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• The Problem Solver 3

ebook ∣ Border Crossers · The Problem Solver

By ron mueller.

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The Problem Solver

Ron Mueller

Around the World Publishing LLC

05 June 2021

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Ian takes in the scene as the news camera zooms in as the police open the back of a semi. The heat waves shimmering up from the pavement speak to the extreme desert heat. One of the police officer turns and holds his hand over his mouth as he gets sick. The people in the back of the semi are dead and it is clear that many tried unsuccessfully to claw their way out. The camera man turns the camera to the field reporter who describes the scene and the awful smell.

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Ian leaves the Phoenix FBI office, and the local law enforcement leaders with a success story that they all embrace.

Ian leaves on a helicopter that will take him directly home to the warmth of his Lesley.

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Chaos and Confusion: Tech Outage Causes Disruptions Worldwide

Airlines, hospitals and people’s computers were affected after CrowdStrike, a cybersecurity company, sent out a flawed software update.

• Share full article

By Adam Satariano ,  Paul Mozur ,  Kate Conger and Sheera Frenkel

• July 19, 2024

Airlines grounded flights. Operators of 911 lines could not respond to emergencies. Hospitals canceled surgeries. Retailers closed for the day. And the actions all traced back to a batch of bad computer code.

A flawed software update sent out by a little-known cybersecurity company caused chaos and disruption around the world on Friday. The company, CrowdStrike , based in Austin, Texas, makes software used by multinational corporations, government agencies and scores of other organizations to protect against hackers and online intruders.

But when CrowdStrike sent its update on Thursday to its customers that run Microsoft Windows software, computers began to crash.

The fallout, which was immediate and inescapable, highlighted the brittleness of global technology infrastructure. The world has become reliant on Microsoft and a handful of cybersecurity firms like CrowdStrike. So when a single flawed piece of software is released over the internet, it can almost instantly damage countless companies and organizations that depend on the technology as part of everyday business.

“This is a very, very uncomfortable illustration of the fragility of the world’s core internet infrastructure,” said Ciaran Martin, the former chief executive of Britain’s National Cyber Security Center and a professor at the Blavatnik School of Government at Oxford University.

A cyberattack did not cause the widespread outage, but the effects on Friday showed how devastating the damage can be when a main artery of the global technology system is disrupted. It raised broader questions about CrowdStrike’s testing processes and what repercussions such software firms should face when flaws in their code cause major disruptions.

How a Software Update Crashed Computers Around the World

Here’s a visual explanation for how a faulty software update crippled machines.

How the airline cancellations rippled around the world (and across time zones)

Share of canceled flights at 25 airports on Friday

50% of flights

Ai r po r t

Bengalu r u K empeg o wda

Dhaka Shahjalal

Minneapolis-Saint P aul

Stuttga r t

Melbou r ne

Be r lin B r anden b urg

London City

Amsterdam Schiphol

Chicago O'Hare

Raleigh−Durham

B r adl e y

Cha r lotte

Reagan National

Philadelphia

1:20 a.m. ET

CrowdStrike’s stock price so far this year

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• Corpus ID: 60967988

The ideal problem solver. A guide for improving thinking, learning, and creativity

• J. Bransford , B. Stein
• Published 1984
• Education, Psychology

455 Citations

Toward a design theory of problem solving, beliefs , processes and difficulties associated with mathematical problem solving of grade 9 students, essential components for solving various problems in multimedia learning environments., designing collaborative learning sessions that promote creative problem solving using design patterns, integrating metacognitive prompts and critical inquiry process display to support development of problem-solving skills, implementation of problem solving with concept map to improve critical thinking skills and chemistry learning achievement, development and validation of a problem solving skill test in robot programming using scaffolding tools.

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IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika

Towards a comprehensive account of effective thinking, cognitive variables in science problem solving: a review of research, 13 references, lateral thinking: creativity step by step, the mind's best work.

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The Art of Creative Thinking

The fabric of the heavens: the development of astronomy and dynamics, using idea checklists with college students: overcoming resistance, reasoning in humans. ii. the solution of a problem and its appearance in consciousness., cognitive psychology : thinking and creating, the prince . and, management and machiavelli : an inquiry into the politics of corporate life, related papers.

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CrowdStrike file update bricks Windows machines around the world

Falcon sensor putting hosts into deathloop - but there's a workaround.

Updated An update to a product from infosec vendor CrowdStrike is bricking computers running Windows globally.

The Register has found numerous accounts of Windows 10 PCs crashing, displaying the Blue Screen of Death, then being unable to reboot.

“We're seeing BSOD Org wide that are being caused by csagent.sys, and it's taking down critical services. I'll open a ticket, but this is a big deal,” wrote one user.

Forums report that Crowdstrike has issued an advisory with a URL that includes the text "Tech-Alert-Windows-crashes-related-to-Falcon-Sensor-2024-07-19" – but it's behind a regwall that only customers can access.

An apparent screenshot of that article reads "CrowdStrike is aware of reports of crashes on Windows hosts related to the Falcon Sensor. Symptoms include hosts experiencing a bugcheck\blue screen error related to the Falcon Sensor."

CrowdStrike's engineers are working on the issue.

Falcon Sensor is an agent that CrowdStrike claims "blocks attacks on your systems while capturing and recording activity as it happens to detect threats fast."

Right now, however, the sensor appears to be the threat.

This is a developing story and The Register will update it as new info comes to hand. ®

Updated at 0730 UTC to add

Brody Nisbet, CrowdStrike's chief threat hunter, has confirmed the issue and on X posted the following:

There is a faulty channel file, so not quite an update. There is a workaround...

1. Boot Windows into Safe Mode or WRE.

2. Go to C:\Windows\System32\drivers\CrowdStrike

3. Locate and delete file matching "C-00000291*.sys"

4. Boot normally.

In a later post he wrote "That workaround won't help everyone though and I've no further actionable help to provide at the minute".

Lots more here ...

• CrowdStrike

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Azure vms ruined by crowdstrike patchpocalypse microsoft has recovery tips, second nhs it system confirmed to be affected by crowdstrike issues, life, interrupted: how crowdstrike's patch failure is messing up the world, unleashing the power and control of industry-specific cloud platforms.

CrowdStrike shares sink as global IT outage savages systems worldwide

Cybercriminals quickly exploit crowdstrike chaos, angry admins share the crowdstrike outage experience, firms skip security reviews of major app updates about half the time, crowdstrike windows patchpocalypse could take weeks to fix, it admins fear, orgs are having a major identity crisis while crims reap the rewards, ransomware-as-a-service groups rain money on their affiliates, rsa conference or black mirror either way, we're doomed ... probably.

