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Free Chicago Citation Generator

Generate citations in Chicago style automatically, with MyBib!

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😕 What is a Chicago Citation Generator?

A Chicago Citation Generator is a software tool that automatically generates citations and bibliographies in the Chicago citation style.

Citations can be created by entering an identifying piece of information about a source, such as a website URL, book ISBN, or journal article DOI to the generator. The generator will then create a fully formatted citation in the Chicago style containing all the required information for the source.

Chicago style citations are used to give credit to the authors of supporting work that has been used to write an academic paper or article.

👩‍🎓 Who uses an Chicago Citation Generator?

The Chicago style is primarily used by college and university students studying business, history, social sciences, the fine arts, amongst others.

🙌 Why should I use a Chicago Citation Generator?

Citing sources is often an afterthought in paper writing because formatting citations correctly is time-consuming and confusing, and staying on top of source management manually can be hard. A citation generator makes this easier by:

  • Decreasing the time you would spend formatting citations correctly
  • Managing the recording and organization of every citation for you

In short, there is no reason not to use a citation generator in academic writing.

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's Chicago Citation Generator?

To get started, scroll up back up to the tool at the top of the page and follow these steps:

  • Select the type of source you want to cite
  • If it's a website, enter the URL in the search bar. If it's a book, enter the ISBN or title. If it's a journal article, enter the DOI or title. For all other sources, enter the details of the source into the form
  • Select the search result that most closely represents the source you referred to in your paper
  • Shazam! The generator will automatically format the citation in the Chicago style. Copy it into your paper, or save it to your bibliography to download later
  • Repeat for every other citation you need to create for your paper

MyBib supports the following for Chicago style:

⚙️ StylesChicago 17th edition
📚 SourcesWebsites, books, journals, newspapers
🔎 AutociteYes
📥 Download toMicrosoft Word, Google Docs

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Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.

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BibGuru Chicago Citation Generator

Cite websites, books, articles, ...

BibGuru Chicago Citation Generator citation generator

What is a Chicago citation generator and how can it help you?

Getting citations and reference lists correctly done can be very confusing and time-consuming.

The good news is that our Chicago citation generator can do it automatically for you and it is FREE to use! 🎉

Not convinced yet? Here are 5 reasons why you are going to love the BibGuru Chicago citation maker :

😌 No flood of distracting ads

👌 Simple and intuitive interface

🎓 Chicago, APA, MLA, Harvard and thousands of other citation styles

🥇 Most accurate citation data

With BibGuru we have made a citation tool that truly helps students to focus on the content of their work instead of worrying about how to get their reference list correctly done.

Those days of wasting time entering data manually or losing grades on incorrect bibliographies are finally gone!

If you need to know more about Chicago citations check out our How do I cite in Chicago style? section or our detailed Chicago citation guides .

Why, when, and what do I have to cite?

Why The broad scientific knowledge we have today is the accomplishment of many researchers over time. To put your own contribution in context , it is important to cite the work of the researchers who influenced you. Cited sources can provide key background information, support or dispute your thesis, or offer important definitions and data. Citing also shows that you have personally read the work.

When In addition to crediting the ideas of others that you used to build your own argument, you need to provide documentation for all facts and figures that are not common knowledge. Common knowledge is knowledge that is known by everyone, or nearly everyone, and can basically concern any subject. An example for common knowledge would be "There are seven days in a week".

What The number of sources you cite in your work depends on the intent of the paper. In most cases, you will need to cite one or two of the most representative sources for each key point. However, if you are working on a review article, the aim is to present to the readers everything that has been written on a topic, so you will need to include a more exhaustive list of citations.

What is the Chicago citation style?

Chicago book image

The Chicago format was developed by the University of Chicago Press in 1906. The first edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, a compilation of the typographical rules in force at the University of Chicago Press, had 203 pages and evolved into a comprehensive reference style guide of 1,146 pages in its seventeenth edition. It was one of the first editorial style guides published in the US and has largely impacted research methodology standardization, particularly citation style.

The style guide specifically focuses on American English and also deals with aspects of editorial practice, including grammar and usage, as well as document preparation and formatting. For citations, the Chicago style offers authors the choice between two formats:

  • The notes and bibliography system: Preferred by many working in the humanities (literature, history, the arts,..). Sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes in the text and listed in a separate bibliography.
  • The author-date system: Often used in the sciences and social sciences. Sources are briefly cited in the text (usually in parentheses, author's last name and year of publication), and matched up with an entry in a reference list with full bibliographic information.

Aside from the use of numbered footnotes vs. parenthetical citations in-text, the two systems share a similar style. If you are not sure which system to use in your paper, ask your instructor. Using the correct system can have a great impact on your grade, so be sure clarify that before starting with your paper.

How to cite in the notes and bibliography system?

Instead of naming the authors in the text, which can be distracting to the reader, numbers are used to denote citations in the notes and bibliography system. These numbers in the text are linked to a full reference in footnotes or endnotes and in your bibliography. Cited publications are numbered in the order in which they are first referred to in the text. Please make sure to follow the rules below when citing in this system:

  • Check whether footnotes or endnotes are required for your work. Footnotes are found at the bottom of a page and endnotes are located at the end of a document, or sometimes at the end of a chapter or section.
  • All notes end with a full stop (in both footnotes/endnotes and bibliography).
  • In the footnotes, author names should be first name followed by last name, for example 'Gregg Levoy'. In the bibliography, author names should be last name followed by first name, for example 'Levoy, Gregg'.
  • If there are up to three authors of a source, give their names in your references in the order they are shown in the source. For four or more authors, give the name of the first author, followed by 'et al.' in the footnotes, but list all the authors in the bibliography. The first author's name is given in the bibliography as last name, first name, but other authors are written as first name last name.
  • Italicize the title of books, journals and websites. Titles of articles, chapters, unpublished sources and web pages within a website are placed within double quotation marks.
  • In your bibliography, also include sources you have read but not cited, in addition to your footnotes/endnotes.
  • The first time you cite a source give full details in the footnotes/endnotes. Subsequent entries of the same source can be abbreviated to the author's last name and the first few words of the title, plus a page number number.
  • When citing internet addresses (URLs) and Digital Object Identifiers (DOI), the URL is given in full; the accessed date is placed before the URL; and DOIs should be used if they are available as they are a permanent locator, instead of URLs. If using a DOI, you do not need to give the accessed date.
  • Formatting: The first line of footnotes should be indented by 1/2 inch (1.3cm) and subsequent lines are not indented. For the bibliography the first line of references is not indented, but the second and subsequent lines have a hanging indent of 1/2 inch (1.3cm).

The citation order for a book in the notes and bibliography system would be:

  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition (only if it is not the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher, year of publication (all in round brackets in footnote, but not in bibliography)
  • Comma then page reference in footnote

David Halliday, Robert Resnick, and Jearl Walker, Fundamentals of Physics (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2013), 18.

Bibliography:

Halliday, David, Robert Resnick, and Jearl Walker. Fundamentals of Physics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2013.

Here is the citation order and an example for a citation of a journal article:

  • Title of article (in double quotation marks)
  • Title of journal (in italics)
  • Volume number, issue number
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Colon then page reference in footnote or page span in bibliography

Peter Leach, "James Paine's Design for the South Front of Kedleston Hall: Dating and Sources," Architectural History 40 (1997): 160.

Leach, Peter. "James Paine's Design for the South Front of Kedleston Hall: Dating and Sources." Architectural History 40 (1997): 159-70

How to cite in the author-date system?

As with APA or Harvard style, the Chicago author-date format uses in-text citations comprising the author's name and year of publication (and specific page reference if required). A reference list (rather than a bibliography) at the end of the work provides full bibliographical details for the sources used, listed in alphabetical order.

The major difference between the two systems in the form of the references is the position of the year of publication. In the notes and bibliography system the year comes towards the end of the reference, whereas in the author-date system it is on the second place in the reference, right after the author's name.

Axler, Sheldon. 2017. Linear Algebra Done Right. New York: Springer.

While all the specific rules of the Chicago citation style might sound very complicated, you don't need to worry about getting them wrong with BibGuru.

Use our Chicago citation generator above to create the fastest and most accurate Chicago citations possible.

If you want to know more about Chicago citations check out our Chicago citation guides to get detailed information on the various publication types.

Getting citations and reference lists correctly done can be very confusing and time-consuming. The BibGuru Chicago citation generator will help you focus on the content of your work instead of worrying about how to get their reference list correctly done.

You can create a reference in the BibGuru Chicago citation generator by entering the URL/title/doi or other identifier of your source into the search box, choose a category, click enter, and that's it. You have a 100% correct reference in Chicago style in seconds.

Yes, you can create in-text citations in the BibGuru Chicago citation generator. All you have to do is click on the 'Bibliography and in-text citations' button at the top of the reference list, and this will automatically create an in-text citation for every reference.

Yes, the BibGuru Chicago citation generator is free.

