islamophobia on campus — usually the most anodyne of institutional responses — ran into trouble in late January, after Derek Penslar, a prominent scholar of Jewish studies, was tapped to co-chair the antisemitism task force.

Critics objected to his appointment, citing an open letter signed by Dr. Penslar and other academics and published before the Oct. 7 attacks, accusing Israel of being “a regime of apartheid.” The critics scoffed at his remarks, quoted in the Jewish press, saying that the degree of antisemitism at Harvard had been exaggerated.

Harvard’s failure to anticipate the skeptical response to Dr. Penslar’s appointment points to a leadership that is too insular, according to David Wolpe, a prominent rabbi and visiting scholar at Harvard’s divinity school.

“There’s an inability of the university to see how it would be seen, and there’s a maladroitness that is dispiriting to many of the Jewish students and faculty and staff,” Rabbi Wolpe said.

Dr. Penslar, who remains co-chair of the task force, declined to comment for this article. His supporters bristled at what they saw as facile criticism of a respected scholar.

“For him to be vetoed, from the outside, for expressing his views — particularly given that they’re pretty mainstream views — is just a terrible, terrible precedent,” said Steven Levitsky, a professor of Latin American studies and government at Harvard. Contrary to the public portrayal, Dr. Penslar is “a self-avowed Zionist,” Dr. Levitsky said.

Some alumni are trying to shake things up. Several independent candidates mounted a campaign for seats on Harvard’s Board of Overseers, the university’s second governing body. The candidates failed to gather enough petition signatures to get on the ballot, but have vowed to keep pushing.

One of those candidates, Sam Lessin, a 2005 Harvard graduate and venture capitalist, said the election process itself exposed the issues with leadership.

Harvard’s governance system is “almost like a peacetime organization,” not suited to navigating troubled waters, he said. Candidates for the Board of Overseers are normally nominated through the alumni association, and the position is often perceived as “a glorified reward for being a booster.”

Some faculty members are also organizing. About 170 Harvard professors have joined a council on academic freedom, co-founded last spring by Dr. Pinker, to counter what he describes as “an intellectual monoculture.”

Dr. Pinker believes that if Harvard had adopted a policy of institutional neutrality and refrained from taking stands on vexing issues of the day, some of the agony of recent months might have been avoided.

“Universities should get out of the habit of giving mini-sermons every time there’s an event in the news,” he said.

Dr. Pinker has made a puckish hobby of collecting headlines and cartoons that make fun of Harvard’s reputational troubles. A bumper sticker in his collection says, “My son didn’t go to Harvard.”

For all that, though, Harvard “still has the brand, it has the legacy,” Dr. Pinker said. “Whether it’ll get back on track, I don’t know. I suspect it will.”

Stephanie Saul contributed reporting. Sheelagh McNeill contributed research.

Anemona Hartocollis is a national reporter for The Times, covering higher education. More about Anemona Hartocollis

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  • Reference a Website in Harvard Style | Templates & Examples

Reference a Website in Harvard Style | Templates & Examples

Published on 19 May 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 7 November 2022.

To reference a website in Harvard style , include the name of the author or organization, the year of publication, the title of the page, the URL, and the date on which you accessed the website.

Different formats are used for other kinds of online source, such as articles, social media posts and multimedia content. You can generate accurate Harvard references for all kinds of sources with our free reference generator:

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Table of contents

Online articles, social media posts, images, videos and podcasts, referencing websites with missing information, frequently asked questions about harvard website references.

Blog posts and online newspaper articles are both referenced in the same format: include the title of the article in quotation marks, the name of the blog or newspaper in italics, and the date of publication.

The format for a magazine article is slightly different. Instead of a precise date, include the month, season, or volume and issue number, depending on what the magazine uses to identify its issues.

The URL and access date information are included only when the article is online-exclusive.

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To reference posts from social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, include the username and the platform in square brackets. Write usernames the way they appear on the platform, with the same capitalization and symbols.

If the post has a title, use it (in quotation marks). If the post is untitled, use the text of the post instead. Do not use italics. If the text is long, you can replace some of it with an ellipsis.

Online content is referenced differently if it is in video, audio or image form.

To cite an image found online, such as an artwork, photograph, or infographic, include the image format (e.g. ‘Photograph’, ‘Oil on canvas’) in square brackets.

Online videos, such as those on YouTube, Instagram, Vimeo and Dailymotion, are cited similarly to general web pages. Where a video is uploaded under the name of an individual, write the name in the usual format. Otherwise, write the username of the uploader as it appears on the site.

If you want to locate a specific point in a video in an in-text citation, you can do so using a timestamp.

For a podcast reference, you just need the name of the individual episode, not of the whole series. The word ‘Podcast’ is always included in square brackets. As with videos, you can use a timestamp to locate a specific point in the in-text citation.

Online sources are often missing information you would usually need for a citation: author, title or date. Here’s what to do when these details are not available.

