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How to Cite Shakespeare in MLA | Format & Examples
Published on January 22, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on June 16, 2022.
The works of Shakespeare, like many plays , have consistently numbered acts, scenes, and lines. These numbers should be used in your MLA in-text citations, separated by periods, instead of page numbers.
The Works Cited entry follows the format for a book , but varies depending on whether you cite from a standalone edition or a collection. The example below is for a standalone edition of Hamlet .
If you cite multiple Shakespeare plays in your paper, replace the author’s name with an abbreviation of the play title in your in-text citation.
Table of contents
Citing a play from a collection, citing multiple shakespeare plays, quoting shakespeare in mla, frequently asked questions about mla citations.
If you use a collection of all or several of Shakespeare’s works, include a Works Cited entry for each work you cite from it, providing the title of the individual work, followed by information about the collection.
Note that play titles remain italicized here, since these are works that would usually stand alone.
If you cite several works by Shakespeare , order them alphabetically by title, and replace “Shakespeare, William” with a series of three em dashes after the first one.
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If you cite more than one Shakespeare play in your paper, MLA recommends starting each in-text citation with an abbreviated version of the play title, in italics. A list of the standard abbreviations can be found here ; don’t make up your own abbreviations.
Introduce each abbreviation the first time you mention the play’s title, then use it in all subsequent citations of that play.
Don’t use these abbreviations outside of parentheses. If you frequently mention a multi-word title in your text, you can instead shorten it to a recognizable keyword (e.g. Midsummer for A Midsummer Night’s Dream ) after the first mention.
Shakespeare quotations generally take the form of verse or dialogue .
To quote up to three lines of verse from a play or poem, just treat it like a normal quotation. Use a forward slash (/) with spaces around it to indicate a new line.
If there’s a stanza break within the quotation, indicate it with a double forward slash (//).
If you are quoting more than three lines of verse, format it as a block quote (indented on a new line with no quotation marks).
Dialogue from two or more characters should be presented as a block quote.
Include the characters’ names in block capitals, followed by a period, and use a hanging indent for subsequent lines in a single character’s speech. Place the citation after the closing punctuation.
Oberon berates Robin Goodfellow for his mistake:
No, do not use page numbers in your MLA in-text citations of Shakespeare plays . Instead, specify the act, scene, and line numbers of the quoted material, separated by periods, e.g. (Shakespeare 3.2.20–25).
This makes it easier for the reader to find the relevant passage in any edition of the text.
If you cite multiple Shakespeare plays throughout your paper, the MLA in-text citation begins with an abbreviated version of the title (as shown here ), e.g. ( Oth. 1.2.4). Each play should have its own Works Cited entry (even if they all come from the same collection).
If you cite only one Shakespeare play in your paper, you should include a Works Cited entry for that play, and your in-text citations should start with the author’s name , e.g. (Shakespeare 1.1.4).
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How to Cite Shakespeare in MLA
Last Updated: March 5, 2023 Fact Checked
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Citing Shakespeare in MLA style can be tricky, as you may not be sure how to cite the act, verse, and line numbers, rather than page numbers. To follow MLA style, you will need to properly format any quotes from Shakespeare in the text and use in-text citations accordingly. You should also cite Shakespeare in the bibliography at the end of your paper. Whether you are citing Shakespeare in MLA for a paper for class or an essay for a reading assignment, you can get the citations right with just a few steps.
Formatting Shakespeare Quotes in Text
- For example, you may write, “Prospero feels doomed by his decision, stating: ‘Hell is empty.’”
- For example, you may write, “In the play, Prospero refers to the temporality of life, noting: ‘We are such stuff as dreams are made on/and our little life is rounded with a sleep.’”
Full fathom five thy father lies; Of his bones are coral made; Those are pearls that were his eyes: Nothing of him that doth fade, But doth suffer a sea-change Into something rich and strange. Sea-nymphs hourly ring his knell: Ding-dong Hark! now I hear them,—Ding-dong, bell."
ANTONIO. Let's all sink wi' th' king. SEBASTIAN. Let's take leave of him."
Creating an In-Text Citation
- For example, you may write, “Prospero feels doomed by his decision, stating: ‘Hell is empty/and all the devils are here.’ (1.2.15-16.)”