The Chicago style is used mainly in the humanities (literature, history, the arts,..) or in the social sciences (business). While the notes and bibliography is mainly used in the humanities, the author-date system is preferably used in the social sciences.

The text in your paper should be double-spaced. Footnotes and bibliographies are single-spaced, but need to have a double-space in between the entries.

Yes, the Chicago style has guidelines for a title page. Some of the key guidelines are:

  • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page
  • Other information (your name, class, etc.) follows several lines later
  • All text is aligned in the center and double-spaced
  • No page number is included on the title page

In the notes and bibliography system, you always include page numbers. In in-text citations you give a page number when you are paraphrasing or quoting directly from the text, or referring to information from a specific section.

While The Chicago Manual of Style does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, it makes several recommendations. You can read some of them here .

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Copy the information below in your paper according to the Guide on the right. Use your own page numbers.

APA 7 In-text citation guide

In-text citations are required when you use someone else's ideas, theories or research in your paper.

Quick Guide

Examples: (choose depending if author and/or date is mentioned in text)

Quotation :

  • "The bones were very fragile" (Cole, 2019, p. 13).
  • Cole (2019) found that "The bones were very fragile" (p. 33).
  • In 2019, Cole found that "The bones were very fragile" (p. 33).

Paraphrase :

  • The bones broke easily because they were porous (Cole, 2011).
  • Cole (2011) discovered that the bones broke easily.
  • In 2011, Cole found that the bones were easily broken (p. 33).

Note: APA style encourages the inclusion of page numbers for paraphrases, but it is not mandatory. Include page or paragraph numbers if it will help reader find the information.

No authors : Use the title in place of author. Shorten title if needed. Use double quotation marks for title of an article, a chapter, or a web page. Use italics for title of a periodical, a book, a brochure or a report.

  • the observations found ("Arctic Voyage," 2014)
  • the book Vitamin Discoveries (2013)

Two authors : Within the text use the word  and .  If the authors' names are within parentheses use the  &  symbol.

  • Cole and Dough (1998) argued ...
  • ...if they were left to their own devices.(Cole & Dough, 1998)

Three or more authors:   Include only the last name of the first author followed by "et al."

(Wasserstein et al., 2017)

Spell out the name in full the first time and abbreviate subsequent times only if abbreviation is well known.

  • First time: American Psychological Association (2020) explained...
  • Second time: APA (2020) proved ...

When quoting always provide author, year and specific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginated material.

If the quotation is less than 40 words incorporate it into the text and enclose the quotation with quotation marks. Cite the source immediately after the close of the quotation marks.

If the authors are named in the text, they do not have to be used in the citation.

In fact, "a neurosis is characterized by anxiety" (Kristen & Warb, 2012, p. 157).

"A neurosis is characterized by anxiety," according to Kristen and Warb's (2012, p. 157) longitudinal study.

If the quotation is over 40 words, you must indent the entire quotation and start the quotation on a new line. No quotation marks are required. Cite the quoted source after the final punctuation mark.

Alberta is occasionally divided into two regions, Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta. The majority of Alberta's population is located in large urban cities, mostly located in the South. Alberta is Canada's most populous province of all three Canadian Prairie provinces. Edmonton is the Capital of Alberta. (Hern, 1996, p. 22)

Paraphrasing

APA style encourages the inclusion of page numbers, but it is not mandatory. Include page or paragraph numbers if it will help reader find the information.

  • (Reiton, 2003, para. 3)

If the document does not contain page numbers, include paragraph numbers.

  • (Reiton, 2003, para. 3).   

If neither is available omit page and paragraph numbers.  Do not count paragraph numbers.  

When paraphrasing from multiple sources, include all authors name in parentheses in alphabetical order.

  • (Cole, 2006; Mann & Arthur, 2011; Zigmung, 2000).

APA In-Text Citation Guide

  • "The bones were very fragile" (Cole, 2011, p. 13).
  • Cole (2011) found that "The bones were very fragile" (p. 33).
  • In 2011, Cole found that "The bones were very fragile" (p. 33).

Note: APA style encourages the inclusion of page numbers for paraphrases, but it is not mandatory. Include page or paragraph numbers if it will help reader find the information.)

Two or more authors : Within the text use the word  and .  If the authors' names are within parentheses use the  &  symbol.

Three to five authors : Include all authors' last names the first time the citation is used.  If you use the same citation again within the same paragraph, use only the first last name followed by 'et al'.  If you used the citation again omit the year. 

  • First time:   Cole, Dough and Ferris (1998) explained...
  • Second time:  Cole et al. (1998) proved ...
  • Third time:  Cole et al. demonstrated...

Six or more authors:   Include only the last name of the first author followed by "et al."

(Wasserstein et al., 2010)

  • First time: American Psychological Association (1998) explained...
  • Second time: APA (1998) proved ...

Alberta is occasionally divided into two regions, Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta. The majority of Alberta's population is located in large urban cities, mostly located in the South. Alberta is Canada's most populous Province of all three Canadian prairie provinces. Edmonton is the Capital of Alberta. (Hern, 1996, p. 22)

In-Text Citations Parenthetical Citations

In-text citations are called parenthetical references in MLA. This involves placing information about the source in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase. The information in the parenthetical references must match the corresponding information in the list of works cited.

The purpose of parenthetical references is to indicate to readers not only what works you used, but what you used from each source and where in the source you found the material. This can be done by inserting a parenthetical reference in your text at the spot where you have used the source's ideas or words.

You should keep parenthetical references as brief and as few as clarity and accuracy permit.

General Guidelines

  • The Soviets were surrounded by enemies (Waters 119).
  • Waters argues that the Soviets were surrounded by enemies (119).

Authors – Identification of source

  • (Natl. Research Council 15)
  • Do not use abbreviations such as ed. or trans.
  • ("The evolving internet")
  • (Black and Mondoux 123)
  • (Eddison, Zhu, and Lalonde)
  • (Becker et al. 13)
  • (Becker, Lafontaine, Robins, Given, and Rush 13)
  • (Feder, The Birth of a Nation 124)

Location of passage within source

  • give relevant page number if available
  • give volume and page number in a multivolume work
  • if citing entire work omit page numbers
  • (Louis par. 20)
  • film, television, broadcasts cannot be cited by numbers

Placement of parenthetical reference in text

  • Cole found that "The bones were very fragile" (33-34).
Alberta is occasionally divided into two regions, Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta. The majority of Alberta's population is located in large urban cities, mostly located in the South. Alberta is Canada's most populous Province of all three Canadian prairie provinces. Edmonton is the Capital of Alberta. (Herick 22)
  • In Chicago style, footnotes or endnotes are used to reference pieces of work in the text.
  • To cite from a source a superscript number is placed after a quote or a paraphrase.
  • Citation numbers should appear in sequential order.
  • Each number then corresponds to a citation, a footnote or to an endnote.
  • Endnotes must appear on an endnotes page. The page should be titled Notes (centered at top). This page should appear immediately before the bibliography page.
  • Footnotes must appear at the bottom of the page that they are referred to.  

Example:   Cole found that "The bones were very fragile" (33-34). 1

Each superscript then refers to a numbered citation in the footnotes or endnotes.

Footnotes/endnotes:

The first time the in-text reference is cited you must include, author's first name, author's last name, title, place of publication, publisher name, year and referenced pages. e.g.

1. James Smith, The first and last war , (New York, Hamilton, 2003), 2.

If the citation has already been cited it may be shortened to author's last name, shortened title, and page referenced number. e.g.

2. Smith, The first , 220-221.

If the citation has been referenced immediately prior, the note may be shortened even further to ibid with the page number. e.g.

3. Ibid., 786.

For each author-date citation in the text, there must be a corresponding entry in the reference list under the same name and date.

An author-date citation in running text or at the end of a block quotation consists of the last (family) name of the author, followed by the year of publication of the work in question. In this context, author may refer not only to one or more authors or an institution but also to one or more editors, translators, or compilers. No punctuation appears between author and date. Abbreviations such as ed. or trans. are omitted.

(Woodward 1987)

(Schuman and Scott 1987)

When a specific page, section, equation, or other division of the work is cited, it follows the date, preceded by a comma. When a volume as a whole is referred to, without a page number, vol. is used. For volume plus page, only a colon is needed. The n in the Fischer and Siple example below indicates "note" (see 14.164 ). The last example shows how one might cite a section of a work that contains no page or section numbers or other numerical signposts—the case for some electronic documents (see 15.8 ).

(Piaget 1980, 74)

(LaFree 2010, 413, 417–18)

(Johnson 1979, sec. 24)

Fowler and Hoyle 1965, eq. 87)

(García 1987, vol. 2)

(García 1987, 2:345)

(Barnes 1998, 2:354–55, 3:29)

(Fischer and Siple 1990, 212n3)

(Hellman 1998, under "The Battleground")

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Our Complete Guide to Citing in Chicago 17 Format

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Welcome to our Chicago Style guide, where footnotes reign supreme and bibliographies shine brighter than the skyline of the Windy City itself! This style is often used in history, arts, and social sciences, offering a robust and versatile method for crediting your sources.