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Computational Thinking for the Modern Problem Solver

DOI link for Computational Thinking for the Modern Problem Solver

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Through examples and analogies, Computational Thinking for the Modern Problem Solver introduces computational thinking as part of an introductory computing course and shows how computer science concepts are applicable to other fields. It keeps the material accessible and relevant to noncomputer science majors.With numerous color figures, this class

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1 | 26  pages, ◾ what is computational thinking, chapter 2 | 30  pages, ◾ how real-world information becomes computable data, chapter 3 | 36  pages, chapter 4 | 36  pages, ◾ solving problems, chapter 5 | 34  pages, ◾ algorithmic thinking, chapter 6 | 26  pages, ◾ modeling solutions, chapter 7 | 32  pages, ◾ data organization, chapter 8 | 42  pages, chapter 9 | 28  pages, ◾ let’s get it correct, chapter 10 | 30  pages, ◾ limits of computation, chapter 11 | 22  pages, ◾ concurrent activity, chapter 12 | 38  pages, ◾ nformation security.

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Ieee spectrum, follow ieee spectrum, support ieee spectrum, enjoy more free content and benefits by creating an account, saving articles to read later requires an ieee spectrum account, the institute content is only available for members, downloading full pdf issues is exclusive for ieee members, downloading this e-book is exclusive for ieee members, access to spectrum 's digital edition is exclusive for ieee members, following topics is a feature exclusive for ieee members, adding your response to an article requires an ieee spectrum account, create an account to access more content and features on ieee spectrum , including the ability to save articles to read later, download spectrum collections, and participate in conversations with readers and editors. for more exclusive content and features, consider joining ieee ., join the world’s largest professional organization devoted to engineering and applied sciences and get access to all of spectrum’s articles, archives, pdf downloads, and other benefits. learn more about ieee →, join the world’s largest professional organization devoted to engineering and applied sciences and get access to this e-book plus all of ieee spectrum’s articles, archives, pdf downloads, and other benefits. learn more about ieee →, access thousands of articles — completely free, create an account and get exclusive content and features: save articles, download collections, and talk to tech insiders — all free for full access and benefits, join ieee as a paying member., how good is chatgpt at coding, really, study finds that while ai can be great, it also struggles due to training limitations.

This article is part of our exclusive IEEE Journal Watch series in partnership with IEEE Xplore.

Programmers have spent decades writing code for AI models , and now, in a full circle moment, AI is being used to write code. But how does an AI code generator compare to a human programmer?

A study published in the June issue of IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering evaluated the code produced by OpenAI’s ChatGPT in terms of functionality, complexity and security. The results show that ChatGPT has an extremely broad range of success when it comes to producing functional code—with a success rate ranging from anywhere as poor as 0.66 percent and as good as 89 percent—depending on the difficulty of the task, the programming language, and a number of other factors.

While in some cases the AI generator could produce better code than humans, the analysis also reveals some security concerns with AI-generated code.

Yutian Tang is a lecturer at the University of Glasgow who was involved in the study. He notes that AI-based code generation could provide some advantages in terms of enhancing productivity and automating software development tasks—but it’s important to understand the strengths and limitations of these models.

“By conducting a comprehensive analysis, we can uncover potential issues and limitations that arise in the ChatGPT-based code generation... [and] improve generation techniques,” Tang explains.

To explore these limitations in more detail, his team sought to test GPT-3.5’s ability to address 728 coding problems from the LeetCode testing platform in five programming languages: C, C++, Java, JavaScript, and Python .

“A reasonable hypothesis for why ChatGPT can do better with algorithm problems before 2021 is that these problems are frequently seen in the training dataset.” —Yutian Tang, University of Glasgow

Overall, ChatGPT was fairly good at solving problems in the different coding languages—but especially when attempting to solve coding problems that existed on LeetCode before 2021. For instance, it was able to produce functional code for easy, medium, and hard problems with success rates of about 89, 71, and 40 percent, respectively.

“However, when it comes to the algorithm problems after 2021, ChatGPT’s ability to generate functionally correct code is affected. It sometimes fails to understand the meaning of questions, even for easy level problems,” Tang notes.

For example, ChatGPT’s ability to produce functional code for “easy” coding problems dropped from 89 percent to 52 percent after 2021. And its ability to generate functional code for “hard” problems dropped from 40 percent to 0.66 percent after this time as well.

“A reasonable hypothesis for why ChatGPT can do better with algorithm problems before 2021 is that these problems are frequently seen in the training dataset,” Tang says.

Essentially, as coding evolves, ChatGPT has not been exposed yet to new problems and solutions. It lacks the critical thinking skills of a human and can only address problems it has previously encountered. This could explain why it is so much better at addressing older coding problems than newer ones.

“ChatGPT may generate incorrect code because it does not understand the meaning of algorithm problems.” —Yutian Tang, University of Glasgow

Interestingly, ChatGPT is able to generate code with smaller runtime and memory overheads than at least 50 percent of human solutions to the same LeetCode problems.

The researchers also explored the ability of ChatGPT to fix its own coding errors after receiving feedback from LeetCode. They randomly selected 50 coding scenarios where ChatGPT initially generated incorrect coding, either because it didn’t understand the content or problem at hand.

While ChatGPT was good at fixing compiling errors, it generally was not good at correcting its own mistakes.

“ChatGPT may generate incorrect code because it does not understand the meaning of algorithm problems, thus, this simple error feedback information is not enough,” Tang explains.

The researchers also found that ChatGPT-generated code did have a fair amount of vulnerabilities, such as a missing null test, but many of these were easily fixable. Their results also show that generated code in C was the most complex, followed by C++ and Python, which has a similar complexity to the human-written code.

Tangs says, based on these results, it’s important that developers using ChatGPT provide additional information to help ChatGPT better understand problems or avoid vulnerabilities.

“For example, when encountering more complex programming problems, developers can provide relevant knowledge as much as possible, and tell ChatGPT in the prompt which potential vulnerabilities to be aware of,” Tang says.

• What to Do When the Ghost in the Machine Is You ›
• How Coders Can Survive—and Thrive—in a ChatGPT World ›
• Coding Assistant - ChatGPT ›

Michelle Hampson is a freelance writer based in Halifax. She frequently contributes to Spectrum's Journal Watch coverage, which highlights newsworthy studies published in IEEE journals.

That's yesterday's news, try it with version 4o, it's free.

"struggles due to training limitations" isn't that EVERYONE's problem with EVERYTHING.

"I could be an awesome guitar playing, but I struggle due to training limitations."

"I could be a great Opera singer, but I struggle due to training limitations."

"I could be a great jockey, but I am 6'4"...." Ok, well maybe not everything.

ChatGPT sucks at coding because it's not an AI - it's a big ass word predictor.

I actually think the key here is writing good test suits to ensure AI does the right thing...

Here is the full argument: https://medium.com/@samuel.sperling/software-2-1-ai-is-coding-now-why-test-mastery-is-your-new-job-security-31a65e792f7f

Next-Gen Brain Implant Uses a Graphene Chip

Video friday: robot crash-perches, hugs tree, ieee learning network celebrates five years, related stories, what to do when the ghost in the machine is you, chatgpt’s new upgrade teases ai’s multimodal future, chatgpt may be a better improviser than you.

Upload a screenshot and solve any math, physics, or accounting problem instantly with MathGPT!

Drag & drop an image file here, or click to select an image.

Major global IT outage grounds flights, hits banks and businesses around the world

Coverage on this live blog has ended. Please click here for the latest updates.