ANTONIO. Let's all sink wi' th' king. SEBASTIAN. Let's take leave of him. (1.1.4-5)"
- You can find a complete list of abbreviations for the titles of Shakespeare’s plays on Internet Shakespeare Editions: http://internetshakespeare.uvic.ca/Foyer/guidelines/abbreviations/ .
- If you are only discussing one play by Shakespeare in your paper and you refer to the play once already in your paper, you do not need to include an abbreviation of the title in subsequent citations.
- For example, you may write a citation from Macbeth as, “A good example of foreshadowing is spoken by the second witch, ‘By the pricking of my thumbs,/Something wicked this way comes.’ ( Mac . 4.1.57-58)”
- Or, if you have already referred to the play once, you leave the “Mac” out of the citation, using just the numbers, “(4.1.57-58).”
- For example, you may write, “A good example of foreshadowing is spoken by the second witch, ‘By the pricking of my thumbs,/Something wicked this way comes.’ (4.1.57-58.)” This means the quotation comes from Act 4, scene 1, lines 57-58.
- For example, you may write, “In 4.1, the second witch provides a few lines of foreshadowing.”
Citing Shakespeare in a Bibliography
- For example, you may write, “Shakespeare, William. The Tempest .”
- For example, you may write, “Ed. Tucker Brooke” or “Ed. John Keene and Lawrence Mason.”
- For example, you may write, “New Haven, Yale University Press, 1947.”
- For example, the complete citation would be: “Shakespeare, William. The Tempest . Ed. Tucker Brooke. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1947. Print.”
- For example, you may write, “Furness, Horace Howard, ed. The Tempest . By William Shakespeare. New York, Dover, 1964. Print.”
- For example, if you were citing an anthology with one volume, you would write, “Shakespeare, William. Macbeth . The Riverside Shakespeare. Ed. G. Blakemore Evans. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1974. 1306-42. Print.”
- For an anthology with more than one volume, you would note the volume number you accessed: “Shakespeare, William. As You Like It . The Annotated Shakespeare. Ed. A. L. Rowse. Vol. 1. New York, Clarkson N. Potter, 1978. 334-89. Print.”
You Might Also Like
- ↑ https://www.southplainscollege.edu/exploreprograms/artsandsciences/english/HowtoCiteShakespeareinMLA.pdf
- ↑ http://drmarkwomack.com/mla-style/how-to-quote/quote-shakespeare/
- ↑ https://penandthepad.com/correct-way-cite-shakespearean-works-4219.html
- ↑ http://web.lsue.edu/docs/library/MLA-PLAY.pdf
About This Article
To cite Shakespeare in a bibliography using MLA format, list “Shakespeare, William” as the author and follow with the full title of the play in italics. Include the name of the editor by writing “Ed.” and then the editor’s full name. Write the city where the text was published, the name of the publisher, and the year of publication. Finally, list the medium of the play, such as “Print” or “Web,” depending on how you accessed the play. For more guidance, including how to create an in-text citation and format Shakespeare quotes, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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Q. When citing a line from Shakespeare in an essay, I note the reference following the quotation. Do I include a bibliography with the cite, too?
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Answered By: Katie Hutchison Last Updated: Dec 04, 2018 Views: 36495
Yes, you should do a bibliographic entry for the work as well.
Shakespearean citations look a little different than a typical in-text citation. Follow the below guidelines:
1. List the abbreviation for the title of the play you are citing. The MLA lists abbreviations for all plays; see the reference list of this article for more information. The abbreviation for the title of the play should appear in italics.
2. List the act, scene and lines that you are referring to. These should be separated by periods. Enclose your citation in parentheses. For example: (Mac. 1.3.14-17) refers to Act 1, Scene 3, Lines 14 to 17 of "Macbeth."
3. Omit the abbreviation for the title if the play you are referring to is clear from the context of your paper. In this case, the citation would simply appear as follows: (1.3.14-17)
4. Format your reference list entry in the following format: Author. Title of Play. Name of Editor. City of Publication, Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication. For example: Shakespeare, William. Macbeth . Ed. James Smith. Boston, English Play Press, 2010. Print. Be sure to italicize the name of the play.