It's time to trade your deep-dish pizza for a deep dive into the realm of the Chicago Manual of Style — brace yourself to become an expert in one of academia's most exciting citation styles.

Let's get started, shall we?

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Chicago style overview.

The Chicago Manual of Style, often abbreviated as CMS, is a highly respected style guide within academic and publishing circles. Its comprehensive approach covers a broad range of topics, making it an ideal tool for authors, editors, proofreaders, indexers, and more. Primarily used within the fields of history and the humanities, the Chicago Style is known for its flexibility, offering two distinct citation methods: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB) and the Author-Date System.

The NB system is generally preferred for humanities papers that require broad source material, while the Author-Date system is more common in the physical, natural, and social sciences.

In the Notes-Bibliography system , you cite sources in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a superscripted note number in the text. This system allows for a wide range of sources, and flexibility in terms of the types of information you can include.

The Author-Date system , on the other hand, involves in-text citations, featuring the author's last name, the year of publication, and page numbers if relevant. This is followed by a reference list, similar to the one in APA style.

The choice between the two systems often depends on the subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as both are equally recognized within the Chicago style.

Format Chicago Style Footnotes

What are footnotes?

Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page in a document that comment on or cite a reference for a designated part of the text above it. In the Chicago Style, footnotes are used to cite sources and provide additional information.

Where should footnotes be placed?

Footnotes should be located at the bottom of the page where the reference occurs. They are typically separated from the main body of text by a line, beginning at the left margin of the paper.

Each footnote is indented and numbered consecutively throughout a piece of writing. The number appears after the relevant punctuation mark — for instance, at the end of a sentence following the period. If the reference applies to a sentence or a part of it, the footnote should come after the comma or the final punctuation.

How to insert footnotes?

Most word processing software like Microsoft Word and Google Docs have built-in features to add footnotes. In Word, you can add a footnote by clicking on the "References" tab and then selecting "Insert Footnote." In Google Docs, click on "Insert" then "Footnote."

How to format footnotes in the Chicago Style?

After inserting the footnote, you should write the citation. The first line of each footnote is indented five spaces, and the line is single-spaced with one line space between each note. The note number is followed by a period and a space.

Footnote numbers should be superscripted in the text, but the numbers in the footnote section at the bottom of the page should be full-sized, followed by a period.

Subsequent references to the same text can be shortened to the author's last name, the title (shortened if longer than four words), and the page number(s).

Consistency is key!

It's important to remain consistent in your use of footnotes throughout your document. Always use the same style and follow the same rules for every footnote.

Full or Shortened Footnote?

Footnotes in Chicago style can be presented in two forms: full and shortened. These two formats are used depending on whether a source is cited for the first time or in subsequent citations.

Full Footnotes

Full footnotes are used when a source is cited for the first time in a text. They include complete bibliographic information, such as the author's name, the title of the source, the publication date, and any other relevant details.

For example, the format for a full footnote for a book citation would be as follows:

Shortened Footnotes

Shortened footnotes are used for subsequent citations of a source already cited in a full footnote. They typically include only the author's last name, a shortened title (if the title is long), and the page number(s).

Shortened footnotes help maintain readability while still providing necessary information for readers to locate the original source.

A shortened footnote for a book citation:

Tips for Using Full and Shortened Footnotes

To effectively use full and shortened footnotes in Chicago style, keep the following tips in mind:

  • Use a full footnote for the first citation of a source and shortened footnotes for subsequent citations.
  • Ensure that your footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout your document.
  • Use a consistent format for all full and shortened footnotes, adhering to the guidelines provided by the Chicago Manual of Style.
  • Include a bibliography at the end of your document to provide a complete list of sources cited, further facilitating research for your readers.

Below you will find an example of how these two types of Chicago footnotes would look like in an actual paper:

Screenshot of a Chicago reference page

Format Your Bibliography in Chicago Style

A bibliography is an essential part of any research paper, allowing readers to easily locate the sources you've cited. In the Chicago style, the bibliography is placed at the end of your work and provides full information about each source.

  • Placement: The bibliography should appear at the end of your paper, on its own new page(s). The word "Bibliography" should be centered at the top of the page.
  • Order: Entries in the bibliography should be listed in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author. If there's no author, use the title of the work.
  • Indentation: Use a hanging indent for each entry. This means the first line is aligned with the left margin, and any subsequent lines are indented by 0.5 inches.
  • Line Spacing: Entries should be single-spaced, but there should be one blank line space between each entry.
  • Capitalization: In titles and subtitles, capitalize the first word, the last word, and all principal words. This includes words that follow hyphens in compound terms.
  • Punctuation: In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by periods.
  • Titles: Book and periodical titles should be italicized. If the work is an article or a chapter from a larger work, the title should be in quotation marks, and the book or periodical title that follows should be italicized.

Screenshot of a Chicago reference page

The exact format may vary depending on the source type (e.g., book with multiple authors, edited volumes, online sources, etc.). Always consult the Chicago Manual of Style or your professor/assignment guidelines for any specific formatting rules.

Cite Books in Chicago Style

The Chicago Style provides two primary citation styles: the Notes and Bibliography system, used mainly in the humanities, and the Author-Date system, typically used in the sciences. The format for citing books varies depending on the system used.

In the Notes and Bibliography system, the first note for each source provides full bibliographic information. For a book, this includes the author's name, the book's title (in italics), the city of publication, the publisher's name, and the year of publication.

Subsequent notes for the same source can be shortened to the author's last name, a shortened version of the title, and the page number. In the bibliography, the author's name is inverted (last name first), and the elements of the citation are separated by periods instead of commas.

Here's the general format for a book citation in Notes and Bibliography:

First note:

Chicago full note citation for a book:

Subsequent notes:

Below you will see the standard structure for a bibliography entry for a book citation in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography style:

For Example:

In the Author-Date system, a brief parenthetical citation, including the author's last name, the year of publication, and a page number, appears in the text. Full bibliographic details are provided in a reference list at the end of the document, arranged alphabetically by author's last name.

Here's the general format for a book citation in Author-Date:

In-text citation:

Reference list:

For books with multiple authors, editors, editions, volumes, or translated versions, the citation format can become more complex. Always consult the CMOS or a trusted citation guide for more specific instructions.

Cite Journal Articles in Chicago Style

Like with book citations, Chicago style provides two primary citation styles for journal articles: the Notes and Bibliography system and the Author-Date system.

Here's the general format for a journal article citation in Notes and Bibliography:

Chicago full note citation for a journal article:

For example:

Here's the general format for a journal article citation in Author-Date:

In-text citation for a journal article:

Reference list entry for a journal article:

Let's delve into some more complex scenarios for citing journal articles in Chicago.

If a journal article has more than one author, list the authors in the order they appear in the publication. Both in the notes and the bibliography, use "and" to separate the authors' names.

First note citation for a journal article with two authors in Notes and Bibliography:

Bibliography entry for a journal article with two authors:

If the article is from an online journal or a database, you should include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or URL at the end of the citation.

A first note citation for a journal article found in an online journal or a database:

Remember, these are just a few of the possible variations you might encounter when citing journal articles in Chicago style. Always consult the CMOS or a reliable citation guide for more specific instructions if you encounter unusual citation scenarios.

Cite Websites in Chicago Style

The Chicago Manual of Style provides a comprehensive guide for citing various types of sources, including websites. The aim is to provide a consistent and clear method for acknowledging sources and avoiding plagiarism. With the proliferation of digital content, it's increasingly common to cite websites in academic work.

While citing a website in Chicago style generally follows a standard format, there are exceptions and different scenarios that can alter this format. The main components include the author's name, the title of the web page, the name of the website, the publishing organization, the publication or revision date, and the URL.

Here's the general format for a journal article citation in Notes and Bibliography :

First note citation for a website:

Short note example:

Below you will see the standard structure for a bibliography entry for a website citation in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography style:

In the Author-Date system, a website is first cited briefly in the text, usually in parentheses, by author's last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Here's the general format for various website citations in the Author-Date style:

In-text citation for a website:

Reference list entry for a website:

If there's no author, start with the title of the webpage. If there's no publication date, use the abbreviation "n.d" and then include the access date after the website name.

Some Exceptions and Notes:

  • If the website name is essentially the same as the author, it can be omitted to avoid repetition.
  • If you cannot find a publication date or if the webpage is continuously updated, use an access date instead.
  • If the URL is excessively long or the result of a short-term search, provide the homepage or a more stable URL, if possible.
  • For blog posts, treat the blog like a periodical, and include the post title in quotation marks and the blog name in italics.

Cite Book Chapters in Chicago Style

In the vast landscape of academic writing, it's common to find valuable insights in a single chapter of a book rather than the entire volume. Whenever this occurs, it's important to correctly cite the specific chapter you're referencing. The Chicago Manual of Style offers comprehensive guidelines for citing book chapters. Both systems provided by Chicago style, the notes-bibliography style and the author-date style, accommodate chapter-specific citations.