What we know

• A major global IT outage industries across the world today with airlines, banks, shops and broadcasters affected.
• Major U.S. airlines grounded flights and there were global delays. United, American and Delta ordered a "global ground stop," said Rep. Eric Swalwell, D-Calif., a member of the House subcommittee on cybersecurity.
• Microsoft said it had fixed the issue , but problems still persist and blue error screens are appearing on public screens across the U.S. and beyond. Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella, in a statement Friday afternoon, said, “CrowdStrike released an update that began impacting IT systems globally."
• Texas-based Cybersecurity company CrowdStrike said the problem stemmed from a "defect found in a single content update for Windows."
• Alaska State Troopers said 911 services were down across the state, but later said they were functioning normally. New Hampshire also had temporary problems.

CrowdStrike says update ‘triggered a logic error’ that led to crashes

Phil Helsel

Cybersecurity company CrowdStrike said that a sensor configuration update to its Falcon platform “triggered a logic error” and led to computer crashes.

In a summary of technical details released by the company following a global outage that led to canceled flights and other disruptions, CrowdStrike said that “we are doing a thorough root cause analysis to determine how this logic flaw occurred.”

Falcon is a cloud-based system used to block cyberattacks. The company said that “sensor configuration updates” are part of its protection mechanism. It said it will update its findings as the root cause analysis continues.

Almost 3,000 flights canceled in or to U.S. amid global outage

There were almost 3,000 flights canceled within or into the United States today as airlines and the world grappled with a massive IT outage that scrambled schedules and scrubbed trips.

Major airlines like Delta, United and American said they experienced disruptions.

As of around 8 p.m. there had been 2,945 cancellations within, into, or out of the United States, according to flight tracking website FlightAware .

Los Angeles International Airport, which is already famous for its traffic gridlock, was among the nation's airports warning passengers to check with their airlines before heading to the airport.

But LAX ranked down the list of U.S. airports with the most cancellations. Atlanta's Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport, a major hub, topped the list of U.S. airports with cancellations, and Chicago O’Hare International Airport came in second, according to the website.

911 systems impacted by outage coming back to normal

After many 911 and nonemergency call centers in the Alaska were impacted by the global IT outage, 911 systems in the state were back to normal today, Alaska State Troopers said.

New Hampshire and Plano, Texas, were among the states and communities that had reported problems with 911 due to the outage, but have since said they were functioning normally.

Bettors suffer under global IT outage, too

Online sports gambling site BetMGM said that it was being affected by the global IT outage as well.

The website announced earlier today that it “is experiencing temporary issues due to global IT outages.”

“We are working hard to resolve this and will update customers when we are up and running. Thank you for your patience,” BetMGM said on social media platform X .

Its website was down this evening for what it said was planned maintenance.

Long lines into U.S. from Mexico as outage delays CBP processing

There were long lines of people trying to enter the United States from the Mexico border city of Ciudad Juarez after the global IT outage affected U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

The U.S. agency said that the problem was processing delays due to outage, which has affected sectors of daily life from air travel to Starbucks mobile ordering services.

Video from Reuters showed long lines and signs leading up to the international bridge that warned drivers of extended waiting times.

CrowdStrike shares close down 11% after major outage hits businesses worldwide

Ryan Browne, CNBC

Cybersecurity firm  CrowdStrike  saw its shares plunge Friday, after a sofware update led to a major outage, affecting businesses across the world.

Shares of the company, which makes software to help firms manage their security in IT environments, opened down more than 14%, and closed down about 11%.

Microsoft, which also reported issues affecting its Azure cloud services and Microsoft 365 suite of apps, closed down just 0.74%.

Read the full story here.

FTC chair criticizes consolidation in tech, saying it creates fragile systems

Raquel Coronell Uribe

Lina Khan, the chair of the Federal Trade Commission, seemed to refer to the CrowdStrike outage on X on Friday, saying that overreliance on too few vendors creates “fragile systems.”

“All too often these days, a single glitch results in a system-wide outage, affecting industries from healthcare and airlines to banks and auto-dealers,” Khan wrote. “Millions of people and businesses pay the price.”

Khan cited remarks she gave at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in March, noting that the country’s antitrust laws were passed to safeguard undue concentration of economic power.

Such concentration, Khan wrote on X, can concentrate risk, creating cascading effects like shortages.

Senator asks Pentagon for briefing on outage

Sen. Eric Schmitt, R-Mo., today asked the acting chief information officer of the Defense Department for a briefing by July 26 on the IT issue causing widespread disruptions across the U.S.

“A single point of failure in a cybersecurity strategy has proven time and time again to be a threat to our national security,” Schmitt wrote in a letter.

Schmitt called for a re-examination of cyber safeguards “across the board.”

A Defense Department spokesperson said it was aware of the issues and that personnel were monitoring their networks for possible impacts.

“For operational security reasons, we do not comment on the status of our network operations, information systems or operations to assess cyber threats,” the statement read.

Schmitt wrote a letter in June pressing the department for a strategy to ensure “robust cybersecurity practices.”

CrowdStrike on call headed into the weekend, warns of impostors

Kevin Collier

CrowdStrike has mobilized employees to help customers still affected by the glitch, CEO George Kurtz said in a blog post this afternoon.

“Nothing is more important to me than the trust and confidence that our customers and partners have put into CrowdStrike. As we resolve this incident, you have my commitment to provide full transparency on how this occurred and steps we’re taking to prevent anything like this from happening again,” Kurtz said.

He echoed CISA’s warning of hackers and scammers trying to exploit confusion over how to fix computers that froze due to the update.

“We know that adversaries and bad actors will try to exploit events like this. I encourage everyone to remain vigilant and ensure that you’re engaging with official CrowdStrike representatives,” Kurtz said.

Hospital surgery delays add to anxiety

Marina Kopf

Gary Baulos, 73, was scheduled for open-heart surgery today at Baptist Health hospital in Paducah, Kentucky. His daughter Alison Baulos said the surgery to clear eight blockages and repair an aneurysm was canceled due to the global technology outages.

“It reshuffles everything and leaves us with a lot of anxiety and uncertainty,” she said.

Alison said his father's surgery has not been rescheduled yet, but hopes it can be done on Monday.

“It’s kind of scary knowing that your loved one has this significant issue that warranted getting in right away,” she said. “And now you have to wait the weekend.”

In a statement to NBC News, Baptist Health said they’re “experiencing disruptions tied to the global CrowdStrike incident” and “have canceled some non-emergency procedures while we work to resolve the issue.”

Just 23% of all U.S. flights departing on time as of this afternoon

The nightmare scenario that began unfolding this morning at U.S. airports continued well into the afternoon, with less than a quarter of all domestic flights departing on time as of 4 p.m., according to real-time data from Anuvu, an aviation intelligence group.

Most affected was Endeavor Airlines, a regional carrier based in Minnesota, with 40% of all its flights canceled and effectively zero departing on time, according to Anuvu data.

Among major carriers, all flights for Delta, Spirit and United airlines were seeing delays, the data showed.

While other airlines, like Frontier, JetBlue and Southwest, were not directly affected by the global outage, issues at affected airports still resulted in delays for some of those carriers' flights.