When a website doesn’t list a specific individual author, you can usually find a corporate author to list instead. This is the organisation responsible for the source:

In cases where there’s no suitable corporate author (such as online dictionaries or Wikis), use the title of the source in the author position instead:

In Harvard style, when a source doesn’t list a specific date of publication, replace it with the words ‘no date’ in both the in-text citation and the reference list. You should still include an access date:

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

It’s important to assess the reliability of information found online. Look for sources from established publications and institutions with expertise (e.g. peer-reviewed journals and government agencies).

The CRAAP test (currency, relevance, authority, accuracy, purpose) can aid you in assessing sources, as can our list of credible sources . You should generally avoid citing websites like Wikipedia that can be edited by anyone – instead, look for the original source of the information in the “References” section.

You can generally omit page numbers in your in-text citations of online sources which don’t have them. But when you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a particularly long online source, it’s useful to find an alternate location marker.

For text-based sources, you can use paragraph numbers (e.g. ‘para. 4’) or headings (e.g. ‘under “Methodology”’). With video or audio sources, use a timestamp (e.g. ‘10:15’).

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

A Harvard in-text citation should appear in brackets every time you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source.

The citation can appear immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence. If you’re quoting, place the citation outside of the quotation marks but before any other punctuation like a comma or full stop.

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If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, November 07). Reference a Website in Harvard Style | Templates & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 26 February 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-website-reference/

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Translation of the V. I. Arnold paper "From Superpositions to KAM Theory" (Vladimir Igorevich Arnold. Selected — 60, Moscow: PHASIS, 1997, pp. 727-740)

  • Sevryuk, Mikhail B.

V. I. Arnold (12 June 1937-3 June 2010) published several papers where he described, in the form of recollections, his two earliest research problems (superpositions of continuous functions and quasi-periodic motions in dynamical systems), the main results and their interrelations: [A1], then [A2] (reprinted as [A4, A6]), and [A3] (translated into English by the author as [A5]). The first exposition [A1] has never been translated into English; however, it contains many details absent in the subsequent articles. It seems therefore that publishing the English translation of the paper [A1] would not be superfluous. What follows is this translation. In many cases, the translator gives complete bibliographic descriptions of various papers mentioned briefly in the original Russian text. The English translations of papers in Russian are also pointed out where possible. A related material is contained also in Arnold's recollections "On A.N. Kolmogorov". Slightly different versions of these reminiscences were published several times in Russian and English [A7-A12]. The early history of KAM theory is also discussed in detail in the recent brilliant semi-popular book [A13].

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COMMENTS

  1. Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting

    Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting Depending on the conventions of your discipline, you may have to decide whether to summarize a source, paraphrase a source, or quote from a source. Scholars in the humanities tend to summarize, paraphrase, and quote texts; social scientists and natural scientists rely primarily on summary and paraphrase.

  2. Paraphrasing

    Write it Right - A guide to Harvard referencing style What is Paraphrasing? Paraphrasing is expressing someone else's writing in your own choice of words, while keeping the same essential meaning. As Pears and Shields (2019, p.

  3. Quoting, paraphrasing and summarising

    Paraphrasing Summarising Quoting is copying a short section of text, word for word, directly from an information source into your work. 1. Short quotes should: have double quotation marks at the beginning and end of the text be followed with the in-text citation have ellipses (...) if you omit part of the text. An example of a short quotation:

  4. In-Text Citations

    You should use parenthetical citations when you paraphrase, quote, or make any reference to another author's work. A parenthetical citation in APA style includes the author's last name as well as the year in which the work was published, with a comma between them.

  5. Harvard In-Text Citation

    An in-text citation should appear wherever you quote or paraphrase a source in your writing, pointing your reader to the full reference. In Harvard style, citations appear in brackets in the text. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author, the year of publication, and a page number if relevant.

  6. LibGuides: Harvard Referencing: Summarising/Paraphrasing

    Original text 'A lifecycle inventory study confirmed that the use of the b-pak produces lower environmental burdens than a glass wine bottle.' Example of a paraphrase A b-pak is a more environmentally friendly container for wine than the traditional bottle (Evans 2007, p. 130). OR

  7. Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)

    You need to include an in-text citation wherever you quote or paraphrase from a source. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author (s), the year of publication, and a page number if relevant. There are a number of ways of incorporating in-text citations into your work - some examples are provided below.

  8. LibGuides: Harvard Style: Paraphrasing and Summarising

    To paraphrase is to communicate the author's work in your own words and to acknowledge the source: Used to rewrite text in your own words Used to clarify meaning Used to shorten a longer statement, but keep the main ideas Giving credit to the original author of the idea Elements of a good paraphrase: Change the structure of the original passage

  9. Cite Them Right

    Paraphrasing (Harvard) When you paraphrase, you express someone else's writing in your own words, usually to achieve greater clarity. This is an alter

  10. A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing

    A Harvard in-text citation appears in brackets beside any quotation or paraphrase of a source. It gives the last name of the author (s) and the year of publication, as well as a page number or range locating the passage referenced, if applicable:

  11. Paraphrasing and Direct Quotations

    List the name (s) of the author (s) and the date of publication directly after the paraphrase. Example (see above): Miller et al., 2010. Direct Quote A Direct Quote is when you take an actual segment of text from another source and reproduce it word for word in your assignment.