Here's how you can structure book chapter citations in Notes and Bibliography :

Below you will see the standard structure for a bibliography entry for a book chapter citation in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography style:

In the Author-Date style , sources are cited briefly in the text, usually in parentheses, by author's last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

In-text citation for a book chapter:

Reference list entry for a book chapter:

However, there are a few special situations you might encounter when citing book chapters in Chicago. Here are a few potential exceptions and how to handle them:

No author :

If the chapter does not have a specific author, start with the chapter title in your citation.

No editor :

If the book doesn't have an editor, simply omit the "ed. Editor's First name Last name" from your citation.

Chapter in a single-author book :

If you're citing multiple chapters from the same book, and the book is written entirely by one author (not edited), you don't need to cite each chapter individually. Instead, you can cite the entire book. But, if you specifically want to emphasize different chapters, it is permissible to cite each one separately.

Translated or revised editions :

If you're citing from a translated or revised edition of a book, you should include this information in your citation. For translated books, after the title, add "translated by Translator's First name Last name." For revised editions, after the title, add the edition number (e.g., "2nd ed.").

Cite Newspaper & Magazine Articles in Chicago

As with book chapters, the Chicago Manual of Style provides two basic citation systems: notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and author-date style (sometimes called reference list style).

How to structure newspaper and magazine citations in Notes and Bibliography :

First note citation for a newspaper or magazine article:

Below you will see the standard structure for a bibliography entry for magazine and newspaper citations in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography style :

Here's the guide for citing newspaper and magazine articles in Author-Date :

In-text citation for a newspaper or magazine article:

Reference list entry for a newspaper or magazine article:

Exceptions and notes:

  • For newspaper articles, you typically do not need to include the specific page numbers in your citation.
  • If an article is unsigned, begin the citation with the title of the article.
  • If the article is from a wire service (e.g., Associated Press), use the service as the author in your citation.
  • When citing an online article, if a DOI is available, use it in place of a URL.
  • If the article is printed, and you don't have the exact date of publication, but only the year or month, adjust the citation accordingly.
  • If the article is from a daily newspaper or magazine, include the exact date of publication. If from a weekly or monthly publication, just the month and year are needed.
  • If an online article has no publication date, use the access date in its place.

Remember, the goal of citation is to provide enough information for readers to find the source material themselves. If you're ever in doubt, it's better to provide a bit too much information than too little.

Cite Conference Papers in Chicago Style

Conference papers can be a bit tricky because they're often published in various forms — a print collection of a conference's proceedings, a journal issue dedicated to the conference, or even not at all.

Regardless, below you will find a detailed guide on how to cite conference papers in both the Notes-Bibliography style and the Author-Date style according to the Chicago Manual of Style.

Here's how to structure conference paper citations in Notes and Bibliography :

First note citation for a conference paper:

Below you will see the standard structure for a bibliography entry for a conference paper citation in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography style:

Here's the guide for citing conference papers in the Author-Date style:

In-text citation for a conference paper:

Reference list entry for a conference paper:

  • If the conference paper is published in a journal or in conference proceedings, it should be cited according to the rules of that specific source type.
  • If you accessed the conference paper online, include the URL at the end of your citation.
  • If the conference paper is not formally published, the title should be capitalized sentence-style and not in italics or quotation marks.
  • If the conference name includes significant information about the conference's number, location or date, or the sponsoring institution, include it as part of the title in the citation.

Remember, the aim of citation is to provide enough information for your readers to be able to find the source material themselves. When in doubt, it's better to err on the side of providing more information.

Cite Films in Chicago Style

In academic and professional writing, sources of information and inspiration are often not limited to traditional print materials. Audio and visual sources, such as films, television episodes, podcasts, and music tracks, often provide rich insights and perspectives.

Citing these non-textual sources, however, can be a bit tricky. This guide aims to demystify the process by providing clear guidelines for citing audio and visual materials in both the Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date styles of the Chicago Manual of Style.

Here's how to structure audio and visual media citations in Notes and Bibliography :

Footnote for a film citation:

Below you will see the standard structure for a bibliography entry for film sources in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography style:

Here's the guide for citing audio and video sources in the Author-Date style :

In-text citation for a film:

Reference list entry for a film:

If the audio or visual material is part of a larger work (like a television episode in a series), the title of the larger work should be included in the citation.

Let's take an episode from the TV series "Stranger Things." Here's how you'd cite it:

Chicago full note citation for a TV show episode:

Chicago bibliography entry for a TV show episode:

  • For online audio or video files, include the URL at the end of your citation. If a DOI is available, use it in place of a URL.
  • If there are significant contributors besides the director or performer (like producers or screenplay writers), they can be included after the title.

As with other citation types, the goal is to provide enough information for your readers to be able to locate the source material themselves. When in doubt, include more information rather than less.

Cite Social Media Posts in Chicago Style

In today's digital age, social media platforms have become crucial sources of information, ideas, and discourse. From Twitter threads exploring the latest scientific discoveries to Instagram posts showcasing new artistic trends, these platforms are shaping the way we learn, communicate, and create. Now it's common to cite social media posts in academic and professional writing.

However, citing such sources can be challenging, given their unique structure and the often informal nature of the content. This guide aims to simplify the process by providing clear guidelines for citing social media posts in both the Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date styles of the Chicago Manual of Style.

When referencing brief social media content like tweets within your paper, it's enough to merely provide an in-text citation or footnote. However, if you're performing a detailed analysis or extensive discussion about such tweets, it would be appropriate to include them in the bibliography or references section.

Here's how to structure citations for social media posts in Notes and Bibliography :

Footnote for a social media post:

Footnote citation for a Twitter post:

Below you will see the standard structure for a bibliography entry for social media posts in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography style:

Here's the guide for citing social media posts in the Author-Date style:

In-text citation for a social media post:

Reference list entry for a social media post:

  • If the post is long, it is acceptable to use a shortened form of the post in the citation, followed by an ellipsis (...).
  • If the author's real name is not available, the username alone is sufficient.
  • When citing a post with a hashtag, include the hashtag in the citation.
  • Include the URL of the specific post when available, not just the URL of the platform or the user's profile.

As always, the main goal of citation is to provide enough information for readers to find the source material themselves. If you're ever in doubt, it's better to include more information rather than less.

Cite Images & Artwork in Chicago Style

Artwork and images often serve as powerful tools of communication, offering perspectives and insights that words alone may not fully capture. Whether it's a historical photograph, an avant-garde painting, or a poignant digital illustration, these visual forms of expression are increasingly being incorporated into academic and professional writing.

Citing these sources correctly, however, can be somewhat complex due to factors such as the medium, dimensions, location, and availability of the work. This guide aims to simplify this process, providing comprehensive instructions for citing images and artwork in both the Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date styles of the Chicago Manual of Style.

Here's how to structure citations for images and artwork in Notes and Bibliography :

Footnote for an image:

Below you will see the standard structure for a bibliography entry for images and artworks in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography style:

Here's the guide for citing images and artwork in the Author-Date style:

In-text citation for an image:

Reference list entry for an image:

For example :

Exceptions and notes :

  • If the artwork is viewed in person, omit the URL.
  • If the artwork is part of a larger publication and not viewed directly, cite it as you would any part of a book.

Unknown artist, Untitled (portrait of a woman in a red dress) , 1805, oil on canvas, Private Collection.

  • The dimensions of the artwork do not need to be included, but it can be helpful in some disciplines.
  • If the year of creation is unknown, use "n.d." for "no date."

Cite Theses & Dissertations in Chicago Style

Theses and dissertations represent the culmination of a significant body of work, often serving as an essential resource in their respective fields. Whether you are citing a master's thesis in history, a doctoral dissertation in psychology, or a similar work in any other discipline, it's important to credit this rigorous scholarly effort accurately. This guide provides detailed instructions for citing theses and dissertations in both the Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date Chicago Styles.

Below is the basic citation structure for theses and dissertations in the Notes and Bibliography format:

Footnote citation for a thesis or dissertation:

Below you will see the standard structure for a bibliography entry for theses and dissertations in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography style:

Here's the guide for citing theses and dissertations in the Author-Date style:

In-text citation for a thesis or dissertation:

Reference list entry for a thesis or dissertation:

If the thesis or dissertation was found in a public database, include the URL of the thesis. If the thesis or dissertation is not publicly accessible, or was read in print, omit the URL.

As with other citation types, the main goal is to provide enough information for your readers to be able to locate the source material themselves. When in doubt, include more information rather than less.

Cite Legal Documents in Chicago Style

Government and state documents serve as vital resources in a variety of academic fields, offering authoritative data, policy analysis, legislative history, and more. Given their diversity and the specific manner in which they are organized and referenced, citing these materials appropriately can be complex. This guide provides detailed instructions on citing legal and state documents in both the Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date styles of the Chicago Manual of Style.