The U.S. Department of Transportation has been directing affected passengers to FlightRights.gov to learn about which airlines cover meals and hotels and provide free rebooking.

Tesla temporarily halts production at some facilities

Lora Kolodny, CNBC

Electric vehicle maker  Tesla  temporarily halted production on lines at some of its manufacturing facilities Friday after an unprecedented IT outage impacted global operations due to system issues at cybersecurity firm  CrowdStrike .

According to correspondence obtained by CNBC, Tesla’s IT teams notified employees that there was a “windows host outage,” and different systems were affected including “servers, laptops and manufacturing devices.” The IT teams informed Tesla employees that they may see a “ blue screen ” on their various devices.

Tesla CEO  Elon Musk , who also owns social media platform X, posted several complaints about the CrowdStrike outages to his account, which has more than 190 million followers, throughout the morning.

Two Tesla employees who spoke with CNBC, but asked to remain unnamed because they were not authorized to speak on behalf of the company, said that some manufacturing lines were slow to start on Friday morning, and others were temporarily halted in California and Nevada. They also said managers were telling some workers to prepare for canceled shifts or to go home early.

Business Insider , which first reported on the IT memo, wrote that workers in Tesla’s Texas vehicle assembly plant were sent home overnight in response to the outages as well.

As a key Tesla vendor,  Microsoft , scrambled to restore its apps and services Friday morning, CEO Satya Nadella wrote in a statement on X that an update from CrowdStrike on Thursday impacted global IT systems.

In replies to Nadella on X, Musk wrote that the outages had caused a “seizure” to the automotive supply chain, adding, “We just deleted CrowdStrike from all our systems, so no rollouts at all.” Employees confirmed that Tesla was using CrowdStrike as of Friday.

Tesla did not immediately respond to a request for further information.

Read more from CNBC

Starbucks baristas recovering from chaotic morning

Kat Tenbarge

With Starbucks' mobile order-ahead feature still unavailable , baristas have directed customers with handwritten signs to "plz come to walk-up."

A Starbucks barista in Washington, D.C., told CNBC that her store had to manually write out tickets for customers this morning, while an anonymous Starbucks supervisor posted "We are SUFFERING" on Reddit. "Mobile orders and deliveries were through the roof, drive thru was wrapped around the building and two accidents in our parking lot," the post continued.

Starbucks' foot traffic had returned to normal in three New York City locations NBC News visited on Friday afternoon. Four customers told NBC News they had no issues ordering in person. The chain continued ahead with a \$3 drink deal between noon and 6 p.m.

At LAX, a line snakes out the door

Dana Griffin

Reporting from Los Angeles International Airport

People are pretty jovial at Los Angeles International Airport despite delays and cancellations that continue to snarl travel due to today's IT issues.

Some people said they had been waiting hours in an effort to change flights and find a way to their destination. The line to rebook for United Airlines is long, snaking out of the airport where United employees are handing out bottles of water.

Outage forces Texas and New York to close driver’s license offices

The Associated Press

AUSTIN, Texas — The internet outages forced Texas to close all of its driver’s license offices across the state, and New York’s Department of Motor Vehicles couldn’t process transactions online and in its offices Friday morning.

The Texas Department of Public Safety operates driver’s license offices in most of the state’s 254 counties. The agency issues, renews and updates driver licenses or state ID cards and provides driver education courses.

The department said in a statement that “there is no current estimate” on when the offices will reopen.

In New York, the DMV said that by Friday afternoon, some systems had been restored and that it could begin performing online transactions. However, some in-person services were still offline.

At least three of its DMV offices closed for the day because of the outage, according to the agency’s website.

Hackers are trying to exploit CrowdStrike-led outage, feds say

The widespread outages aren't the result of a cyberattack, but hackers are actively trying to capitalize on the confusion, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency said.

“CISA has observed threat actors taking advantage of this incident for phishing and other malicious activity,” an agency alert says .

“CISA urges organizations and individuals to remain vigilant and only follow instructions from legitimate sources. CISA recommends organizations to remind their employees to avoid clicking on phishing emails or suspicious links,” it said.

How could a security update cripple computers around the world?

JoElla Carman

The software that caused Friday's global IT outage was part of a routine update process.

Computers that received the faulty update now won’t operate without being started in a special recovery mode. That means each computer must be fixed manually.

Courts in Massachusetts and New York are disrupted by the outage

BOSTON — Courts in Massachusetts and New York saw their operations disrupted Friday by the global internet outage.

A spokesperson for the Massachusetts judiciary said about half of its workstations were down while court transcription recording systems were not operating in a number of courthouses, resulting in delays in some court sessions.

Some court proceedings were also delayed in New York because of computer problems.

In Manhattan, a criminal court proceeding for Harvey Weinstein, who is charged with rape, started 90 minutes late because of disruptions to court and corrections computer systems.

In Southern California, Orange County Superior Court also reported technical issues.

51 hospitals affected by global IT outage in the west

Lindsay Good

Mirna Alsharif

A total of 51 hospitals under the Providence Southern California umbrella have been affected by the global IT outage in western states, according to the health care organization.

"Providence, like other organizations across the world, is impacted by the Crowdstrike outage," the organization said in a statement. "Our IT teams have been working overnight to respond to the issue and have restored key functionality in the Epic electronic health record so that nurses, physicians and other caregivers can access patient records and perform clinical documentation."

The organization said "other clinical applications and workstations continue to be impacted" despite the progress, but didn't specify what the applications and workstations are.

"Patient safety and access to care is always the top priority at Providence," the health organization said. "We will provide updates as new information becomes available."

Some of Starbucks' features impacted by outage

Janelle Griffith

Starbucks said it was among the companies impacted by the outage, resulting in a temporary outage of its mobile order ahead and pay features.

“We continue to welcome and serve customers in the vast majority of our stores and drive-thrus and are doing everything we can to bring all systems online as quickly as possible,” said Jaci Anderson, the company’s director of communications. “We apologize for any inconvenience.”

Nearly 4,300 flights canceled worldwide due to global IT outage, per Cirium

Nearly 4,300 flights have been canceled worldwide as of 12 p.m. E.T. due to the global IT outage, according to Cirium.

This equates to 3.9% of all scheduled flights globally. The figure is subject to change as the day progresses, Cirium said.

Microsoft 365 says all of its previously impacted apps and services have recovered

Microsoft 365 says it has completed its mitigation actions and its telemetry indicates all previously impacted Microsoft 365 apps and services have recovered.

“We’re entering a period of monitoring to ensure impact is fully resolved,” the company said.

Maricopa County, Arizona, says early voting for primaries impacted

The Maricopa County Elections Department in Arizona said the global IT outage is impacting some voting locations, as early voting in statewide primaries rolls out.

In a statement posted to X , the department directed voters to a web page to find out which polling places remain unaffected by the incident.

Early primary voting has been open for Grand Canyon states since July 3; Arizona's official primary election is Tuesday, July 30.