1. List "Shakespeare" as the author's name, followed by a comma.
2. List the year of translation, followed by a comma, if translated. For example: trans. 2010,
3. List the act, scene, and lines you are citing, separated by periods. For example: 1.3.14-17
4. Enclose the entire citation within parentheses. For example: (Shakespeare, trans. 2010, 1.3.14-17). Only use this if the play you are citing is obvious and has been mentioned in your paper. If the play appears in the original Shakespearean English, you need only give the year of publication. In this case, omit "trans." from your citation. For example: (Shakespeare, 2010, 1.3.14-17).
5. Format your reference list entry in the following format: Author. (Year). Title. (Translator.). City, State of Publication: Publisher. (Original work published year). For example: Shakespeare, W. (2010). Macbeth. (B. Smith, Trans.). Boston, MA: English Play Press. (Original work published 1699). Be sure to italicize the name of the play. If the publication appears in the original Shakespearean, omit translation information from your citation. For example: Shakespeare, W. (2010). Macbeth. Boston, MA: English Play Press. (Original work published 1699).
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General information about MLA and Shakespeare
Italicize the titles of the plays – Macbeth (for the play), Macbeth (for the character)
You may abbreviate the title of the play in the parenthetical citation ( check with your teacher first )
- Macbeth – Mac.
- Hamlet – Ham.
- Usually use Arabic numbers (1.5.4-5) or (2.1.110-13)
- Some teachers still prefer Roman numerals (II.iv.4-6)
- If author’s name mentioned in the text, only put the page number in parentheses, otherwise (author’s last name #).
- If there are no different sources between quotes – can use (#)
In-text citations - short quotes
Quotes longer than three lines should begin on a new line.
- if one line, put it in quotation marks within your text:
- If two or three lines, include the quote within your text but use the forward slash to indicate the separate verses:
One Shakespearean protagonist seems resolute at first when he asserts, “Haste me to know’t, that I, with wings as swift / As meditation … / May sweep to my revenge” ( Hamlet 1.5.35-37).
(notice the forward slash is separated from the text by spaces. the ellipsis ... is used to indicate that some of the text was not included)
In-text citations - long quotes or dialogue
Direct quotes (long quotes or dialogue) – Quotations four lines or more or dialogue are formatted with a block quote. Set the quotation off from your text. Indent one inch (2.54 cm.) for left margin. Capitalize the character’s name, followed by a period. Indent all subsequent lines an addition ¼ inch (.64 cm):
POLONIUS. Well be with you, gentlemen!
HAMLET. Hark you, Guildenstern, and you too! At each ear a hearer. That great
baby you see there is not yet out of his swaddling-clouts. ( Ham. 2.2.383-386)
In-text Citation: Citing an Indirect Source (Quoting a Source in a Source)
If there are no page numbers on the electronic source, use only the author name or the first main word of the title. However, you can indicate where the material came from in your text.
There are occasions where you may find a source that quotes another source that you want to use in your paper. Ideally, you would find the original source to ensure you understand the context of the quote. If you do decide to use the quote from the source you are using, however, you must recognize both sources . For example, in the Critical Insights series, we have a popular book of critical analysis called Things for Apart. One of the chapters, written by Amy Sickels, is entitled "The Critical Reception of Things Fall Apart." In her essay, she quotes Keith M. Booker. This is the quote you decide you want to use:
Booker makes the point that the "African novel is always a complex hybrid cultural phenomenon that combines Western and African cultural perspectives" (qtd. in Sickels 43).
The citation in the Works Cited page (remember you need a hanging indent):
Sickels, Amy. “The Critical Reception of Things Fall Apar t." Things Fall Apart , edited by M. Keith Booker, Salem Press, 2011, pp. 33-52.
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There is perhaps no better-known writer in history than William Shakespeare, the English playwright whose works have been acted and reenacted perhaps millions of times throughout their storied history. So how can you create a reference to one of Shakespeare’s works in your next research paper? Here are some tips for making your citation as accurate as possible.
To cite a play by Shakespeare, you’ll want to locate the following pieces of information:
- The play’s title
- Where and when the play was published (a book, anthology, etc.)
- Where and when the play was performed (if you are citing it as a performance)
- Any other contributors’ names (the director, actors, editors, authors, etc.)
As an example, let’s take a look at one of Shakespeare’s most famous plays, Romeo and Juliet, and how you would go about citing it in some of the most popular citation formats.
We have included examples for citing the play as both a published work in an anthology or book, and as a performance.