Below is the basic citation structure for government documents in the Notes and Bibliography format:

Footnote citation for a government document:

Below you will see the standard structure for a bibliography entry for government and state documents in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography style:

For specific Federal or State Statutes or US Supreme Court Cases, the citations will follow a slightly different format, which you can see below.

Footnote structure for a Federal or State Statute:

Footnote structure for a US Supreme Court Case:

The Chicago Manual of Style doesn't provide many specific examples for citing legal materials in the Author-Date style, as this style is more common in physical, natural, and social sciences. However, it recommends referring to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation .

  • For cases or laws that have a well-known popular name, you may include that in your citation.
  • If the document is available online, include the URL and the date of access.
  • If you're citing the U.S. Constitution, abbreviate it as "U.S. Const."

Cite Classical Works in Chicago Style

Citations of ancient texts are typically confined to footnotes or endnotes, and only included in a bibliography when referencing commentary or annotations from a modern editor. The unique identifiers that mark distinct parts of classical pieces, including books, sections, and lines, remain consistent across all versions, whether they are in the original language or translated.

Below is the basic structure for citing classical works in Notes and Bibliography :

Footnote for a classical work translated and edited by a modern author:

Below you will see the standard structure for a bibliography entry for classical works in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography style:

Here's the guide for citing classical works in the Author-Date style:

In-text citation for a classical work:

Reference list entry for a classical work:

  • If citing from an anthology or collection, include the editor's name in the citation.
  • When citing ancient texts, it is common to cite by book/section/line numbers rather than page numbers, since they will be the same across different editions.
  • For ancient works, the year of the translation or version you used is what should be included in the citation, not the original publication year.

Cite Course Materials & Lectures in Chicago

Course materials and lectures, whether they are from your own classes or an online course, are vital sources of information. These can include lecture notes, slides, study guides, or other instructional materials provided by professors or instructors. This guide will outline how to cite course materials and lectures using both the Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date styles of the Chicago Manual of Style.

Below is the basic structure for citing course materials in Notes and Bibliography :

Footnote for a class lecture:

Below you will see the standard structure for a bibliography entry for course materials and lectures in the Chicago Notes and Bibliography style:

In the Author-Date style , sources are cited briefly in the text, usually in parentheses, by authors last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Heres the guide for citing classical works in the Author-Date style:

In-text citation for a course material:

Reference list entry for a course material:

  • Course materials such as lecture notes/slides that are available online can also include a URL.
  • If the material is not titled, describe it in square brackets after the author's name (e.g., [lecture notes]).
  • For guest lectures, include the lecturer's name, not the course instructor's.

Cite Personal Communications in Chicago

Personal communications encompass a wide range of materials including letters, emails, text messages, social media posts, and even private conversations. Unlike most published sources, these forms of communication often can't be retrieved by readers. Hence, they should be used sparingly in academic writing, and always with the explicit consent of the sender or speaker.

This guide will outline how to cite personal communications using both the Notes-Bibliography and Author-Date styles in the Chicago Manual of Style.

Below is the format for citing personal communications in Notes and Bibliography :

Footnote for a personal communication:

Footnote example for an email:

Foornote example for an interview:

The Notes and Bibliography style uses footnotes or endnotes in the text, but personal communications are typically not included in the bibliography because they cannot be retrieved by readers.

In the Author-Date style, personal communications are cited briefly in the text or in parentheses, but not included in the reference list as it is non-recoverable data.

In-text citation for a personal communication:

  • Personal communications, including email and text messages, are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they're rarely included in a bibliography or reference list.
  • It is crucial to obtain permission from the person involved before citing personal communication.
  • If a recorded, publicly available interview was conducted with the person, this should be cited as a separate type of source rather than personal communication.

Remember, while personal communications can sometimes provide valuable insights or context, they should be used sparingly in academic writing due to their inherently unverifiable and non-recoverable nature. Always strive to use the most authoritative and accessible sources possible in your work.

Chicago Style: Final Notes

The Chicago citation format offers a consistent and comprehensive method for citing a variety of sources in your academic work. By becoming adept at the Chicago citation style, you enhance the professionalism of your work and aid your readers in easily tracking down the sources you've referenced.

This detailed guide on the Chicago citation style is intended to provide you with a strong basis for accurately citing sources in your research. Always remember that Bibcitation is always here to assist you in your academic journey, offering a precise and user-friendly citation generator for your writing.

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What is MLA Format?

MLA (Modern Language Association) citation format is commonly used in the humanities and liberal arts. In MLA style, you use in-text citations to give credit to the sources you have used in your research. These citations include the author's last name and the page number of the source material. In the list of works cited at the end of your paper, you should include full citations for all of the sources you have used, including the author's name, title of the work, publication information, and the medium of publication (such as print or web). It is important to follow the guidelines of the MLA citation format to ensure that your paper is properly formatted and that you are giving credit to the sources you have used.

What is APA Format?

APA (American Psychological Association) citation format is commonly used in the social sciences and education. In APA style, you also use in-text citations to give credit to the sources you have used in your research. The reference list at the end of the paper is called a "References" list and includes full citations for all of the sources you have used, with additional information such as the volume and issue number of a journal article. It is important to follow the guidelines of the APA citation format to ensure that your paper is properly formatted and that you are giving credit to the sources you have used.

What is Harvard Style?

Harvard citation style is a widely used style in the UK and other parts of the world. In Harvard style, you use in-text citations and a reference list to give credit to the sources you have used in your research. The citations include the author's last name and the year of publication only. It is important to follow the guidelines of the Harvard citation format to ensure that your paper is properly formatted and that you are giving credit to the sources you have used.

What is Chicago Style?

Chicago citation style is commonly used in the humanities and social sciences. In Chicago style, you use footnotes or endnotes to give credit to sources, and a bibliography at the end of the paper. The footnotes or endnotes include full citations for the sources, while the bibliography includes a list of all of the sources you have used in your research. It is important to follow the guidelines of the Chicago citation format to ensure that your paper is properly formatted and that you are giving credit to the sources you have used.

What is Vancouver Style?

Vancouver citation style is commonly used in the field of medicine. In Vancouver style, you use numerical citations within the text to give credit to the sources you have used in your research, and a reference list at the end of the paper. The reference list includes full citations for all of the sources you have used, with the sources numbered in the order that they are cited in the text. It is important to follow the guidelines of the Vancouver citation format to ensure that your paper is properly formatted and that you are giving credit to the sources you have used.

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Chicago Format

Enter website URL

Cite a Website in Chicago

Author
Page Title
Website Name
Date Published
URL
Date Accessed

Cite a Book in Chicago

Author
Book Title
Edition
City Published
Publisher
Year Published

Cite a Journal Article in Chicago

Author
Article Title
Journal
Volume
Year Published
Pages Used

Cite a YouTube Video in Chicago

Channel
Video Title
Date Uploaded
Video Length
URL

The Chicago Manual of Style focuses on American English and deals with aspects of editorial practice, including grammar and usage. Read more on Wikipedia.

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Chicago Citation Generator

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If you're trying to determine what source to choose or what you should cite, read on for FAQs and helpful answers.

I'm citing a book, article, video, photo, etc., that I found online. Does that mean it's a "website"?

If you can classify your source as something other than a website/web page, choose that as your source. Be as specific as possible. Most times, the source citation form will give you the option to cite the source as something found online (see tabs at the top of the citation form).

  • E-book -- choose "Book"
  • Online newspaper article -- choose "Newspaper"
  • Digital photo -- choose "Photo"

What's the difference between an "Online database" and a "Journal"?

In research, a journal is a scholarly or academic periodical featuring articles written by experts. These articles are reviewed by fellow experts (peer-reviewed) before being published.

An online database is an electronic collection of information. They are searchable and most databases found at your library provide credible, published content. Depending on the database, it might also let you access information in various formats (e.g., journals, videos, books, newspapers, etc.).

This means an online database could have several journals.

  • Journals -- Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), PLOS One, New Scientist, Ecology Letters
  • Online databases --- Academic One File, Britannica Academic, EBSCOHost, Facts on File

I'm still not sure what source I have. What should I do?

Scroll through our long list of source options and make your best educated guess. If you're still unsure, choose "Miscellaneous."

If there is no author, can I still cite a source?

Yes! It's always better to cite a source, even if you're unsure of all the source details. Also, not everything has an indicated author so it's ok to leave an author out in those cases. When this happens, most citation styles will list the source by its title instead of the author's last name.

I only need to cite one source, right?

A well-balanced paper usually cites several sources; often in different formats (e.g., books, journals, interviews, etc.). There isn't an exact number of sources that is ideal, but try to have more than a couple sources listed.

Also, you should cite everything you've consulted or mentioned in your paper. It's the ethical thing to do.

If I have a full citation at the end of my paper, do I really need to make in-text citations (e.g., parenthetical citations, footnotes, etc.)?

Yes, absolutely! Showing where you got certain ideas or points in your paper will help support any arguments you make. Including in-text citations is also ethical — give credit where it is due.