The state-level primaries will have a significant impact on the balance of power in the U.S. Senate and House: Former gubernatorial candidate Kari Lake is squaring off against Pinal County Sheriff Mark Lamb for the opportunity to face Democrat Ruben Gallego to replace outgoing Sen. Kyrsten Sinema.

Meanwhile, six Republicans — including former Senate candidate Blake Masters, are vying to replace retiring Republican Debbie Lesko in the state's 8th Congressional District.

Surgeries and doctor’s appointments canceled amid global IT outage

Erika Edwards

Several major U.S. hospitals were forced to cancel surgeries and doctor’s appointments amid the  global computer outage .

Hospital staffers in New York and Boston said they were unable to access some medical records or were having trouble figuring out where to send critically ill patients as several operating rooms had been shut down.

“Every day, we have a plan that’s mapped out really carefully so that we can plan our resources,” said one employee of an affected New York City hospital system. “That’s all blown up,” the staffer said, asking to not be identified because the person wasn’t authorized to speak on behalf of the health care system.

Microsoft CEO makes first remarks on outage

Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella released the company's first statement about the outage early Friday afternoon, saying: “CrowdStrike released an update that began impacting IT systems globally. We are aware of this issue and are working closely with CrowdStrike and across the industry to provide customers technical guidance and support to safely bring their systems back online.”

Just like in 2016, post GOP convention travel hit by major outage

Ben Kamisar

Journalists and Republicans leaving Milwaukee after this week's Republican National Convention may have a feeling of déjà vu if their travel plans are interrupted by this global outage.

It's the second in-person GOP convention in a row (2016 and 2024, since 2020 was largely virtual) that ended with a major transportation-related outage.

Southwest reported a "technology outage" on July 20, 2016 , the second to last day of the convention in Cleveland. The company ultimately said more than 2,000 flights were delayed or cancelled. But while the outage happened midweek, travelers were still feeling some effects of it days later and this reporter had to drive colleagues with cancelled flights home from Cleveland.

Tired travelers cope ... and drink

Kevin Breuninger, CNBC

Reporting from JFK International Airport in New York

Travelers stuck this morning at JFK Airport in New York met the delays with resignation, weariness and a need to hit the bar.

Colby Black, 45, took the delays in stride, even though he wasn’t sure when his rescheduled flight to Los Angeles would take off. It was originally set to depart at 6 a.m.

“I’m just tired. I want to sleep,” said Black, who woke up at 3 a.m. “But otherwise, yeah, it happens.”

One mother said she hadn’t slept the night before, just so she and her infant son could get to JFK on time.

“I’m still up, running on no sleep,” she said as she was seated on a barstool beside a heavy pour of chilled white wine. She wasn’t originally planning to order a preflight drink.

“Hell no. I got to the airport at 4 o'clock this morning,” she said.

Watch U.S. air traffic ebb and flow as IT issues rippled through system

Tom Costello

Video from the airline tracker Flightradar24 shows how U.S. air travel was scaled back dramatically in the early morning hours, as airlines and airports scrambled to deal with IT issues related to a security bug.

Microsoft’s ‘Blue Screen of Death’ makes a return to computers around the world

Elizabeth Chuck

An image that has instilled panic in computer users for decades popped up on screens worldwide today: the dreaded “Blue Screen of Death.”

Appearing everywhere from Macy’s flagship store in New York City to  airports in India , the Blue Screen of Death has long prompted groans and frantic questions of “Did my work save?” It’s a Microsoft Windows error screen indicative of a system crash — meaning a computer issue has resulted in the operating system no longer being able to run safely.

An unwanted sight that has become so widely known over its more than 30-year existence, it’s sometimes referred to by its acronym, BSoD. Today, the blue screen taunted millions globally amid a  widespread technology outage  that halted flights, knocked broadcasters off the air and disconnected some emergency phone lines. Texas-based cybersecurity firm CrowdStrike said early today that the outage was the result of a “defect found in a single content update for Windows hosts,” not a cyberattack, and that a fix had been deployed.

CrowdStrike CEO releases updated statement

Victoria Feng

CrowdStrike CEO George Kurtz released an updated statement on X, assuring customers that this was not a "security or cyber incident," and that their information is still protected.

"We are working with all impacted customers to ensure that systems are back up and they can deliver the services their customers are counting on," Kurtz added.

He said that he would provide updates via his X account, LinkedIn and the CrowdStrike website.

Steve Kopack

The Federal Aviation Administration says it is aware of reports of a systems outage causing disruptions in service, including 911.

“We’re working closely with other federal agencies to provide assistance and determine the extent of these service disruptions,” the FAA said.

Airlines must take care of passengers impacted by global IT outage, Buttigieg says

Speaking on CNBC, Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg said he is “tracking all the various impacts hitting different forms of transportation.”

Buttigieg said the agency has reminded airlines as they deal with the outage of their “responsibilities to take care of passengers if they experience major delays.”

Buttigieg also said public transit systems are running normally despite the ongoing global IT outage, but some consumers might encounter websites that are down or ticketing systems with minor problems.

“This wasn’t a cyberattack,” he said but the agency will continue to work with infrastructure and transportation providers to ensure they properly maintain their cyber defenses.

Chicago Department of Aviation monitoring global IT outage

The Chicago Department of Aviation is monitoring the global IT outage that has impacted air travel nationwide, it said in a statement.

"CDA officials are working diligently with federal and airline partners at both O’Hare and Midway International Airports to restore operations as swiftly as possible," the department said. "The CDA is committed to providing all necessary assistance to our passengers during this time."

The CDA encouraged anyone flying out of Chicago airports today to check their flight status before making the trip to the airport.

Long lines but 'a snowball's chance' in Atlanta's airport

Charlie Gile

Reporting from Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport

The ticketing line at Spirit Airlines in Atlanta is hundreds of people long as travelers try to get information about flights.

One traveler near the front says she waited for over four hours. Employees calling out specific flight numbers had to shout over the crowd to be heard. When asked if she was confident about leaving Atlanta today, one woman in line said, “A snowball’s chance.”

Orange County Fire Authority says its responses to emergencies were uninterrupted

The Orange County Fire Authority in California said the outage had temporarily affected some of its internal systems, but that its responses to emergency incidents were uninterrupted, and its 78 fire stations did not experience any delays in service.

“Our IT team continues to monitor the situation,” the fire authority said.

What we know about the global Microsoft outage

Alexander Smith

A routine software update caused  cascading chaos today that has engulfed global businesses from airports and banks to retail and law enforcement.

It wasn’t a cyberattack, but was caused by one of the world’s largest cybersecurity companies deploying a flawed update while trying to keep its customers safe from hackers.

CrowdStrike, a  cybersecurity company  based in Austin, Texas, that’s widely used by businesses and government agencies that run on Microsoft computers, said that a defect in one of its updates for computers running the Windows operating system had caused the issue. The result was arguably the largest global information technology outage in history.

Fed says critical systems 'operating normally'

Leslie Picker, CNBC

The Federal Reserve is out with an assurance that its systems are working amid the global tech outage.

“Critical Federal Reserve Systems are operating normally. We are monitoring the situation and working closely with industry and other government agencies to assess the situation,” the central bank said in a statement to CNBC.