Cite as an Anthology
Citing shakespeare in in mla format (in an anthology).
Shakespeare, William. Play Title . Book/Anthology Title , edited by Editor First Name Last Name, Publisher, Year Published, pp. #-#.
Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. The Riverside Shakespeare , edited by G. Blakemore Evans, Houghton Mifflin, 1974, pp. 1307-42.
Citing Shakespeare in APA format (in an anthology)
Author’s last name, first initial. (Year published). Title . In First Initial. Editor Last Name (Ed.), Title of larger work/collection. Publisher city, state/country: Publisher.
Shakespeare, W. (1974). Romeo and Juliet. In G. Evans (Ed.), The riverside Shakespeare. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.
Citing Shakespeare in Harvard* format (in an anthology)
Author’s last name, first initial. (Year published). Title . In Editor Last Name, First Initial (ed.) Title of book/anthology. Publisher city, state/country: Publisher, pp. #-#
Shakespeare, W. (1974) Romeo and Juliet. In Evans, G. (ed.) The riverside Shakespeare. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin, pp. 1307-42.
Are you citing several sources in this citation style? Try the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing generator for help!
Cite as a Performance
Citing shakespeare in mla format (as a performance).
Author Last Name, First Name. Play Title. Directed by Director First Name Last Name, Name of Play Production Company, Date of Performance, Name of Theater, Theater Location.
Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet . Directed by Jonathan Munby, Shakespeare Globe Trust Performers, 1 Oct. 2017, American Airlines Theatre, New York City.
Is your teacher asking for annotations? Read this guide about what is an annotated bibliography .
Citing Shakespeare in APA format (as a performance)
Playwright Last Name, First Initial (Writer), & Director Last Name, First Initial (Director). (Date Seen). Performance title . Live performance at Theater Name, City, State.
Shakespeare, W. (Writer), & Munby, J. (Director). (2017, October 1). Romeo and Juliet. Live performance at the American Airlines Theatre, New York, NY.
For those who need it, here is page on how to do in-text citations . An APA example is included.
Citing Shakespeare in Harvard* format (as a performance)
Play title by Playwright First Name Last Name (Year of Performance) Directed by Director First Name Last Name [Name of Theater, Location of Theater. Day Month of performance].
Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare (2017) Directed by Jonathan Munby [American Airlines Theatre, New York. 1 October].
*These examples adhere to style rules in Harvard Cite Them Right 10 th edition
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How To Cite Shakespeare In MLA – Format With Examples
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For those engaged in academic pursuits involving his timeless plays and sonnets, understanding how to cite Shakespeare in MLA is essential. The MLA style offers a meticulous and standardized approach to referencing Shakespearean works, ensuring precision and consistency in acknowledging his literary genius. This article provides thorough explanations of the format of citing Shakespeare and gives multiple examples to help you understand how to cite Shakespeare in MLA.
- 1 In a nutshell: How to cite Shakespeare in MLA
- 2 Definition: How to cite Shakespeare in MLA
- 3 How to cite Shakespeare in MLA: Collection
- 4 How to cite Shakespeare in MLA: Multiple plays
- 5 How to cite Shakespeare in MLA: Quotations
In a nutshell: How to cite Shakespeare in MLA
- Cite Shakespeare in MLA using the act, verse, and line numbers instead of page numbers
- Use slashes (/) when quoting three or fewer verse lines, and set them as a block quote for more than three lines of verse.
- You must include the collection’s name, editor, and publisher if you are referencing the play from a collection or an anthology.
Definition: How to cite Shakespeare in MLA
Shakespeare’s works have numbered lines, scenes, and acts that you should use in your MLA citations instead of page numbers. The entries in the Works Cited section vary depending on the source you are citing. The table below shows how to cite Shakespeare in MLA.
How to cite Shakespeare in MLA: Collection
When referencing a collection of several or all of Shakespeare’s works but only citing one of them, you can specify the actual work in the Works Cited entry. You will need to provide the title of the specific work and information on the collection.
It is essential to note that since these works would usually be standalone, the titles are italicized . The table below shows how to cite Shakespeare in MLA for a play from a collection.
If you are citing numerous of Shakespeare’s works, arrange them by title, alphabetically. After the first “Shakespeare, William,” replace his name with s series of three em dashes .