I heard that "common knowledge" does NOT need to be cited. What is it?

Common knowledge is general information that you can assume a normal individual would know without needing to consult a source. Yes, you do not necessarily need to cite common knowledge. However, if you are unsure if you should cite a fact or source, err on the side of caution and cite it.

  • London is the capital of England
  • A penguin is a bird
  • The moon orbits the Earth
  • Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius
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When it comes to citing your sources, it is always important to remember that even in citations, there are strict outline formats that you need to follow. That there are also a lot of types of citations and to gain enough knowledge to know the difference and which correct citation format to use.

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What Is a Citation?

Citations are references to the source of information, research paper summary , or work that you have done. They are usually found below the research or writing. However, some citations can also be within the same line of the information that they are used in. Citations include information like the author’s name, work title, date of publication, and name of publisher.

How to Use Citations

Step 1: decide the type of citation you are using.

As there are a lot of types of citations, it is best to be able to know which type of citation you are going to be using. The common styles of citations are: APA , MLA , Chicago, and Harvard. Decide the type you are going to use for your writing.

Step 2: Make Sure to Identify the Correct Citation Format

Be sure to identify the correct citation format you are going to be using. This would also affect the outline format for your citation. It is always best to consult a citation style guide first before doing anything.

Step 3: Identify the Sources You Have

Identify the sources. These information can range from different sources. May it be from a book, a journal, a website, a book, or an article. Always write down and identify which source you got the information from. To avoid plagiarism.

Step 4: Make Your Reference List

Lastly, make your reference list or your citation list. This includes the bibliography. At every end of your writing or your work, it is already expected to have a reference list or a citation list. These reference lists would also depend on the citation format or citation used.

What are the different types of citations?

The different types of citation formats are: APA format citation , APA in text citations , APA citation ,  MLA citation , MLA in text citation , parenthetical citation , work cited ,  AMA format , bibliography citations , and  Chicago style paper .

What citation style should I use for my academic paper?

There are several citation styles used in academic writing, such as MLA, APA, Chicago, and Harvard. The style you use will depend on the guidelines set by your instructor or the publisher you’re submitting your paper to. It’s important to follow the guidelines carefully to ensure your citations are accurate and consistent throughout your paper.

Do I need to cite common knowledge in my paper?

No, you don’t need to cite information that is considered common knowledge. This includes widely known facts, historical events, and commonly accepted theories or ideas. However, if you’re unsure whether a particular piece of information is considered common knowledge or not, it’s better to err on the side of caution and cite your source to avoid any potential plagiarism issues.

Citations are often and mainly used in academic or scholarly writing, and even for research papers. Citations are used as a means to give credit to the original authors and allow your audiences to locate the original source of information you are using.

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CHICAGO-NOTE-BIBLIOGRAPHY Citation Generator

Don't let plagiarism errors spoil your paper, consider your source's credibility. ask these questions:, contributor/author.

  • Has the author written several articles on the topic, and do they have the credentials to be an expert in their field?
  • Can you contact them? Do they have social media profiles?
  • Have other credible individuals referenced this source or author?
  • Book: What have reviews said about it?
  • What do you know about the publisher/sponsor? Are they well-respected?
  • Do they take responsibility for the content? Are they selective about what they publish?
  • Take a look at their other content. Do these other articles generally appear credible?
  • Does the author or the organization have a bias? Does bias make sense in relation to your argument?
  • Is the purpose of the content to inform, entertain, or to spread an agenda? Is there commercial intent?
  • Are there ads?
  • When was the source published or updated? Is there a date shown?
  • Does the publication date make sense in relation to the information presented to your argument?
  • Does the source even have a date?
  • Was it reproduced? If so, from where?
  • If it was reproduced, was it done so with permission? Copyright/disclaimer included?

MLA Format: Everything You Need to Know and More

Filled with a wide variety of examples and visuals, our Citation Machine® MLA guide will help you master the citation process. Learn how to cite websites, books, journal articles, magazines, newspapers, films, social media, and more!

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Comprehensive Guide to APA Format

Our Citation Machine® APA guide is a one-stop shop for learning how to cite in APA format. Read up on what APA is, or use our citing tools and APA examples to create citations for websites, books, journals, and more!

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Everything You Need to Know About Chicago Style

Creating citations in Chicago style has never been easier thanks to our extensive Citation Machine® Chicago style guide and tools. Learn about footnotes, endnotes, and everything in between, or easily create citations for websites, books, journal articles, and more!

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Harvard Style Citation: Clear Guidelines And Best Practices

Master Harvard style citation with our comprehensive guide! Learn to cite sources correctly in academic writing.

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The Harvard style of citation, also known as the author-date system, is a widely used method for referencing sources in academic writing. This citation style requires authors to provide in-text citations that include the author’s last name and the publication year, along with a detailed reference list at the end of the document. The Harvard style is prized for its simplicity and clarity, making it easy for readers to trace sources and verify information. Proper citation is crucial in academic writing as it acknowledges the original authors’ contributions, supports the writer’s arguments, and helps avoid plagiarism. By adhering to the Harvard style, scholars ensure their work maintains academic integrity and credibility, which are essential in the pursuit of knowledge and scholarly discourse.

Harvard Style Citation

General principles.

The Harvard style citation is grounded in fundamental principles that ensure clarity, consistency, and ease of reference. One key principle is the reference organization, listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. This systematic arrangement allows readers to quickly locate sources and verify the referenced materials. Each entry in the reference list provides comprehensive details about the source, including the author’s name, publication year, title, and publication information.

Another essential aspect of the Harvard citation style is the consistent use of punctuation and layout. This includes specific formatting rules for in-text citations and the reference list, such as using parentheses for in-text citations and ensuring that all elements in the reference list entry are properly punctuated and formatted. Consistent application of these rules across all citations not only enhances readability but also ensures that the document adheres to academic standards. Adhering to these principles is crucial for maintaining the integrity and professionalism of academic writing, facilitating the reader’s ability to follow the research trail and evaluate the credibility of the sources used.

In-Text Citations

Author-date system.

The Harvard style of citation primarily uses the author-date system for in-text citations. This method involves including the author’s last name and the year of publication within the text, which provides immediate source attribution without interrupting the flow of reading. For example, a typical in-text citation might appear as (Smith, 2020) or Smith (2020) states that…

Placement Within the Text

The placement of in-text citations is important for clarity and readability. In the Harvard style, citations should be placed at the point in the text where the source is referenced, ideally at the end of a sentence or clause. When directly quoting, the page number should also be included, for example, (Smith, 2020, p. 15). This practice ensures that the source of information is clear and allows readers to locate the original material easily. When citing multiple works, they should be listed in chronological order and separated by semicolons, such as (Smith, 2020; Jones, 2019; Brown, 2018). Consistent placement and formatting of in-text citations help maintain a structured and professional appearance in academic writing.

Formatting References

Format for Single Author

When referencing a book written by a single author in Harvard style, the following format should be used:

  • Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year of Publication) Title of the Book . Edition (if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Format for Multiple Authors

For books with multiple authors, the format is slightly modified to include all authors:

  • Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s), and Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year of Publication) Title of the Book . Edition (if not the first). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example of How to Cite a Book

  • Smith, J. (2020) Understanding Psychology . 3rd ed. New York: Academic Press.
  • Brown, L. and Green, S. (2018) Introduction to Sociology . 2nd ed. London: Sage Publications.

In these examples, the title of the book is italicized, and the place of publication is followed by the publisher. For multiple authors, the names are separated by “and” and are presented in the order they appear in the book. This formatting ensures consistency and clarity in academic writing, making it easy for readers to locate and verify the referenced sources.

Journal Articles

When citing a journal article in Harvard style, it is important to include the following elements:

  • Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s).
  • Year of Publication.
  • Title of the Article.
  • Title of the Journal (italicized).
  • Volume Number.
  • Issue Number (if applicable).
  • Page Numbers of the Article.

Format for Single and Multiple Authors

Single Author:

  • Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of the Article’, Title of the Journal , Volume Number(Issue Number), pp. Page Numbers.

Multiple Authors:

  • Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s.), Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s.), and Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of the Article’, Title of the Journal , Volume Number(Issue Number), pp. Page Numbers.

Example of How to Cite a Journal Article

  • Smith, J. (2020) ‘The impact of social media on youth’, Journal of Social Research , 15(2), pp. 123-145.
  • Brown, L., Green, S., and White, M. (2018) ‘A study of climate change patterns’, Environmental Science Journal , 22(4), pp. 67-89.

In these examples, the title of the article is in single quotation marks, the title of the journal is italicized, and the volume number is followed by the issue number in parentheses. The page numbers are preceded by “pp.” to indicate the pages covered by the article. This consistent formatting ensures clarity and allows readers to easily locate and verify the referenced articles.

Online Sources

Website Citation Format

When citing a website in Harvard style, include the following elements:

  • Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year) Title of Webpage . Available at: URL (Accessed: Date).