RNC attendees look for a way out of Milwaukee

Freddie Tunnard

Reporting from Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport

Hello from the Milwaukee Airport, which is a mix of politicians, red hats and police officers.

Some officers from North Carolina seem to have been here for a while — one of them is sleeping on the floor. One of the airlines just announced that it is bringing out a snack cart.

It’s crowded but quiet here, and the general vibe I would say is pretty tired — I would imagine most of these people were up past midnight watching former President Donald Trump’s speech. Most of the seats at the gates are occupied (as is a lot of the floor) with weary travelers.

FlightAware, which tracks airline operations, said this morning that 40 flights had been canceled, with another 65 delayed.

FedEx experiencing 'substantial disruptions'

FedEx says it has experienced “substantial disruptions” throughout its networks due to the global IT outage .

The company said contingency plans have been activated to mitigate impact, but delays are possible for packages that have a delivery commitment of today.

FedEx advised customers to check its service alerts page for updates and to track shipments on its website, fedex.com.

Biden has been briefed on the CrowdStrike outage

A White House official said President Joe Biden has been briefed on the outage and his team is in touch with CrowdStrike and impacted entities. His team is engaged across the interagency to get sector by sector updates throughout the day, and is standing by to provide assistance, the official said.

The president was also briefed on the drone attack overnight in Tel Aviv.

Hospitals across the U.S. are canceling operations

Patrick Smith Patrick Smith is a London-based editor and reporter for NBC News Digital.

Hospitals and medical centers across the United States are turning patients away in the the wake of the global IT problems today.

The Harris Health Quentin Mease Health Center in Houston said it was canceling all elective procedures and outpatient care, while Mass General Brigham in Boston canceled "all previously scheduled non-urgent surgeries, procedures, and medical visits are cancelled today."

The Boston hospital said in a statement: "A major worldwide software outage has affected many of our systems at Mass General Brigham, as well as many major businesses across the country."

Mass General assured the public that "we continue to care for all patients currently receiving care in our hospitals."

The University of Miami Health System said its facilities were open but warned that there would be delays due to computers records being unavailable.

Meet CrowdStrike, the company at the heart of the global tech outage

A fault with an update issued by cybersecurity company  CrowdStrike  led to a cascading effect among global IT systems today, with industries ranging from banking to airlines facing outages.

Banks and health care providers saw their services disrupted and TV broadcasters went offline as businesses worldwide grappled with the ongoing outage. Air travel has been hit hard, too, with  planes grounded  and services delayed.

So what happened, exactly? CNBC takes a look.

Read the full article here from CNBC .

Nigel Chiwaya

The IT outages that are affecting businesses across the world have caused more than half of flights delayed or canceled by 8 a.m. ET across the United States, according to data from FlightAware.

Photos: From Bangkok to Berlin, outages cause airport chaos

Max Butterworth

An airline employee holds up a sign informing travelers as they line up at the check-in counters of the Hong Kong International Airport this morning.

Crowds build up at Suvarnabhumi Airport in Bangkok, Thailand.

An employee at Berlin Airport speaks tries to update passengers as widespread outages caused mass confusion.

CrowdStrike CEO apologizes but warns recovery 'could be some time'

Mithil Aggarwal

George Kurtz, president and CEO of CrowdStrike, the company at the center of today's enormous IT outages, says the problems could persist for some time yet.

"It could be some time for some systems that just automatically won’t recover," Kurtz told NBC's "TODAY" show this morning.

Kurtz said the company was "deeply sorry for the impact that we've caused to customers, to travelers, to anyone affected by this," adding the issue has been fixed on their end.

"Many of the customers are rebooting the system, and it’s coming up, and it’ll be operational because we fixed it on our end," he said. "We’re just trying to sort out where the negative interaction was," he said of the faulty update that affected Windows PCs.

Getting services back up and running won't be easy, experts warn

The Microsoft cloud computing outages that left airports, shops and broadcasters without services will not be easily fixed, tech experts have warned.

Fixing the issues may involve a manual effort on the part of users, Omer Grossman, CIO at cybersecurity firm CyberArk, told CNBC.

“It turns out that because the endpoints have crashed — the Blue Screen of Death — they cannot be updated remotely and this the problem must be solved manually, endpoint by endpoint. This is expected to be a process that will take days,” he said.

The global IT outage is having a “profound impact,” and nothing similar has ever been seen before, Satnam Narang, senior staff researcher at Tenable, told CNBC today.

“It’s very far reaching and we’re still just in the beginnings of this right now,” he said. Companies and organizations were trying to deal with the impact of the issues, as attempts were being made to resolve it, which would take time, according to Narang.

“We’ve never seen anything like this before, it’s very unprecedented.”

Morning commuters face disruption from IT outage

Commuters riding the bus and train services in New York will have to listen closely to station announcements after the MTA's systems were taken offline due to the outage.

The "train and bus service is unaffected," Metropolitan Transportation Authority said this morning in a statement.

Washington's transit agency, WMATA, said the train's start time of 5 a.m. was delayed and commuters could experience more delays on its buses and trains.

Early morning passengers faced with blue screens at Newark

Travelers walk past a departures board displaying a blue error screen in Newark International Airport this morning.

New Hampshire 911 services back online after outage

The New Hampshire Department of Safety said its 911 service was back online early today after an interruption related to the global outage of Microsoft cloud computing services that began around 1 a.m. ET.

"911 server system has been fully restored and emergency calls to 911 are being processed normally," the department's division of emergency services and communications said in an update, which confirmed the service was back as of 3 a.m.

It said the cause of the outage was under investigation but the department was "aware of information technology outages reported nationwide." The department also urged people not to see if 911 is working with "test calls."

Major computer outage could impact 911 services but ‘is not a cyberattack’

Brian Cheung

NBC News’ business and data correspondent Brian Cheung explains that CrowdStrike is deploying a fix that caused computer outages worldwide. He said people should not try calling 911 to test the system.

American passenger's flight from Japan canceled, lounge is full and baggage delayed

Reporting from Hong Kong

When Patricia Sweeney arrived at gate 133 of Tokyo's Haneda Airport, her American Airlines flight bound for New York was nowhere to be found. It was first delayed by an hour, then canceled.

"I'm upset but taking it in strides," said Sweeney, who lives in Brooklyn and works in finance and was on a business trip. Another American Airlines flight next to her gate was also canceled. "You could just hear a roar of the passengers," she said. "People are not happy."

As she waited for updates from the airline, Sweeney went to the business class lounge which was overcrowded with other affected passengers.

"I told the hotel I had stayed at to rebook a room. But they said they had a system outage," she said over the phone while waiting for her baggage. The hotel rebooked her manually.

While Sweeney was offered a flight for tomorrow morning by the airline, she said a representative later told her that it's still not confirmed.

Chaos for retail and banking worldwide

The outage happened while most stores in the United States were closed for the night. But it has been wreaking havoc elsewhere.

In Britain, grocery chain Waitrose put up signs in some of its outlets warning customers it was only accepting cash.

“All card-readers have failed this morning!” read a handwritten message in one branch in Petersfield, southern England “Sorry for any inconvenience caused!”

In Australia and New Zealand, scores of people posted on social media that they were locked out of their online bank accounts.

“We’re aware of issues currently impacting many banks and businesses across NZ,” the state-owned Kiwibank said on X, replying to a number of users reporting problems. “Our teams are working to resolve the access issues impacting our app and internet banking at the moment, and we hope to have this resolved shortly.”

CrowdStrike shares tank 15% in premarket after major outage hits businesses worldwide

Cybersecurity firm  CrowdStrike  saw its shares plunge today, after an update led to a major outage impacting businesses across the world.

Shares of the company, which makes software to help firms manage their security in IT environments, tanked 15% in U.S. premarket trading.

Microsoft , which also reported issues affecting its Azure cloud services and Microsoft 365 suite of apps, fell 2% in premarket trading.

NBC News special report on global outage failures

Watch the full special report on a massive global technical outage tied to CrowdStrike. This cybersecurity provider has knocked critical computer infrastructure offline nationwide and worldwide.

Heath care providers report problems with patient services

Carlo Angerer

Reporting from MAINZ, Germany

A university hospital system in northern Germany has cancelled elective procedures and all outpatient services today due to the IT outage. University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, with its locations in Kiel and Lübeck, says its patient care and emergency services are not affected.

The British National Health Service said the outage was causing "disruption in the majority of GP practices," referring to the general practitioners who act as a first point of contact to access most health services in the U.K.

These family doctors can't access the appointment and patient record system, an NHS spokesperson said, adding that receptionists would be "using paper patient records and handwritten prescriptions,"

CrowdStrike CEO blames content update 'defect' for widespread outages

It was not a cyberattack but a faulty update, said George Kurtz, chief executive of CrowdStrike, the cybersecurity company being held responsible for today's tech outage.

"CrowdStrike is actively working with customers impacted by a defect found in a single content update for Windows hosts," he said.

"The issue has been identified, isolated and a fix has been deployed," added in a post on X. He said customers were impacted by a defective update that affected PCs running Microsoft's Windows operating system.

"This is not a security incident or cyberattack," he said.

"We further recommend organizations ensure they’re communicating with CrowdStrike representatives through official channels," Kurtz said, adding, "Our team is fully mobilized to ensure the security and stability of CrowdStrike customers."

Microsoft: Outages caused by 'storage incident' and Crowdstrike cybersecurity update

This morning's enormous tech outage was caused, in part, by a "storage incident" that impacted a number of Microsoft's Azure cloud services, which powers everything from banks to airport handling systems.

The issue has been mitigated, Microsoft said in a statement , but the company is still "in the process of validating recovery," of the affected services.

Microsoft said another issue is the "CrowdStrike Falcon agent," a cybersecurity platform used by businesses globally that is separate from Microsoft, that was causing the "blue screen of death," on PCs running the Windows operating system.

"We can confirm the affected update has been pulled by CrowdStrike," it said.

CrowdStrike said in a statement on Reddit , that its engineering team had reverted the software updates affecting the issue, and outlined a temporary technical workaround.

Blue Windows error screens seen everywhere from Macy's to LAX

Reporting from LONDON

The all-too-familiar Windows error screen — often dubbed the "blue screen of death" by some weary users — could seen on public screens across the United States this morning.

A big screen outside Macy's at Herald Square in New York showed the blue screen and a "Recovery" message, as did terminals at LAX Airport and Minneapolis- St. Paul Airport.

The blue screen curse struck across the world too, with social media users posting photos from London, New Delhi and Istanbul.

Major airports hit by widespread hourlong delays

Some of the world's busiest airports have been hit with average departure delays of more than an hour, data from the flight-tracking platform flightradar24 showed.

Amsterdam's Schipol Airport was experiencing average delays of 75 minutes, with 88% of its flights delayed today. Dozens of flights have been delayed with an average of nearly 50 minutes in both Barcelona and Rome.

Major airports in India, including in the capital city of New Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Chennai are topping charts with delays of up to an hour.

At one of the world’s busiest cargo hubs, Memphis International Airport in Tennessee, 97% flights have been delayed with average delay of an hour.

Airports affected worldwide, from Berlin to Hong Kong

Airports worldwide are advising passengers to arrive earlier for their flights as airlines scramble to check-in passengers manually.

"The affected airlines have switched to manual check-in to continue serving passengers," Hong Kong's airport authority said in a statement , adding it had activated its "emergency response mechanism."

India's New Delhi airport said "some of its services" had been impacted, while Germany's Berlin airport warned of check-in delays. Some airlines at Singapore's Changi airport are also checking-in passengers manually, the airport said in a post on X.

Delays were reported by two of Australia's biggest airports, in Sydney and Melbourne.

British broadcaster Sky News back on air after outage

The British broadcaster Sky News, NBC's partner in the U.K., was back on air early today after 9.30 a.m. (4.30 a.m. ET) after being taken offline by the ongoing issues related to Microsoft cloud services.

The broadcaster's business presenter, Ian King, said this morning was "the biggest IT outage the world has ever seen."

Local businesses affected in Australian capital, Canberra

A sign notifies customers of a temporary closure due to IT issues at a Liquor store in Canberra, Australia, today.

House cybersecurity member says airlines have ordered a "global ground stop"

Three major U.S. airlines, United, American and Delta, have all ordered global ground stops, according to a senior Democratic member of the House Cybersecurity Committee.

Eric Swalwell, D-Calif., said on X that the airlines had not issued statements to this effect so far and he urged them to do so.

ChatGPT: Disruptive or Constructive?

Thursday, Jul 18, 2024 • Jeremiah Valentine : [email protected]

What is Chat GPT?

ChatGPT is a popular emerging technology using Artificial Intelligence. GPT stands for Generative Pre-trained Transformer, which describes an AI program that looks for patterns in language and data learning to predict the next word in a sentence or the next paragraph in an essay. The website has a friendly interface that allows users to interact with AI in a n efficient conversational tone . ChatGPT provides another opportunity for students, instructors, researchers, workers, and others to find practical solutions to everyday and complicated problems.

At the root of this conversation is Artificial Intelligence. I plan to explore applicable uses of AI and ChatGPT in the classroom , entrepreneurial potential uses, and applications in industry .

Everyday Uses of Artificial Intelligence

The use of Artificial I ntelligence varies based on the user and their end goal. While many individuals will use certain programs or websites to meet specific objectives , many companies and apps have begun to utilize this emerging technology to better meet their customer's needs.

Duolingo is a popular foreign language learning application that I use to supplement my Spanish studies . The app uses Artificial Intelligence to assess users' knowledge and understanding as they interact with the program , thus streamlining users learning outcomes.

As another example, Khan Academy is a free online resource that helps teachers and students learn any level of math or other grade school topics for free. They have created Khanmigo , using AI. The model acts as a tutor that helps work through a problem while not directly providing the answer. It can assist in writing an essay or solving a complex math problem step by step.

These everyday applications continue a trend of companies implementing this new technolog y into students and teachers' lives . . This new AI technology also allows business professionals to enhance aspects of their processes.

Entrepreneurs, A.I. and the Advantages

While AI already provides companies and organizations with new ways to interact with and better support their customers, AI could also provide emerging industries and entrepreneurs with new paths to business success.

According to Entrpreneur.com, most businesses currently use AI for customer service purposes , however , AI could also help entrepreneurs create effective spreadsheets cataloging useful data with accuracy that can be incredibly specific or broad. Specifically with customer service, AI can quickly find what a customer needs and solve their problems efficiently. It could also analyze how effective marketing campaigns are influencing customers’ purchases.

As I researched for more information about this topic, I found an article in The Journal of Business Venturing Insights published in March 2023, sharing different techniques business students can use ChatGPT as an asset to generate entrepreneurial business pitches. The article titled “ The Artificially Intelligent Entrepreneur” written by Cole Short, an Assistant Professor of Strategy at Pepperdine University, and Jeremy C. Short, a UTA alumni and Professor at the University of North Texas at Denton, showcased different elevator pitch scenarios.

Students and entrepreneurs study CEOs who have impacted an industry dynamically; the CEO's mentality is an asset . I had the opportunity to question Dr. Jeremy Short on how he arrived at the initial question of using AI as a CEO archetype business consultant. An archetype is a symbol, term, or pattern of behavior which others have replicated or emulated.

He responded, “ We used this existing framework and selected a CEO from each archetype and used ChatGPT to create elevator pitches, social media pitches, and crowdfunding pitches. The strength of ChatGPT is based largely on the creativity of the prompt, which is where we aim as authors.”

CEO Archetypes and Prompt Engineering

ChatGPT allows the user to understand the archetypes of successful CEOs and collaborate with entrepreneurial styles. These archetypes are accessible options to consult with AI. Let ’ s break down different CEO archetypes students used during this study:

Creator CEOs are typically serial entrepreneurs and serve during the growth stages of developing new businesses. These individuals are risk takers recognizing opportunities that others don ’ t see. Elon Musk, CEO of Tesla, SpaceX, and Twitter is the creator archetype.

Transformer CEOs are created by climbing the ladder of a successful business and adding new ideas . They have a firm understanding of the company's culture and work to dramatically change the company, separating it from missteps in the past. Indra Nooyi CEO of PepsiCo is the transformer archetype.

Savior CEOs rescue businesses on the verge of failure with disciplined actions, unique experience and insights they forge a successful path forward for declining businesses. Lisa Su, CEO of AMD is the savior archetype.

ChatGPT was prompted to write an elevator pitch in the style of the previously listed CEOs.

The response for Elon Musk included language about “ building” a product with “ cutting-edge technology.”

Indra Nooyi ’s response included phrases like “ the world is changing” and making “ a positive impact in the world.”

Lisa Su's response produced a pitch speaking about being “ accountable, tough and disciplined” with an emphasis on “ a strong focus on efficiency and performance.”

However, I believe these positions can help entrepreneurs develop their own successful business practices; creating a product your former employer could use to gain an advantage over the competition is disruptive. B uying a company on the brink of bankruptcy that has been mismanaged is a scenario entrepreneurs have explored and practiced .

Prompt engineering is the description of a task AI can accomplish , with instructions embedded in the input. Using prompt engineering, users can fine-tune their input to achieve a desired output incorporating a task description to guide the AI model.

Conversation around ChatGPT and Artificial Intelligence

I asked Dr. Short about how students could use this technology as an asset that guides their learning and, additionally, how instructors can use this as well. He spoke about an assignment he is currently using in his classes. “ Chat GPT might be valuable in helping create a recipe for material that students can then refine. For example, in my social entrepreneurship class students create crowdfunding campaigns for either DonorsChoose , a platform that caters to public school teachers or GoFundMe , a service which allows a variety of project types to a larger userbase . I plan on students using ChatGPT to create a ‘rough draft’ to show me so I can see how they refine their responses for their particular campaigns this upcoming fall.” Th is approach allows students to take advantage of popular technology in a constructive way.

The journal article provided some notable conclusions about ChatGPT , i ncluding “ quality control is essential when using automated tools; a hallmark of success for large language models is their vast associative memory, this strength can also be a weakness. Specifically, models such as OpenAI’s GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 are capable of confidently generating “ hallucinated” output that appears correct but, it is incorrect or completely fabricated. ChatGPT serves as an emerging tool that can efficiently and flexibly produce a range of narrative content for entrepreneurs and serve to inspire future research at the intersection of entrepreneurship and AI.” ChatGPT ’s limitations and potential applications are continually being explored.

Industry Application

After researching various applications of AI, I spoke with Dr. George Benson, Professor and Department Chair of the Department of Management at The University of Texas at Arlington, about AI and ChatGPT from an industry perspective. His research focuses on Artificial Intelligence with Human Resource Management .

Dr. Benson told me that Artificial Intelligence is being invested heavily by human resource departments who are looking to automate hiring practices. Specifically, he mentioned “ HR is using this as a market opportunity. AI is a useful tool to sift through potential applicants by scanning their resumes for qualifications and experiences. Allowing professionals to hire applicants faster.”

This application allows the technology to handle low-level tasks, but the results generated are being handed to a human to review and act on. He spoke about the potential of A.I. “ There are a lot of unknowns, but the technology is new and getting better.” Looking towards the future, technology is already being applied in different ways . These applications are being explored in the classrooms of UTA as well.

Exploration of AI at UTA

The College of Business conduct ed a survey to understand the faculty’s attitude towards A I in the classroom. It was a part of the “Teaching with Chat GPT” workshop on Friday February 9 th , which focus ed on how to integrate Chat GPT and other AI platforms into teaching .

Dr. Kevin Carr, a Clinical Assistant Professor of Marketing at UTA, was a part of the workshop ; he currently teaches Advanced Business Communication . I talked to him about the purpose of the workshop and what he hopes to gain from the group's sessions.

Dr. Carr explained "The point of the workshop is designed to give faculty ideas for instruction and to develop classroom activities to work with students . Our goal for th e workshop is to introduce Artificial Intelligence as a teaching tool for faculty, including showing what AI can do potentially in the classroom. We are going to be very open to faculty’s direction, in terms of ongoing discu ssions and meetings.”

Personal Take

Artificial Intelligence or Chat GPT , in my view, is another useful tool in the toolbox of technology. It will take the air out of certain industries, and it will change jobs, yet every major technological advancement has the potential to do so. The automobile was considered radical, the use of plastic, computers in the workplace, and alternative energy have been impactful on society.

Alternative energy was headlined as the end of oil use. The automobile changed the way cities were formed and led to the creation of a national highway system. Society has always found a way to adapt and overcome major technological innovations, artificial intelligence is not any different.

AI is the technology of tomorrow. It reminds me of something Dr. George Benson said , “ It's cool software that is a sophisticated search engine.” Google, one of the most popular search engines, reshaped the internet, as you search for resources, it is a natural starting point. AI and ChatGPT are an evolution, for students it is a tremendous resource consulting a CEO archetype, creating business pitches, and most importantly shaping the future .

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