  12. PDF Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing Sources

    Summarizing Sources Direct quotes are probably what most people think of first as a way to use academic evidence. In the U.S. we often teach children to support an argument by quoting directly from the text. However, the most common way to cite evidence as an academic is not quoting directly, but paraphrasing or summarizing.

  13. Paraphrasing

    [Harvard style] The text in italics above has been written by Martha Nussbaum. I want to paraphrase it so I can use it in my own work. Here are some examples, showing the stages or drafts. Stage or draft 1 Children who develop a capacity for sympathy or compassion - understand what their aggression has done to another separate person.

  14. FREE Harvard Referencing Generator

    While in-text citations are used to briefly indicate where you have directly quoted or paraphrased a source, your reference list is an alphabetized list of complete Harvard citations that enables your reader to locate each source with ease.

  15. Free Harvard Referencing Generator

    Autocite Search for your source by title, URL, DOI, ISBN, and more to retrieve the relevant information automatically. Cite Them Right 12th ed. Scribbr's Harvard Referencing Generator supports the most commonly used versions: Cite Them Right (12th edition). Export to Bib (La)TeX

  16. Free Harvard Referencing Generator [Updated for 2024]

    Generate Harvard references automatically with our fast and free Harvard reference generator. Get correctly formatted references for books, websites, journals and more!

  17. FREE Harvard Referencing Generator & Guide

    The Cite This For Me Harvard referencing generator above will create your references in the Harvard - Cite Them Right (10th Edition) format as standard, but it can auto-generate references in 7,000+ styles. So, whether your professor has asked you to adopt APA referencing, or your discipline requires you to use OSCOLA referencing, Vancouver ...

  18. How to reference an article in Harvard referencing style

    The name of the author in a newspaper article is referred to as a byline. Below are examples for citing an article both with and without a byline. Reference list (print) structure: Last name, F. (Year published). 'Article title', Newspaper name, Day Month, Page (s). Example: Hamilton, J. (2018).

  19. What is plagiarism? Why is it a problem?

    Students are advised to use quotes for exact phrases and to attribute the words to the other published work, when necessary, and to cite, cite, cite any words paraphrased or research and words ...

  20. Harvard's Plagiarism Problem Multiplies

    Harvard has a plagiarism problem. At the beginning of the year, Claudine Gay resigned as university president following a plagiarism scandal. Weeks later, the Washington Free Beacon published a report indicating that Harvard's chief diversity officer, Sherri Ann Charleston, apparently plagiarized passages in multiple academic papers.. Now allegations have emerged that another Harvard DEI ...

  21. At Harvard, Some Wonder What It Will Take to Stop the Spiral

    Harvard took the action at a time when the House Committee on Education and the Workforce has begun to ... citing an open letter signed by Dr. Penslar and other academics and published before the ...

  22. Harvard condemns antisemitic image circulated by pro-Palestinian ...

    Harvard University and its interim president have condemned an image circulated on social media by campus groups supporting Palestinians in the current war in Gaza, prompting the groups to remove ...

  23. Reference a Website in Harvard Style

    Revised on 7 November 2022. To reference a website in Harvard style, include the name of the author or organization, the year of publication, the title of the page, the URL, and the date on which you accessed the website. In-text citation example. (Google, 2020) Reference template. Author surname, initial.

  24. A Review of: "Heat Transfer", 3rd ed., by V. P. Isachenko, V. A

    Export Citation NASA/ADS. A Review of: "Heat Transfer", 3rd ed., by V. P. Isachenko, V. A. Osipova, and A. S. Sukomel Translated into English from the Russian by S. Semyonov Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1981, 493 pages, $13.00 ... adshelp[at]cfa.harvard.edu The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative ...

  25. Translation of the V. I. Arnold paper "From Superpositions to KAM

    V. I. Arnold (12 June 1937-3 June 2010) published several papers where he described, in the form of recollections, his two earliest research problems (superpositions of continuous functions and quasi-periodic motions in dynamical systems), the main results and their interrelations: [A1], then [A2] (reprinted as [A4, A6]), and [A3] (translated into English by the author as [A5]). The first ...

  26. Moscow: Governing the Socialist Metropolis

    Timothy J. Colton Morris and Anna Feldberg Professor of Government and Russian Studies and Faculty Associate at Davis Center. Harvard University, 1730 Cambridge Street Cambridge, MA 02138, 617-495-4345

  27. Mr. Xi Goes to Moscow

    In this piece, Nick Burns discusses the significance of Chinese President Xi Jinping's trip to Moscow as his choice first trip overseas as president, and what message it sends to the world.