Blog and Online Article Citation Format

For blogs and online articles, the format is similar but includes additional details about the blog or publication:

  • Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of Blog Post or Article’, Title of Blog or Website . Available at: URL (Accessed: Date).

Example of How to Cite an Online Source

  • Smith, J. (2020) Guide to Effective Academic Writing . Available at: http://www.academicwritingguide.com (Accessed: 5 July 2024).
  • Brown, L. (2018) ‘The Future of Higher Education’, Education Today . Available at: http://www.educationtoday.com/blog/future-higher-education (Accessed: 5 July 2024).
  • Green, S. (2019) ‘Climate Change and Its Effects’, Environmental News Online . Available at: http://www.enviro-news.com/climate-change-effects (Accessed: 5 July 2024).

In these examples, the title of the webpage or blog post is italicized for websites, while the titles of blog posts and articles are placed in single quotation marks. The title of the blog or website is italicized, and the URL is included along with the access date in parentheses. This format ensures that readers can easily locate the source and verify the information.

If you’re citing a movie in Harvard Style, you can find more information on how to do so in Mind the Graph’s guide on citing a movie: How to Cite a Movie: MLA, APA, Chicago, and Harvard Styles .

Special Cases

Secondary referencing.

Secondary referencing occurs when you refer to a source cited within another source. This situation arises when the original work is not available, and you rely on the interpretation or data provided by a secondary source. It is important to use secondary referencing sparingly and only when necessary, as it is always best to consult the primary source directly.

Also read: ​​ Citation vs Referencing: Understanding the Key Differences

In Harvard style, when citing a secondary source, you must acknowledge both the original and the secondary source in your text, but only include the secondary source in your reference list. The in-text citation should indicate that you are citing a secondary source by using “cited in”.

In-Text Citation Format:

  • (Original Author, Year, cited in Secondary Author, Year)
  • According to Freud (1900, cited in Smith, 2020), the unconscious mind plays a significant role in human behavior.

Reference List Format:

  • Only the secondary source (Smith, 2020) is included in the reference list.

Reference List Example:

  • Smith, J. (2020) Introduction to Psychology . New York: Academic Press.

Multiple Works by the Same Author

When citing multiple works by the same author in Harvard style, it is essential to differentiate between these works to avoid confusion for the reader.

To differentiate between works by the same author, include the publication year directly after the author’s name in the in-text citation. If the works were published in the same year, add lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.) after the year to distinguish between them chronologically.

Formatting Approach

  • Author’s Last Name, Year
  • Author’s Last Name, Year (a)
  • Author’s Last Name, Year (b)
  • Author’s Last Name, Year (c), etc.
  • Smith (2018) argues that…
  • Smith (2019a) found evidence that…
  • Smith (2019b) conducted a follow-up study…
  • List the works in chronological order by publication year in the reference list.
  • Smith, J. (2018) The Role of Technology in Education . London: Academic Press.
  • Smith, J. (2019a) Impact of Social Media on Youth . New York: Springer.
  • Smith, J. (2019b) Digital Literacy in the Classroom . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

When citing a source with no author in Harvard style, use the title of the work in place of the author’s name. If the title is long, you can shorten it for the in-text citation.

In-Text Citation Format:  

  • (Title of the Work, Year)

Example: In-Text Citation:  

  • Statistics show an increase in global temperatures (“Climate Change Report,” 2020).

Reference List Format:  

  • List the title of the work in place of the author’s name.

Reference List Example:  

  • “Climate Change Report” (2020) Environmental Studies Journal, 15(3), pp. 45-58.

By using this approach, you provide clear and concise citations that allow readers to easily identify and locate the specific works referenced in your academic writing. This method ensures accuracy and maintains the integrity of your citations in accordance with Harvard style guidelines. You can use tools like this Harvard citation generator to help automate the formatting of your references.

Creating a Reference List

General rules.

In Harvard style, the reference list is a comprehensive alphabetical list of all sources cited in your work. Each entry in the reference list should provide enough information for the reader to locate the original source.

References in the Harvard style reference list should be organized alphabetically by the author’s last name. If there is no author, entries should be alphabetized by the title of the work (excluding articles like “a”, “an”, or “the”). If multiple works by the same author are cited, arrange them chronologically by year of publication, with the earliest first.

Format of Each Entry:

  • Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year) Title of the Book/Article . Edition (if applicable). Place of Publication: Publisher.
  • Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year) ‘Title of the Article’. Title of the Journal , Volume(Issue), pp. Page Numbers.
  • Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year) Title of the Webpage/Blog Post . Available at: URL (Accessed: Date).

Example of a Reference List:

Here is an example illustrating the layout and alphabetical organization of a Harvard style reference list:

  • Brown, L. (2018) Introduction to Sociology . 3rd ed. London: Pearson Education.
  • Smith, J. (2020) ‘The Impact of Social Media on Youth’. Journal of Social Research , 15(2), pp. 123-145.
  • Jones, M. (2019) Effective Study Skills . New York: Academic Press.
  • White, A. (2021) ‘Understanding Climate Change’. Environmental Science Journal , 25(4), pp. 567-589.
  • Green, S. (2017) Guide to Academic Writing . Available at: http://www.academicwritingguide.com (Accessed: 5 July 2024).

By adhering to these guidelines for layout, structure, and alphabetical organization, you ensure that your Harvard style reference list is clear, consistent, and easily navigable for readers seeking to verify your sources and explore further readings.

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Scribbr MLA Citation Generator

Accurate MLA citations, verified by experts, trusted by millions.

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Scribbr's MLA Citation Generator for Chrome

Effortlessly cite any page or article directly from your browser with just one click. Our extension simplifies the citation process by automatically retrieving essential details such as the title, author(s), and publication date , ensuring accurate MLA citations in seconds.

⚙️ StylesMLA 9 & MLA 8
📚 Source typesWebsites, books, articles
🔎 AutociteSearch by title, URL, DOI, or ISBN

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MLA 8th & 9th edition

Scribbr's Citation Generator supports both MLA 8 and MLA 9 (as well as APA and Harvard ). No matter what edition you're using, we’ve got you covered!

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Export to Word

Reference list finished? Export to Word with perfect indentation and spacing set up for you.

Sorting, grouping, and filtering

Organize the reference list the way you want: from A to Z, new to old, or grouped by source type.

Save multiple lists

Stay organized by creating a separate reference list for each of your assignments.

Choose between Times New Roman, Arial, Calibri, and more options to match your style.

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Create perfectly formatted MLA Style annotated bibliographies with just a few clicks.

Explanatory tips help you get the details right to ensure accurate citations.

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Getting to grips with citation is simple with the help of our highly rated MLA citation guides and videos .

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How to cite in MLA format

MLA handbook 9th edition

MLA is one of the most common citation styles used by students and academics. This quick guide explains how to cite sources according to the 9th edition (the most recent) of the MLA Handbook . You can also use Scribbr’s free  citation generator to automatically generate references and in-text citations.

An MLA citation has two components:

  • In-text citation : Every time you quote or paraphrase a source, you cite the author and the page number in parentheses.
  • Works Cited : At the end of your paper, you give a full reference for every source you cited, alphabetized by the author’s last name.

MLA Works Cited list

The list of Works Cited (also known as the bibliography or reference page) gives full details of every source you cited in your text. Each entry is built from nine core elements:

Following this format, you can create a citation for any type of source—for example, a book , journal article , website , or movie . You only include information that’s relevant to the type of source you’re citing.

Missing information in MLA citations

Regardless of the source type, the most important elements of any MLA citation are the author , the source title , and the publication date. If any of these are missing from the source, the Works Cited entry will look slightly different.

What’s missing?What to doWorks Cited example
No authorStart with the source title instead. Alphabetize by the first word (ignoring ).“Australia fires: ‘Catastrophic’ alerts in South Australia and Victoria.” , 20 Nov. 2019, www.bbc.com/­news/­world-­australia-­50483410.
No titleGive a brief description of the source. Use sentence case and no italics or quotation marks.Mackintosh, Charles Rennie. Chair of stained oak. 1897–1900, Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
No dateLeave out the publication date. Add the date you accessed the source at the end of the citation.“Who are Scribbr Editors?” , www.scribbr.com/­about-­us/­editors/. Accessed 10 June 2019.

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MLA in-text citations

MLA in-text citations are brief references that direct your reader to the full source entry. You include them every time you quote , block quote , paraphrase or summarize a source.

The in-text citation must match the first word of the Works Cited entry—usually the author’s last name . It also includes a page number or range to help the reader locate the relevant passage.