How to cite Shakespeare in MLA: Multiple plays
If you are citing more than one of Shakespeare’s plays, MLA recommends starting every in-text citation with an italicized abbreviation of the play’s title.
The first time you use an abbreviation for a play’s title, introduce it thoroughly, and then you can use it in the following citations of the play.
Shakespeare’s Othello ( Oth. ) is a play about…( Oth. 2.6.49)
Below is an example of how to cite Shakespeare in MLA after the first mention when using a multi-word title.
Midsummer to replace A Midsummer Night’s Dream after you first mention it.
How to cite Shakespeare in MLA: Quotations
The guidelines on how to cite Shakespeare in MLA vary depending on the quotation type. i.e., a verse or a dialogue, as highlighted below.
Quoting a verse
Treat it like a typical quote if you are quoting up to three lines from a poem or play and use a forward slash to indicate a new line (/). Below is an example of how to cite Shakespeare in MLA for a verse of up to three lines.
Melun implores them to “Unthread the rude eye of rebellion, / And welcome home again discarded faith” ( Jn. 5.4.11–12).
Indicate a stanza break in the quotation using a double slash (//). Below is an example of how to cite Shakespeare in MLA when indicating a stanza break.
Shakespeare refers to a man who “desires to know / , in brief, the grounds and motives of her woe. // So slides he down upon his grainèd bat” ( LC 62–64).
If you are quoting a verse of four lines or more, you will need to format it as a block quote and indent the quotation. Below is an example of how to cite Shakespeare in MLA for a verse in four or more lines.
All the world’s a stage
And all the men and women merely players:
They have their exits and their entrances;
And one man in his time plays many parts,
His acts being seven ages ( AYL 2.7.138-42) .
The example above demonstrates how to cite Shakespeare in MLA while maintaining the original spacing.
Quoting a dialogue
Present dialogue from two or more characters as a block quote. Here are some guidelines on how to cite Shakespeare in MLA when quoting a dialogue:
- Start every part of the dialogue with the name of the character indented one inch from the left margin.
- Write the name in all capital letters.
- Write a period after the name, and then start the quotation
- For all subsequent lines in the speech of the character, indent them an extra quarter inch.
- Indent a new line an inch from the left margin whenever the dialogue has shifted to another character.
- Keep the pattern throughout the entire quotation.
The example below shows how to cite Shakespeare in MLA when quoting a dialogue.
How to cite multiple Shakespeare plays in MLA?
If you’re citing multiple Shakespeare plays, start the in-text citation with an abbreviation of the title and ensure that you give each play its entry in the Works Cited section.
How to cite Shakespeare in MLA for more than two lines?
Use a forward slash (/) if the lines are in verse. However, if they are lines of prose, you do not need to separate them with a slash.
How to cite Shakespeare in MLA when using abbreviations?
The MLA style guide demonstrates how to cite Shakespeare in MLA when abbreviating the play’s name instead of shortening the title yourself.
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A Guide to Citing Shakespeare in Academic Writing
- Jun 24, 2021
- Academic Editing
- Proofreading Tips
- Referencing and Citations
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Are you confident when it comes to citing Shakespeare? Shakespeare’s plays are so influential that many style guides have special rules for citing them. As a proofreader, you’ll need to look out for citations like these when working on academic writing and make sure they have been added correctly.
If you’re not sure how to cite a play by Shakespeare accurately, don’t worry! In this blog post, we’ll set out the key rules for citing Shakespeare’s plays in some of the major referencing systems:
Keep reading to learn more.
How to Cite Shakespeare in MLA Style
MLA style recommends citing Shakespeare’s plays using act, scene, and line numbers rather than standard page numbers. For example:
A Midsummer Night’s Dream addresses love early on (Shakespeare 1.1.234–235).
However, if your client has cited more than one of Shakespeare’s plays, they will need to replace the author’s name with the source title. This is because MLA referencing doesn’t use a date of publication in citations, so the title helps readers distinguish between sources by the same author.
In addition, for Shakespeare’s plays, MLA style suggests a series of standard abbreviations for use in citations. Your client should use these rather than shortening titles themselves:
Shakespeare touched on this theme many times (e.g., MND 1.1.234–235; TN 1.1.1; Rom. 1.1.181), suggesting the nature of love was a point of fascination for him.
The passage above, for example, cites A Midsummer Night’s Dream ( MND ), Twelfth Night ( TN ), and Romeo and Juliet ( Rom. ), with the abbreviations keeping the citations succinct.
Meanwhile, the format for Shakespeare’s plays in an MLA “Works Cited” list will depend on how your client accessed the source (e.g., online or a print anthology). However, entries should always include full publication details for the version cited in the document.
How to Cite Shakespeare in APA Style
APA referencing uses its author–date citations when citing Shakespeare. The main issue to look out for is the date, which should include two dates separated by a forward slash:
Romeo and Juliet (Shakespeare, 1597/2021) is the most famous love story ever written.
The first year here (1597) refers to the year the play was originally published. The second (2021) is the year of publication for the specific edition referenced. In this respect, Shakespeare plays follow the standard rules for reprinted works in APA referencing .
The other key point relates to quotations and paraphrases from Shakespeare plays, which should be cited with act, scene, and line numbers rather than page numbers:
It is at this point we encounter the famous line from the balcony scene: “O Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?” (Shakespeare, 1597/2021, 2.2.35).
This shows that the quote comes from act 2, scene 2, line 35 of Romeo and Juliet .
In an APA reference list, meanwhile, Shakespeare plays are typically cited as reprinted books (i.e., with an original date of publication at the end of the reference). Make sure to check your client includes the edition cited, as line numbers can vary between versions.
How to Cite Shakespeare in Chicago Style
Chicago style varies depending on the version of this system used (i.e., footnote citations or parenthetical author–date citations ). However, there are two things that always apply:
- The Chicago Manual of Style suggests using act, scene, and line numbers when citing classic English plays, including Shakespeare plays.
- Writers should include the edition of the text used for clarity on line numbers.
In the footnote version of Chicago referencing, then, the first footnote might look like this:
1. William Shakespeare, The Tempest , ed. Alden T. Vaughan and Virginia Mason Vaughan (London: Bloomsbury, 2011), 1.1.20–26. References are to act, scene, and line.
Here, for example, the citation is for lines 20 to 26 in act 1, scene 1 of The Tempest . The full publication information and the sentence “References are to act, scene, and line” would be only required on the first reference, though: subsequent citations can typically be shortened .
A Chicago author–date citation of the same passage, meanwhile, would look like this:
We see this early on in The Tempest (Shakespeare 2011, 1.1.20–26).
Both versions of Chicago style also require the full publication details for the version cited in the bibliography/reference list, so make sure to check if this information is present.
How to Cite Shakespeare in MHRA Style
In the MHRA referencing system , Shakespeare’s plays should be cited using the guidelines for citing plays and other long works (i.e., classic works with established subdivisions such as scenes, books, cantos, and similar). In practice, this means:
- The edition used should be included in the first footnote citation.
- Citations should include act, scene, and line numbers (not page numbers).
- Act numbers should be given in Roman numbers ( small capitals ).
- Scenes and line numbers should be given in Arabic numerals.
In practice, then, the first citation of a Shakespeare play would look like this:
1. William Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice , ed. by Peter Holland (London: Penguin Classics, 2015), ɪɪ. 3. 15.
For subsequent citations of the same play, MHRA suggests shortening the footnote to just the author’s name and the pinpoint citation (still given with act, scene, and line numbers):
2. Shakespeare, ᴠ . 1. 18–25.
However, if there could be doubt about the play in question (e.g., if your client is citing more than one Shakespeare play in a single document), footnotes should give the play name instead:
2. William Shakespeare, The Tempest , ed. by Alden T. Vaughan and Virginia Mason Vaughan (London: Bloomsbury, 2011), ɪ. 1. 20–26.
3. The Merchant of Venice , ᴠ . 1. 18–25.
In the bibliography entry, meanwhile, your client should include the full publication details.
We’ve offered some brief guidelines on how to present Shakespeare plays in reference lists for the systems above, but this can depend on how your client has accessed the source.
For example, a student using APA referencing might access a Shakespeare play online and reference it as a website. As long as all the relevant source information is given, this is usually fine. Your role will be to check references for clarity and consistency.
Nevertheless, if you’re not sure about the reference format for a Shakespeare play in a specific system, make sure to look it up (either online or in the relevant style guide).
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