AuthorWhat to doCitation example
1 authorGive the author’s last name.(Wallace 11–12)
2 authorsGive both author’s last names.(Wallace and Armstrong 11–12)
3+ authorsName the first author followed by “et al.”(Wallace et al. 11–12)
Corporate authorIf a source was created by an organization other than the publisher, use the organization name as author.(U.S. Global Change Research Program 22)
No authorIf the author is the same as the publisher, or if no author is credited, use the source title instead. Format the title the same as in the full Works Cited reference, and shorten if it is more than four words.(“Australia Fires”)
Multiple sources by the same authorInclude the title (or a shortened version) after the author’s name in each source citation.(Morrison, , 73)
(Morrison, , 45)

If you already named the author in your sentence, include only the page number in parentheses:

Sources with no page numbers

If the source has no page numbers, you either use an alternative locator, or leave the page number out of the citation:

Source typeWhat to doCitation example
Audiovisual source (e.g. a or )Give the time range of the relevant section.(Arnold 03:15–03:21).
Source with numbered sections (e.g. an )Give a paragraph, section, or chapter number.(Smith, par. 38)
(Rowling, ch. 6)
Source with no numbered sections (e.g. a )Leave out the page number.(Barker)

Tools and resources

Besides the MLA Citation Generator, Scribbr provides many more helpful tools and resources;

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  • AI detector: Find out if your text was written with ChatGPT or any other AI writing tool. ChatGPT 2 & ChatGPT 3 supported.
  • Proofreading services : Hire a professional editor to improve your writing
  • Citation checker : Check your work for citation errors and missing citations.
  • Guides and videos : Explore hundreds of articles, bite-sized videos, time-saving templates, and handy checklists that guide you through the process of research, writing, and citation.

IMAGES

  1. Chicago Style Citation Generator (Free) & Format Guide

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VIDEO

  1. Citation Generator in Mendeley then export to MS Word

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  3. How to Change Reference Style (Vancouver to MLA style) in Zotero Reference Manager/Google Docs?

  4. How to Edit Pre-Existing MLA, APA, and Chicago Style Sources Using the Manage Sources (MS Word)

  5. How do I cite a source?

  6. How to Cite Primary Sources

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  3. Free Chicago Style Citation Generator

    How to cite in Chicago style. Chicago style (sometimes called Turabian style) is one of the most popular citation styles used by students and academics.The main resource for students using Chicago style is A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (9th edition).. Chicago presents two options for source citation: notes and bibliography style, widely used in humanities ...

  4. FREE Chicago Style Citation Generator & Guide

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  6. Chicago Style Citation Guide

    The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition) contains guidelines for two styles of citation: notes and bibliography and author-date.. Notes and bibliography is the most common type of Chicago style citation, and the main focus of this article. It is widely used in the humanities. Citations are placed in footnotes or endnotes, with a Chicago style bibliography listing your sources in full at the end.

  7. FREE Chicago Style Referencing Generator & Guide

    Whether you are using the notes and bibliography system or the author-date style in your work, Cite This For Me's referencing tool will generate your citations in seconds. Simply log in to your account, or create one for free, and select 'Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (full-note bibliography)' or 'Chicago Manual of Style 16th ...

  8. Citation Machine®: Format & Generate

    Stay up to date! Get research tips and citation information or just enjoy some fun posts from our student blog. Citation Machine® helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite sources in APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and Harvard for free.

  9. EasyBib®: Free CHICAGO Citation & Bibliography Generator

    Jump start your knowledge of the Chicago Manual of Style (or Turabian style) with our structured EasyBib® guides. Each one will teach you the structure of a Chicago-style citation, followed by a real-life citation example for you to examine. Begin with our """Quick Guide" on citing common source types (books, magazines, newspapers, and ...

  10. EasyBib®: Free Bibliography Generator

    This is the total package when it comes to MLA format. Our easy to read guides come complete with examples and step-by-step instructions to format your full and in-text citations, paper, and works cited in MLA style. There's even information on annotated bibliographies.

  11. Chicago citation generator: Citefast automatically formats citations in

    Citefast automatically formats citations in Chicago. Note: The default citation style is now APA 7. To use APA 6 ensure that the APA 6 button is selected. APA 7. APA 6. MLA 8. Chicago. To create a citation choose a source and enter details below. Note: APA 7th edition is now the starting choice for creating citations.

  12. Free Citation Generator

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    Our automatic Chicago citation generator lets you create instant Works Cited & one-click citations for books, journal articles, websites, and more. Bibcitation. Untitled Bibliography. ... In the Author-Date style, sources are cited briefly in the text, usually in parentheses, by author's last name and date of publication. The short citations ...

  14. FREE Citation Generator

    Chicago citation style is commonly used in the humanities and social sciences. In Chicago style, you use footnotes or endnotes to give credit to sources, and a bibliography at the end of the paper. The footnotes or endnotes include full citations for the sources, while the bibliography includes a list of all of the sources you have used in your ...

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    Generate Chicago citations for Websites, Books, Journal Articles, or YouTube Videos. ... Date Published URL Date Accessed Set today's date: Copy to clipboard Cite a Book in Chicago ... The Chicago Manual of Style focuses on American English and deals with aspects of editorial practice, including grammar and usage. ...

  16. Free Citing a Website in CHICAGO

    Scan your paper for plagiarism mistakes. Get help for 7,000+ citation styles including APA 7. Check for 400+ advanced grammar errors. Create in-text citations and save them. Free 3-day trial. Cancel anytime.*️. Try Citation Machine® Plus! *See Terms and Conditions. Consider your source's credibility.

  17. FREE Chicago Style Citation Generator & Guide

    The Cite This for Me Chicago style citation maker places each period, comma, and quotation mark where it belongs. Head to to the top of this page to create your references with ease! II. Author-Date System: Each example in this section includes a Chicago in-text citation and a corresponding reference list entry.

  18. Free Citation Generator: APA, MLA & Chicago Style—QuillBot AI

    Get 100% accurate citations for free. QuillBot's Citation Generator can quickly and easily create references for books, articles, and web pages in APA, MLA, Chicago, and many more styles. Follow the simple steps below to create, edit, and export both in-text and full citations for your source material.

  19. CHICAGO Reference & Citation Generator

    A well-balanced paper usually cites several sources; often in different formats (e.g., books, journals, interviews, etc.). There isn't an exact number of sources that is ideal, but try to have more than a couple sources listed. Also, you should cite everything you've consulted or mentioned in your paper. It's the ethical thing to do.

  20. A detailed guide to citing sources in MLA and APA

    3. Chicago Manual of Style. Chicago style is commonly used in academic settings but varies a bit from the standard MLA or APA practices. For instance, Chicago gives the user two options for the style of citation, either notes and bibliography or author-date. Notes and bibliography is the most popular option of the two.

  21. Citation

    Step 1: Decide the Type of Citation You Are Using. As there are a lot of types of citations, it is best to be able to know which type of citation you are going to be using. The common styles of citations are: APA, MLA, Chicago, and Harvard. Decide the type you are going to use for your writing.

  22. Creating a Chicago Style Bibliography

    A Chicago style bibliography lists the sources cited in your text. Each bibliography entry begins with the author's name and the title of the source, followed by relevant publication details. The bibliography is alphabetized by authors' last names. A bibliography is not mandatory, but is strongly recommended for all but very short papers.

  23. CHICAGO-NOTE-BIBLIOGRAPHY Citation Generator

    Don't let plagiarism errors spoil your paper. Scan your paper for plagiarism mistakes. Get help for 7,000+ citation styles including APA 7. Check for 400+ advanced grammar errors. Create in-text citations and save them. Free 3-day trial. Cancel anytime.*️. Try Citation Machine® Plus! *See Terms and Conditions.

  24. Harvard Style Citation: Clear Guidelines And Best Practices

    The Harvard style of citation, also known as the author-date system, is a widely used method for referencing sources in academic writing. This citation style requires authors to provide in-text citations that include the author's last name and the publication year, along with a detailed reference list at the end of the document.

  25. 3D-printed microstructure forest facilitates solar steam generator

    American Institute of Physics. "3D-printed microstructure forest facilitates solar steam generator desalination." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com / releases / 2024 / 07 / 240723123507.htm ...

  26. Chicago In-text Citations

    Option 1: Author-date in-text citations. Author-date style places citations directly in the text in parentheses. In-text citations include the author's last name, the year of publication, and if applicable, a page number or page range: This style of Chicago in-text citation looks the same for every type of source.

  27. Israeli cybersecurity startup Wiz ends talks with Google on $23 ...

    Wiz has ended talks with Google parent Alphabet on a proposed $23 billion deal in which the Israeli cybersecurity startup would have become the US tech giant's largest-ever acquisition ...

  28. How to Cite a Website in Chicago Style

    To cite an online newspaper or magazine article, put the publication title in italics, and add a URL at the end: Chicago bibliography. Author last name, first name. " Article Title .". Publication Name, Month Day, Year. URL. Hui, Sylvia. "Non-Essential Retailers Reopening Across England After Coronavirus Lockdown.".

  29. Free MLA Citation Generator

    How to cite in MLA format. MLA is one of the most common citation styles used by students and academics. This quick guide explains how to cite sources according to the 9th edition (the most recent) of the MLA Handbook.You can also use Scribbr's free citation generator to automatically generate references and in-text citations.. An MLA citation has two components: