ISBN Publishing

How to Get An ISBN in India as an Author

get isbn india get isbn india

ISBN (International Standard Book Number) in India is operated by the Indian government through the website The Indian government provides ISBN numbers to authors and publisher’s in India for free, but that comes with a few downsides.

There are few steps that you need to take correctly to obtain an ISBN from the Indian ISBN agency “Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency (RRRN)”. In this article, you will learn everything you need to know about ISBN in general and how to get an ISBN in India.

What is ISBN or ISBN number?

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique number in the world that is assigned to each format of book published. If a book is available in ebook and paperback format, then there will be two ISBN used for the book. One ISBN for each format of the book title. Same ISBN can’t be reused with other books. If a ISBN has been previously used by a book that is now unpublished or not available, then the same ISBN can be reused, but that is in the hand of the ISBN agency to reissue the same ISBN.

What is ISBN barcode?

A barcode is a machine-readable code in the form of lines, usually placed on the back of the book cover or any products. Instead of typing ISBN number, barcode make it easy to copy the number using a scanner. You might have seen using barcode scanner in a shopping mall and local store. Book store use ISBN to manage their book inventory, barcode on the back of the book cover provide easy way to scan ISBN using a scanner.

What is ISBN agency?

GS1 is a global non profit organisation that is responsible for global product identification include book Identification. GS1 maintain database of each phisical products and books in the world. GS1 organisation give ISBN agency to issue ISBN to publisher’s and authors. Each country have one official ISBN agency that is responsible for issuing ISBN to their citizens. Must countries ISBN agencies charges a fees for obtaining a ISBN and some agency provide ISBN for free to their citizens only.

How ISBNs work?

All ISBNs are unique in the world. At the time of obtaining a ISBN, author or publisher have to provide full local address, publisher name and book metadata (title, author name, book format and other info). ISBN agency forward this info to global ISBN database. At the time of publishing a book, ISBN number is checked in the global database to make sure the ISBN is unique, and it’s assigned to the correct book publisher or imprint name. For example, If you use a self-publishing platform such as Amazon KDP, than KDP will verify the ISBN at the time of uploading your book.

How to get an ISBN in India

Getting an ISBN number in India is free, but it’s not easy and takes longer. The US ISBN agency provides ISBN faster and with excellent customer support for a price. For this reason, even Indian authors and publishers purchase ISBN from the US ISBN agency. You pay a price upfront and get ISBN instantly and as much you need. The only problem is if you want to purchase just 1 ISBN, then the price will be a little higher compared to purchasing ISBN in bulk.

To obtain an ISBN in India, you must be an Indian citizen with Aadhaar and PAN card. Below is the complete process of obtaining an ISBN in India online. You can apply for an ISBN offline too by sending a post card, this guide doesn’t cover the offline process.

Step 1: Signup for an account

ISBN India signup for account

Go to , if you are redirected to another URL or website, then don’t worry, government websites suck anyway. Click on the “New applicant registration” link on the homepage of the website. You will be redirected to a registration page. Read their terms and conditions and click on the agreed check mark. There are two types of Account on Indian ISBN agency RRRA. Author and publisher account. If you are a registered business in India with GST ID, then apply as a publisher. If you are not, then apply as an author.

Once you fill up the first page and verify your email address and phone, then you will be redirected to a 2nd page with a long form. There you will have to provide full address info and upload your ID card. Once everything completed, then click on the submit button.

It will take up to 2 weeks to get your account approved by RRRA. You will get an email notification with your account login info. Now you have registered an account with the Indian ISBN agency, the next step is to apply for an ISBN, this will take another two weeks, so be patient.

Step 2: Preparation

A few things you need to keep ready before applying for an ISBN. If you make any mistake, then obtaining ISBN will take even longer. You must have a book title, subtitle and author name decided for your book. Thereafter, create a title verso. Title verso is usually a second page of a book. It is also called the copyright page. You can create a simple page in Canva or Photoshop. Make sure the page is 6×9 inches with a white background. No fancy text or design, just a simple page. Furthermore, make sure you download the page in JPG file format and keep the file size within 100kb.

Title verso must have below info:

  • Book title, subtitle and author name
  • Full address, Mention Website or social media or email address
  • Book edition year and ISBN-13 written with blank space after that.
  • Copyright notification text with year of publication and author name

Title Verso Template:

Copyright © Year , Author Name

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic methods without the prior written permission of the author, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law.

Title verso Book page template

Step 3: Applying for ISBN

Click on the “apply for new ISBN” link on your dashboard after login to your account. Author or publisher name will be auto-fulfilled. You can’t apply for an ISBN for another author name or pen name. Don’t change name here. Just enter your book title and agree to their log list of terms (Oath & Affirmation + Declaration). On the next page, click on the Final Submit button. Now you need to wait for minimum 1 week.

After a few days or a week, you will get a notification that your application has been approved. Don’t get excited, obtaining an ISBN, take one more step.

Step 4: Uploading Data

Once your initial ISBN application is approved, then you need to upload the title verso. To complete that, login to your account and on the dashboard you will see your ISBN application entry. Besides the ISBN application entry, there will be a “submit additional information” link. Click on that, you will be redirected to a page with a pre-fill up form with your book info. You just have to upload your title verso and submit the application.

Add Title verso to your application for ISBN

Once you have uploaded your title verso, then you need to check mark the “Select” and click on the “Submit To RRRNA” button.

Submit To RRRNA

After this, your application will get 1 ISBN allocated. This will take 1 week as RRRNA representative will look at your Title verso. You won’t get any notification regarding ISBN allocation, so check your application own your own after a week.

Step 5: Update Additional details (optional)

Once you have an ISBN number, then you can use it to publish your book on which ever publishing platform you like. You can use your author’s name as imprint name or use any imprint name you like. In this final step, you can add additional information about your book such as series name, book subject, additional book contributors. This step is optional, but I recommend you to do that.

Up and Downsides

It’s free, and the ISBN from RRRNA is good as an ISBN purchased from any other ISBN agency.

  • Total time duration: 2 Weeks for account application + 2 weeks for ISBN application (if you make a mistake then more time will take)
  • One ISBN at a time: You can’t apply for multiple ISBN at the same time. It means you can get 1 ISBN during 2 weeks. For the second ISBN, it will take 2 more weeks. If you are planning to publish your book in multiple formats, then get your multiple ISBN a month before.
  • Censorship: If you are publishing a book on some controversial subject or if you are politically exposed, then no ISBN for you.
  • Privacy issue: Your Book ISBN along with your personal name and address might be accessible publicly on the ISBN agency website.

How to get an ISBN within 24 hours

There is a way to get an ISBN instantly or within a day and multiple ISBNs at once. You have to purchase ISBN from other countries. Almost all countries that charges fee for ISBN provide ISBN instantly.

As ISBNs are international unique numbers, then It really doesn’t matter the origin of ISBN and no one will ask you or restrict you from using ISBN from other countries. Lots of Indian big to small publisher’s use US-based ISBN to publish books in India.

If you don’t want to go through all this hustle and want to obtain an ISBN to publish your book in anywhere in the world, then purchase ISBNs from ISBN Publishing (us). We wish you good luck with your book publishing journey. Don’t forget to share this article on social media and with your friends.

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Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN

Department of higher education, ministry of education, government of india.


ISBN Allotted

Indian ISBN Registration Agency, RRRNA and ISBN

The administration of the ISBN system is carried out on three levels :

  • The International ISBN Agency is appointed by [ISO] as the registration authority for the ISBN system worldwide. The International ISBN Agency is based in London and has appointed different National Agencies in different geographical areas to look after the administration of ISBN in that particular area for which they pay an annual fee to International ISBN Agency.
  • The administration of the ISBN system within a registration group/geographical area is the responsibility of the ISBN registration agency. Accordingly in India, it is done through an ISBN registration agency by name Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency (RRRNA) for ISBN which is directly under the administrative control of the Ministry of Education, Division, Deptt. of Higher Education. The ISBN registration agency provides publishers with all the forms and guidance that they need in order to receive ISBNs, in India ISBN is provided free of cost.
  • The publisher is the group, organisation, company or individual who is responsible for initiating the production of a particular publication.

ISBN is beneficial for the publishers as

  • It replaces the handling of long bibliographic descriptive records, thereby saving time and staff costs and reducing copying errors.
  • Correct use of the ISBN allows different product forms and editions of a book, whether printed or digital, to be clearly differentiated, ensuring that customers receive the version that they require.
  • The ISBN facilitates compilation and updating of book-trade directories and bibliographic databases, such as catalogues of books-in-print. Information on available books can be found easily.
  • Ordering and distribution of books is mainly executed by ISBN; this is a fast and efficient method.
  • Publishers, booksellers, libraries and others in the book industry use ISBNs to identify publications and determine the publishing country

Some examples of types of monographic publications eligible for ISBN are

  • Printed books and pamphlets (and their various product forms)
  • Braille publications
  • Publications that are not intended by the publisher to be updated regularly or continued indefinitely
  • Audiobooks (talking books) either on a physical carrier or accessible on the Internet for download or streaming
  • Digital publications (e-books) either on physical carriers (such as machine-readable tapes, diskettes, or CD-ROMs) or on the Internet (for download or streaming)
  • Digitised copies of printed monographic publications that are available in the supply chain
  • Microform publications
  • Educational or instructional software, films, videos, DVDs, transparencies either on a physical carrier or accessible on the Internet for download or streaming
  • Mixed media publications where the principal constituent is text-based, e.g. book with CD or book with DVD
  • Individual articles* or issues of a particular continuing resource where these are made available separately (but not the continuing resource in its entirety)
  • Art books and illustrated books with a title page and/or text or captions
  • e-book apps provided that they have a significant textual content and can be considered a monographic publication and are available to the public. Pictures, moving image and sound may be included
  • Maps and atlases

Some examples of the types of materials NOT eligible for ISBN are

  • Continuing resources treated in their entirety as bibliographic entities (individual issues may qualify for ISBNs)
  • Abstract entities such as textual works and other abstract creations of intellectual or artistic content
  • Printed or digital materials that are intended for marketing or promotional purposes only such as advertising matter, widgets and the like
  • Printed music
  • Art prints and art folders without title page and text
  • Personal documents (such as a digital curriculum vitae or personal profile)
  • Greetings cards
  • Music sound recordings
  • Software, films, videos, DVDs or transparencies that are intended for any purpose other than educational or instructional
  • Digital bulletin boards
  • Emails and other digital correspondence
  • Customized or personalised books not intended for general availability
  • License key vouchers to access digital monographic publications on the Internet


International ISBN Agency

  • ISBN Standard
  • How to get an ISBN
  • Guidelines for assignment to e-books
  • Related policies and issues
  • ISBN Bar coding
  • What they do
  • Find an agency
  • ISBN ranges
  • Board of Directors
  • National agencies
  • ISBN Users' manual
  • ISBN Calculator
  • Global Register of Publishers
  • Other identifiers
  • Publications

India ISBN Agency website screenshot

The website portal of the India ISBN Agency

The India ISBN Agency now takes online applications

Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN in India has announced the release of a new website portal. Raja Rammohun Roy, which operates under the Book Promotion and Copyright Division of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, confirms that the portal was launched on 7 April 2016 by the Honourable Minister Mrs. Smriti Zubin Irani.

Any publishers - including self-publishing authors - who are based in India can now use the new portal to apply for their ISBNs and to learn more about ISBN and its application. Applying online will help to ensure that publishers receive their ISBNs in a timely and efficient manner.

The portal can be found at . Publishers based in India should note the new web address and, along with that, there is a new direct e-mail address for ISBN-related correspondence - [email protected]

© 2014-2023 International ISBN Agency

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How to Get ISBN Numbers in India

Getting ISBN Number in India.

Samyak Lalit is an Indian author and disability rights activist. He is the principal author and founder of projects like TechWelkin, WeCapable, Viklangta, Kavita Kosh among many others.

At times, I share with you information that is not exactly related with computer technology. Such articles are based on my research whenever I find myself in need. For example, my articles on registration of ngo (trust, society) are very popular and have helped thousands of people.

Raghav, A tech-savvy friend of mine wrote a programming related book (a pretty thick one!). He knows that his book is good quality and he will be able to sell it without support from a big publisher. To maximize his profits, Raghav wanted to publish it on his own. Self-publishing is in upswing nowadays in India.

“I have written this book and I can self publish it, but I don’t know how to get ISBN number. Big publishers have ISBN but where do they it from?” , asked Raghav.

“See, although you don’t really need ISBN for publishing your book but it is good if you have it. Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN is the authority who issues ISBN numbers in India.” , I replied.

I researched a bit more and gave all the available information to Raghav about how to apply for ISBN.

ALSO SEE: Generate ISBN Barcodes for the ISBN Numbers You Get

Today, I am bringing you the same information that I gave Raghav. With the advent of self-publishing and it’s growing popularity among writers, questions about ISBN numbers are being often asked. Here is a compilation of all the information you need to know about getting and using ISBN numbers in India.

Learn how to get ISBN Numbers in India.

Learn how to get ISBN Numbers in India.

What is ISBN Number?

ISBN stands for International Standard Book Number . It is a unique International Publisher’s Identifier number, which is meant for monographic publications. It identifies publisher and the title of publication. This 13 digit number is machine readable when converted into a EAN-13 barcode. You see this barcode, usually, on the back cover of books.

For what type of material can you get ISBN?

Following types of material is eligible for having an ISBN:

  • Printed materials
  • Educational Videos or Movies
  • Mixed media publications
  • Microcomputer software (only educational)
  • Atlases and maps
  • Publications in Braille
  • Electronic publications

For what type of material ISBN will not be issued?

  • Advertising material (sales catalogues, price lists, prospectuses, publicity flyers, etc)
  • Wall posters, Newspapers, leaflets
  • Lists of exhibits without additional text
  • Programs of theatrical, musical, and other performances
  • Curricula of schools and colleges of all kinds
  • Lecture and teaching material of manuscript character
  • Calendars and diaries
  • Forms & colouring books
  • Journals and periodicals

Is it mandatory to have ISBN number?

No, it is not mandatory to print an ISBN number on your book. You can publish your book without ISBN. But it is recommended to have ISBN because it makes your book uniquely identifiable. Also its sale becomes easier at stores where they make bill using a barcode reader. If your book will not have an ISBN bar code –it will be difficult for selling store to make bill for the purchaser of your book.

How much does ISBN cost?

Getting ISBN number in India is totally free . You don’t have to pay a single paisa for this.

Will a separate ISBN be required for hard cover book?

Yes, hardcover (hard-bound, cloth-bound, hard-back) and paperback versions of the same book require separate ISBN numbers.

Will a separate ISBN be needed for different language?

Yes. If you’re publishing the same book in a different language –you cannot use the same ISBN. You will need to assign a separate ISBN number to each of various language versions of the same book.

Who can apply for ISBN?

Any person or entity wanting to publish a book can now apply for ISBN.

  • Self-publisher (an individual who wants to publish book on his/her own)
  • Institution
  • Government Department

Which authority issues ISBN numbers in India?

Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN is authorized to issue ISBN number in India. It is an agency under the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India.

How to get ISBN in India?

In order to get ISBN numbers you would need to send an application to Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN. In your application you have to provide the following information:

  • Title of book
  • Publisher (if you are publishing book on your own, just write “Self-Published”)
  • Year of publication
  • Place of publication
  • Paperback or Hardback
  • Your address for communication

In addition, you will also need to enclose the following along with the application form:

  • Photocopy of the cover page
  • Identification proof
  • A self addressed envelop for return communication

NOTE: (as per the experience of a reader) If you want to get ISBN as an individual, you need to include a photocopy of cover of your book. Before applying for the ISBN number, you should get your front cover and back cover finalized and send the photocopy of the same.

Application form for ISBN Number

You can download the application form from authority’s website. Click here to get the ISBN application form

(Latest application form download link was informed to me by my reader AP Pradeepkumar through comments section. Thank you!)

Where to send application form?

You need to send the completely filled form to the following address:

Raja Ram Mohun Roy ISBN Agency Department of Higher Education Ministry of Human Resource Development Room No. 13, Jeevan Deep Building, 4th Floor, Parliament Street, New Delhi PIN Code: 110001 Email: [email protected] Phone: +91-11-23369668

(These new contact details were informed to me by my readers S. Bhattacharjee and Mayank Sharma through comments section. Earlier the Agency was located in R.K. Puram)

NOTE: (as per the experience of readers) Many of my readers have commented that when they called the above given numbers, no one picked up the phone. Well, guys, it’s a government office and it is not surprising if they don’t pick up. The numbers are correct as per the best of my knowledge. Try calling them and PLEASE do let me know if you have any other number that works. It will benefit other readers.

NOTE: (as per the experience of readers and my friends) It has also been reported that they take a lot of time in sending acknowledgement of receiving application. Most of the time you don’t get any acknowledgement. It is highly recommended that you personally visit the above mentioned office and take acknowledgement receipt after submitting application. I know it is very difficult especially if you live outside of Delhi. But that is practically how it works.

How many ISBN numbers are issued?

Earlier ISBN number used to be issued in blocks of ten (i.e. you would have to apply for at least ten ISBN numbers). But as self-publishing is becoming popular, the authority has begun to issue even a single ISBN. So, if you don’t need more, you can apply for just one ISBN number.

How much time will it take to get ISBN?

Usually, if you have provided all the details in application form, you get ISBN within 8 weeks (two months)

117 responses to “How to Get ISBN Numbers in India”

Dear Mr Lalit ,

Further to my query I need to check with you that the ISBN number I got was from my printer who purchased ISBN numbers in bulk from RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY. I Self published my book last month and used the ISBN number he gave me . So right now it is in his name and he prints several other books for people

How do I go about this now do I need to register this number now under my name because it is in his name ? I need to sell my books at the book shops and through flipkart and amazon etc even internationally Please advise how to go about this how do I register it in my name and what attachments etc are needed please

Regards Salma Bernard

RRRNA just makes sure that it issues unique ISBN numbers and one should an ISBN number issued by RRRNA. Now that you have got an ISBN printed on your book, you should just upload your book in online stores like Flipkart and Amazon. These stores will associate ISBN with your book. So, when someone will make a search by ISBN, your book will come up in results.

what is the meaning of paperback or hard back which is given in the application form.

what is the meaning of paperback or hard back which is given in the applicaton form.

Hard back is a version of book that is hard bound (with hard zild). Paperback’s cover is not hard.

Hi Lalit Can I check please I have already self published my book and have a ISBN number on it. Do I need to register this with any agency whether Raja Ram Mohan Roy in Delhi or in the US. bowker After getting the ISBN number and incorporating in the book is there anything else like registration to be done . If so can you please guide me Thanks Salma

If you’ve got ISBN number from the Raja Ram Mohan Roy authority you don’t need to register any further.

namaskar sir, actually i write a journal on a yearly basis, so i will be honored to know if i can apply for a ISBN or i should go with ISSN for my journal.

ISSN is required for journals.

Useful article. thanks! We got 10 ISBN’s in the past and I always have a question about how or who will assign the numbers to match the book so any bar code reader can identify it correctly. Please clarify this part. We have used around 6 to 7 ISBN’s and sent an email to them with book cover but really don’t know how to make the search show the books if anyone type the ISBN online anywhere.

Such an assignment of ISBN numbers is done in retailer’s database. For example, if you upload your books on then Amazon will make entry in their database wherein they will show ISBN-BookName pair. Search engines, like Google, pick the book details from stores like Amazon.

I live in Gandhinagar, Gujarat. Should I send my application by registered post or courier? Also, how much postage is required for the self-addressed envelope (which they send back to you) – Rs. 39, as the site says, or more? What do applicants from Gujarat or further south do?

Thanks a lot for putting up this site, Lalit!

Bhargava ji, to be on the safer side, I would put a little extra postage on the self-addressed envelop. Better send the application by registered post.

Dear Lalit, Thanks a lot for creating a platform and answering the queries endlessly, it is very sad that the organization takes much time to process our request, please let me know whether the agency insists on the finished cover page or a text of the cover page and back cover are sufficient? Can anyone enlighten me of the possibility of visiting the office in person and getting the request processed immediately? Thanks to all contributors.

Hello Kiran, yes, you can (and I think you should if you can!) visit the office of the agency. Considering this is a government office, I can not be confident whether they will do your work immediately but at least your application will move forward. Another benefit of visiting their office would be that you will get to know what all they need to process your application. An acquaintance of mine got his set of ISBN numbers in a single visit to the office. You should carry all the required documents and information that is mentioned in this article. IF you do not yet have a cover image, just create a temporary one in MS Word for the sake of it. Please let us know about your experience of visiting the agency’s office and give us tips on how to get ISBN numbers from that office.

Sorry ! It is not my question. I want to know, how to submit my e-Book to MHRD after used ISBN no.

You don’t need to submit your e-book to MHRD.

How to submit e-Book after published?

You should open account on online book stores like Flipkart and Amazon etc. There you can upload information about your ebook and you can sell it too.

Sir I want to know that is it necessary to send the Application form by ordinary post or i can send by registered or speed post?

I think you can send it through registered post as well but I would suggest you to send it through ordinary post. Government offices, you know!

Thank you sir for providing ISBN information.

Sir, I would like to know if I can apply ISBN for the journal for which I have been selected second in All India Oriental conference 2015. Could you please reply to my question?

For journals, you need an ISSN number. ISBN is for books.

Dear Mr Kumar,

I recently finished writing my first novel and plan to write two more to create a trilogy, but I had already written it long back in the form of a poem. If I want to publish the poem separately from the novel, can I use the same ISBN, or do I have to apply for a separate number, or choose an ISBN from the list of ten which they provide? And finally, once I write the next two novels, can I use the ISBNs from the block of 10 provided to me?

Thank you, Dariyus

Yes, Dariyus, you can use ISBNs that you have got anytime you want. To separate publications must have different ISBNs attached to them. So, the poem version will have one ISBN and the novel version will have another ISBN attached.

I already got ISBN no from RRR Agency, but my ISBN number is not displaying in ISBN search. Are there is any further steps to be taken? Please inform me.

What exactly do you mean by ISBN Search?

In the application form for allotment of ISBN for Publishers the 5th item is Category in which applied (5/4/3/2/1) So my question is what is term ‘Category’ ?

Hopefully a reader will be able to enlighten us!

Sir, should i include the manuscript with the other required documents to get the ISBN. Is it mandatory?

No, manuscript is not required to be submitted along with the application form for ISBN.

Thanks a lot for detailed notes on publishing a book having ISBN.

Thanks for the very useful information given here. This Raja Ram Mohan Roy National Agency is indeed a waste of time. I went online to and paid $19 and got the ISBN immediately with the Barcode and EAN 5.

In the application form for allotment of ISBN for Publishers the 5th item is Category in which applied (5/4/3/2/1) So my question is what is term ‘Category’ ?

Hi Mr. Kumar, Thank you for this article. It is very informative. I have a query, if you could please help me. I have a series of 8 books and two individual books printed. I had applied for the ISBN nos. and have received 10 nos. I just wanted to know if there is any further procedure to be followed. Can I assign any of the ten nos. given to me to any book?

Yes, you can assign any number to any book!

hello sir this is S.Swathi from Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh.

We submitted our books along with the filled application in March 2015, but till now we did not receive ISBN number. When I called to find the status, no one is picking the phone. It is important to our institution. What can I do?

Dear Swathi, as you can deduce from other comments, several other readers have complained the same. I have just written this article to give my readers information about how to apply for ISBN numbers. I am not related to the agency that give ISBN number. I am sorry but I can not really do anything about it. All I can do is hope that the Raja Ram Mohun Roy ISBN Agency becomes more responsive to the ISBN seekers.

Dear Sir/Mam,

I am a copywriter in a media house. We publish a monthly Magazine on social issues & other topics related to public interest. Since I can’t figure out whether our magazine is eligible for ISSN or ISBN, I would like to know, whether a commercial “magazine” containing subjects & content of various genres, along with advertisements, is eligible for ISSN or ISBN?

Since the cover and the contents of such magazines include advertisement & subscription offers, and are subjected to change with each issue… Its pretty confusing that in which eligibility criteria of the International Standards, does these magazines fall? Or what the bar codes & numbers signifies on the cover of national/international magazines like India Today, Filmfare, GQ etc… Can you please explain?

In addition, I would also like to know the answers to the following:

For what type of material can we get ISSN? For what type of material ISSN will not be issued? How much does ISSN cost? Will a separate ISSN be required for different versions of the magazine? (like paperback, hardbound, e-book, etc.?) Will a separate ISSN be needed for different language? Who can apply for ISSN? How many times a person/organization can apply for ISSN? Which authority issues ISSN numbers in India? How to get ISSN in India? Application form for ISSN Number Where to send application form? What Documents or formalities are required along with the application? How many ISSN numbers are issued? How much time will it take to get ISSN?

I would be sincerely extremely grateful if you kindly provide me with all the related info to the above questions. Looking forward to your prompt reply.

Regards, Prateek Bhawal Raipur, INDIA

I am hoping that a reader will be able to answer your question on how to get ISSN number.

Dear Lalit,

How can we get an ISBN which is different to the normally prescribed 97881 series for Indian publishers.

We have an international address, if we use that will we get an ISBN of some other series or the typical 97881 series?

Awaiting for your reply.

Thanks, Vardhan

Dear Vardhan, Raja Ram Mohun Roy ISBN Agency may not be able to issue ISBN of some other series than 978-818 series. The “818” part in ISBN number denotes that the book was published in India. You may however get a different ISBN series if you apply in some other country.

the PIN of ISBN agency, room no 13 , jeevan deep building is 110001 and the phone no. of the said office is 011-23369668

Thank you Soumyen! I have added the PIN number in the address.

Things are not really rosy in the ISBN office in the 5th floor of Jeevan Deep buildings, New Delhi. As of 26 June 2015, there is a pile up of unopened envelopes containing ISBN applications etc., since the person tasked with the job has been transferred/on leave (?). Applications directly submitted will get processed immediately. The cramped ISBN office doesn’t inspire much confidence.

Also, newly introduced reform, once you run out of ISBN.s you have to submit a copy of all your previous ISBN numbered publications, along with the fresh request for new ISBN.s

Thank you very much for sharing your experience at the ISBN office. Your comment will help other ISBN seekers.

Hello Sir, Glad to find your page while researching on ISBN. i tried with the new number you provided, it is a wrong number. sir i am about to independently publish my first novel after 2 months. i am the youngest writer of my city. after publishing i would like to also sell my book over Amazon. E-book as well as Hard copy. so is only one ISBN enough for E-book and Hard copy of 1st edition? and sir we need to attach front and back cover page of the book. It should be color or black & white?

You would need separate ISBN numbers for printed and e-book versions of your book.

My father is an author who has written more than 15 books. None of these books have an ISBN number. Once we apply and get the ISBN numbers, do we have to reprint the books? I have read something about ISBN stickers. Am I to understand that the agency will provide us with the ISBN number, after which we should get the ISBN stickers printed locally and then paste them on the books? Any idea how much the cost of printing such stickers is? I live in Gujarat.

My father has prepared another book this year, which is still to be printed. We wish to get an ISBN for this book, but the cover page is not yet finalized. Suppose we prepare a cover page on our own, send it to the agency and get an ISBN number, and later, when the book gets printed, the cover page is somewhat different, will that be allowed or will they revoke the number? Also, when they ask for a cover page, do they mean the front cover alone, or the front and back covers both, on one single page?

This page contains the names and numbers of the people handling the ISBN allotment. Has anyone every emailed and got a reply? Because from what I’ve read in the comments, they don’t pick up the phone, or give proper answers.

The agency also requires a self-addressed envelope with postage of Rs. 39, and says “postage stamp is subject to change”. So do I have to send an envelope with Rs. 39 postage, or more?

Thanks a lot.

Yes, you can put ISBN stickers on already printed books.

Is it possible to get ISBN for already printed book?

Yes, it is possible to get ISBN number for an already printed book.

How do I paste ISBN number in my already printed books?

You can get ISBN printed on stickers and then put these stickers on the backside of the printed books.

Very enlightening in simple terms. Thank you. Some queries are not fully answered yet.

1. Do we get ISBN for ebooks too? 2. Though you have mentioned about the cover page, some doubts still nag me. I have prepared the manuscript for a book titled” A Hundred Thoughts On Management, Leadership and Life”. For want of funds, I have not yet got them printed. Thus I do not have a true “live” publieshed cover page. How can I get the iSBN number? I plan only a paperback and the size is yet to be decided.

Can you guide and help, please?

Well, Sridhar, the Indian authorities are not clear on several aspects. Their ISBN application form is also not up to the mark. You don’t really need an ISBN for an eBook if you’re not selling it. But if you plan to sell it through online book stores like Amazon, then you may need an ISBN. Some stores will ask you to provide ISBN when you’ll upload the book for sale. Some other stores will not require an ISBN.

Just create a any “cover” image and submit it with the form. You can later on change the image.

Sir i have written three engineering books can i apply for ISBN No for these self published books together or i have to apply separately. Is there any limit regarding quantity of ISBN No. given to the same author for self published books.

Hi Deepak, you can apply for all three ISBN numbers together. I am not sure if there is an upper limit on the number of ISBNs you can apply for. But getting 10-20 ISBN is not a problem at all.

Hello sir. I have published my books through a publisher in India. That publisher had got ISBNs from an international website Tey got those numbers from "BOWKER" the biggest ISBN agency of USA. Now do I need to do any procedure with Indian Agency?

No, you don't need to do procure more ISBN from the Indian agency.

This is the correct link to the new application forms for applying for ISBN.s in India (as on 12 May 2015)

Thanks for the information Pradeepkumar! But the link you gave is not working. Please see you have given the correct link.

Hi, I have around 8 books to be published. Can I send one request for all these or should I send separate for 8?

I am very happy when I know the easy procedure for ISBN. This is simple and easy way. So that we can give justice to author and trust for reader. Thank u very much……

Just one question, application form asks "Place of publication" and "Paperback or hardback?". Well, my book is on worldwide sale (through Amazon), what to tell them? And my book is neither paperback nor hardback. It's an ebook. And the form doesn’t seem to be asking about so. Help me out, with that please. Thank you.

As change address is rectified similarly phone number also change to 011-23369668

Thank you Mayank!

After publishing a book and assigning it an ISBN, then should the book be send to Raja Ram Library? How does anyone know that this particular ISBN represents this particular book?

Hi Pradeep, organizations like "Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN" only ensure that ISBN numbers are not duplicated. So, nobody else in the world is going to get the ISBN that you've already got. When you upload your books in stores like Amazon, they associate ISBN with the book title and other information. Google Books is a massive database of books. You can search most of the books in this database by supplying ISBN. Google Books get this data from publishers and probably from online stores.

When you apply for an ISBN from organizations like "Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN", they also ask you to fill the details of your book in a form. But once you've got the ISBN, I guess you can assign this number to any of the book as you wish.

I want to publish my own book do i need a license ?

No, you don’t need any license to publish your own book. You can self-publish it with or without an ISBN Number.

I want to sell my educational books on amazon. But do not have an ISBN no for my books.

Kindly confirm is it possible to put ISBN sticker label on already printed books. What is the process to do that.

You should be able to place a sticker ISBN on your book. But first you’ll need to apply for and acquire ISBN from the authority.

Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN has been shifted to the following address:-


That is very useful information! I will update the article. Thank you for taking time out to help us!

Nice one stop information site regarding ISBN

Informative. Thank you. I plan to apply for my book that uses puzzles and games to teach problem solving!

what should i write in the “Subject” field?? i am writing a book on English .

You book’s subject.

sir, it is more than three months after applying for isbn. i have followed the procedure to the pin. no emails and phone are answered.please advice. thanks in advance.

Thriveni, as you can see, many other people have reported that the agency does not respond properly. A friend of mine in Delhi told me that he had to personally go to the agency to get the work done. So much for the efficiency of government departments! This is all I can tell you.

Dear All, My experience of dealing with RRMRF has been very good. I am not sure what it is now, but about 6 years ago, I had applied for ISBNs and they supplied within 3 weeks. They were particular about documentation and a covering letter that should be on Letter Head only (I had applied as a publisher) So all of us who are wondering why no response: the reason could be in some lacuna from our end. I understand that they have made the process now online for authors and publishers at [I have not ‘experimented with yet]. My personal opinion: It is not apt to pay and get the ISBN. It is not good on part of people providing such services which is actually a Free-for-all concept. Can anyone share information on how to create ISBN barcode using MS Word? I found a paid service at TEC-IT – but did see someone making it … I think it is possible..

Thank you for sharing your experience with RRMRF. There are barcode fonts available that you can download from Internet. You can use these fonts to write your ISBN in MS-Word. Frankly, I haven’t really tried these fonts. But I guess it’s worth giving a try.

Can anyone please share the telephone number of RAJA RAMMOHUN ROY NATIONAL AGENCY FOR ISBN? All these numbers are wrong – 2617-2903/2916 and 23384687.

Hi, The information provided very helpful. I just want to ask if you have any knowledge.. where and how to update book title and ISBN on the different sites or on internet. so that anyone can search the book with the ISBN or book title globally.

Hello Gurjit, to display ISBN and other book related information on web stores, you would need to submit your book to various online stores like Flipkart, Amazon, Snapdeal, Infibeam etc. All these stores have different guidelines about book submission. You would need to do research about it.

Thanks alot for the wonderful information. My Uncle has written about 30+ books. To get ISBN, does he need to submit 30 application? PS: He is publishing the books thru his own publication

No, I think you can apply for multiple ISBN numbers on one form.

Thanks for giving such information.

But There is required to attach Supporting document as ‘ A Statement of the Current Account of the Applicant’. Can you explain the what is it?

My second question is, we wish to published book in the name of our Educational Institutes as publisher then, What type of I D Proof we may send?

1) Current Account is the bank account of your publishing company. I guess it applies for the established publishers. If you do not have a current account, guess you can send the application without such a statement. But yes, attach a letter explaining as to why you are not enclosing the current account statement.

2) Company registration certificate may be the ID proof. But I am not sure. Sorry!

We have submitted my application but no reply is come to us.

M/s Sunaina Events & Productions

It is not unusual, Andre! As you might see from many other comments, the authority guys are too lazy to reply. I hope you find a way to get to them. Please share with us your story and tips on how to get ISBN number faster.

Hi Lalit, This is splendid information. I am starting to write a new book and thought I would get some information how to go about it. I found your blog post and thought it was great for a beginner like me. I also will be self publishing so this information was quite useful. Thank you so much. Sachin

I am happy that this information was useful for you, Sachin!

Its very important info u r provided sir thankyou

may i know how to set the price for book n how much % cost for distributor or retailor for book sell

Amol, this question does not pertain to the topic of this article. But there is not such formula. You need to draw up an agreement with your distributor on this issue.

dear friend you have given the basic information, thank you. we have organized a seminar for lecturer and research delegates in the month of Feb 2015. we wish to bring the selected papers of the presenters in an ISBN book. so is it possible ? (means is it possible to get an isbn number for that) and one more thing is, a model application form of ISBN is available anywhere in the website? if its not please guide us how to fill up the form for getting number?

Dear Manjunath, yes you can get ISBN for such a book. Link to the prescribed form is given in the article.

thanks for such valuable information

Sir, the above link to download application form does not work. The following link works… Thanks… Please clear the issue of cover page as so many applicants have send the script for print and waiting for ISBN as ISBN allocation takes time. Thank you very much for presenting such articles as these are very helpful for the needy…

Dear Vinayak, thanks a lot for updated link. I have also updated the link in the article. This is the power of collective efforts! I have clarified the requirement of cover page in a note in the article.

nice description about ISBN

what is the procedure to get ISBN for Articles

well I am Entrepreneur /Engineer , thanks for such an nice information , if it is possible to you then please share nice information about legality and copyright , it is under ISBN or we need to go for another registration.I am newbie and has dream to get into Industry.I was planning to write Educational content for Engineering as well as for some Marathi literature,Please respond ASAP ,Thanks for valuable time to share an nice information.

Copyright has nothing to do with ISBN. When you publish a book, it automatically become copyrighted. But you can also get your work registered for copyright if you want. That’s a separate process.

My work is ready, but I am yet to print my book (novelette), and i am opting for self publication. If my book is not ready, how can I submit a copy of my cover page?

Kindly enlighten.

Thank you for such useful information and guidance. However, if you could clarify the following point: You have mentioned: [In addition, you will also need to enclose the following along with the application form: ‘Photocopy of the cover page’] But my cover page is not ready. Since my book is ready to go for printing, but yet not printed, how could i submit the photocopy of the cover page? The cover page shall be printed along with the rest of the book. Kindly enlighten.

I Tried calling on the numbers given, but there is no responds nor any one attending my call. Is there any one who can help me.

they just don’t answer the phone and we cannot get any information . the book cannot wait for too long for print , i wish they had given it to some private company and even if we need to pay some money its ok but to wait without knowing …. is tourcher the govt dept are hopeless and make us helpless . cannot go all the way to delhi for this ….

I can imagine your situation. But that’s how government departments work :( slow and sluggish. I have written this article just to provide information. I have no connection with the ISBN issuing authority. So, can’t help.

Mere aapke dwaara di gayi jaankaari bahut mahtvpurn hai.main bhi apni pustakon ko khud prakashit karanaa chahtaa hun jisake liye hamane “Maktaba Qadria” kaa naam bhi rakhaa hai.meri abhi tak 200 pustaken prakashit ho chuki hain tathaa kuchh aur pustaken va anuvaad aane wale hain ,jinhe main apne hi banner se prakashit karanaa chahtaa hun . aaj hi isbn ke liye apply kar rahaa hun .isi banner se apne kuchh doston ki bhi pustak no profit-no loss ke antargat chhapne kaa vichaar hai .

I apply a application for ISBN as a publishars from Chennai, Tamil Nadu with list of books a month ago. But no ISBN number nor any acknowledgement has no reached me. I Tried calling on the numbers given, but there is no responds nor any one attending my call. Is there any one who can help me.

I am very happy when I know the procedure for ISBN. This is simple and easy way. So that we can give justice to author and trust for reader. Thanks

aapke dwaara di gayi jaankaari bahut mahtvpurn hai.main bhi apni pustakon ko khud prakashit karanaa chahtaa hun jisake liye hamane “vidhya lakshmi prakashan” kaa naam bhi rakhaa hai.meri abhi tak 8 pustaken prakashit ho chuki hain tathaa kuchh aur pustaken va anuvaad aane wale hain ,jinhe main apne hi banner se prakashit karanaa chahtaa hun . aaj hi isbn ke liye apply kar rahaa hun .isi banner se apne kuchh doston ki bhi pustak no profit-no loss ke antargat chhapne kaa vichaar hai .

aapkaa itani jaankari dene ke liye shukariya.

dr a kirtivardhan vidhyalakshmi niketan, 53 maha lakshmi enclev, muzaffarnagar-251001 (u p)

[email protected]

I apply a application for ISBN as a publishars from mathabhanga, CoochBehar, West Bengal with corrent account bank statement, Vote Card (ID) and list of books in 6 month ago. But no ISBN number reach to me. I hopless at thise time. please help me.

Parimal ji,

I think you should give a phone call the RAJA RAMMOHUN ROY NATIONAL AGENCY FOR ISBN and inquire about your application.

Jyoti Arora

Official Website of Indian Author Jyoti Arora

Author Jyoti Arora's website and books

How to get ISBN in India? Here’s all you need to know.

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ISBN means International Standard Book Number. Consider it as a catalog number for books. If you are self-publishing your book, it is a good idea to get the ISBN. It is not mandatory for publishing a book, but it is needed if you want to sell that book on retail channels like Amazon, Flipkart, etc.

Publishers can get ISBN numbers in bulk. But for an individual like a self-published author, getting the ISBN was a hassle and time-consuming process earlier. But the good news is that thanks to technology, it is now very easy and quick to get the ISBN in India.

How authors can get ISBN in India

Who needs the isbn:.

An ISBN is not an absolute necessity for publishing a book. However, if you want to sell your physical book on retail channels, then you do need this number. Also, many ebook self-publishing services like KDP, Smashwords, and Draft 2 Digital automatically allocate the ISBN or similar number to ebooks. You can use your own ISBN, but you don’t need to. You can just keep the automatically allocated number.

However, some services (mostly for print books) don’t allocate the automatic identification number. For books published through these services (like, you’ll need to get the ISBN if you want to sell your print book to other retailers. Also, remember that you need a separate ISBN number for every edition or format of the book. You can’t use a print book ISBN with your ebooks.

Before you apply for the ISBN:

When you apply for ISBN, you are asked to upload the book’s cover and give information about the book’s page count and price. You also need to upload a Title Verso page (explained later in the post) and scanned images of identity proof like the Aadhaar card. So you need all that ready before you apply for ISBN.

Price of the ISBN in India:

Are you wondering what ISBN costs in India? Well, it costs nothing! That’s right, you can get it for free by just applying for it.

ISBN India

Where to get the ISBN in India?

In India, the ISBN is allocated by Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN . The agency has its  office in Delhi . Earlier, authors and publishers needed to send the application to the Agency. After manually reviewing the application, the agency used to assign the ISBN and send it to the applicant via normal post.

But now, you don’t need to send any written application and then wait for the approval. The whole process has come online now. So, just head over to to apply for your ISBN.

The agency website will ask you to register first by clicking at the ‘New Applicant Registration’ button. Once your registration is approved, you can apply for the ISBN. This approval process takes less than a day. You’ll get approval or rejection notification over the mail. When approved, the agency will assign you a temporary password which you can later change.

Make sure to keep you login details safe. If you apply for another ISBN later on, you can use the same account.

Process of applying for the ISBN in India:

Once your account is approved, and you are logged in at the agency website, You can apply for ISBN by clicking at ‘Apply For New Application.’ You’ll need to fill a form and upload your cover and identification proofs. The form is not lengthy or complicated. Still, if you have any confusion, the agency provides a step-by-step guide for it. Just fill your details, upload your book’s cover and your identity proofs and submit.

The Title Verso page for ISBN in India:

Along with the Cover design and Identity proofs, you’ll also need to upload a Title Verso page which gives information about the author, printer, copyright holder and copyright notice, etc.  A wrongly filled Title Verso page can delay the approval of the application. Thankfully, I did not face any such problem. If you want, you can download the Title Verso template that I used and follow it.

Final Approval:

Once you submit the application, you’ll get a mail stating your application has been submitted and you need to review it and submit it for further processing. At this review step, if the website gives you an error notification, you need to correct that in your application. If there’s no error notice, just review the application and submit.

You should get your ISBN within 24 hours of final submission.

Getting ISBN in India is now easy and quick

Earlier, the whole process involved over a month-long wait and also depended upon the efficiency of the postal department. I remember, when I applied for ISBN for my novel Lemon Girl , I had to wait over a month and then rescue the ISBN letter as it was about to flutter out of our gate. But all that is a thing of the past now, thanks to the magic of the internet. When I applied for the ISBN for my You Came Like Hope , the whole process from user registration to ISBN allotment took just 3 days! Really, getting ISBN in India has never been this easy and quick.

* All time estimates are based upon my experience and might not be the same for everyone and at all times.

How to convert ISBN into Barcode for your book

You may have noticed that the ISBN is given as a Barcode on the back cover of print books. But how to get that ISBN Barcode for your book?

Well, if you hire a professional book cover designer, then putting that Barcode image on your cover is their responsibility. So you don’t need to worry about it.

If you plan to design the book cover yourself, you may find the Barcode generator utility in the cover designing tool you use. For example, I converted the eBook cover of my #JustRomance into its print book cover using the cover creator tool of I just needed to copy-paste my ISBN number in it and the tool automatically converted it into a Barcode.

If your cover designing tool doesn’t have this facility, you may try some online Barcode Generators. Here’s one Barcode Generator that seems to work well. You just copy-paste your ISBN 13 in its Code field, scroll down the page, and hit Generate. Then you can download your Barcode in the format of your choice, such as PNG, JPG, PDF.

Check out Jyoti Arora’s Books

(Click on the picture given below)

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Hi Jyoti, After getting the ISBN did you register it somewhere? How did you get the barcode for the book?

Hi, When you get the ISBN, it is already registered in your name. You don’t need to register it anywhere else. As for the barcode, my cover designer turned the ISBN into barcode. There are many online barcode generators available as well. If you search for ‘ISBN to barcode’ you’ll find them.

isbn number how to get it in india

ISBN infographic

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isbn number how to get it in india

Who Can apply for ISBN in India?

• publishers, • authors, • institutions/universities, • government departments, isbn for self publishers & independent authors in india.

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique book identification numeric code which can be allocated to any single book - whether it is printed or electronically available. The ISBN must be 13 digits in size if allocated on or after January 1, 2007, and 10 digits if allocated before that time. While publishing a book, authors or publishers may decide not to have an ISBN. But, it is always a good idea to get one ISBN allocated for the book. ISBN helps to provide the book an international identity and facilitates the sale of the book to different bookstores, distribution channels, and libraries throughout different countries. The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) system was introduced in 1972 and in India, it was put into operation in 1985 by Raja Rammohan National Agency for ISBN.

Summary: How to get an ISBN in India?

Follow either of these steps: publish your book from some leading indian book publishers like or do the processing as an individual directly, freeze the size & number of pages for the book., finalize the book cover design., decide on the book format (paperback/hard-cover/electronic - each needs separate isbn)., set the maximum retail price., complete the application., send a copy of id proof (pan card, passport, voter id etc.), a print out of cover and a self-addressed envelope for return communication., send the application to the agency at the address mentioned in the template application..

When you DO need a new ISBN

• New editions

• new publisher, • revised editions , • change of format , • breaking a title in series, • different product forms (hardback, paperback, audiobook, electronic publication etc.), • different electronic formats (.pdf, .lit, .html, .pdb etc.), • new types (novel, graphic novel etc.).

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ISBN in India - an infographic   

ISBN - facts you did not know

Directly from Raja Rammohan National Agency for ISBN

In India, the author can have his/her own free ISBN by applying to Raja Rammohan National Agency for ISBN. By default, you need to generate your own EAN barcode as they DO NOT provide the same along with the ISBN. There is no fee associated with it and it may take approximately 20 to 50 days to get the ISBN in your hand if approved. Download and print the following proforma and send that to Rammohan National Agency for ISBN along with a letter of application requesting registration and delivery of ISBNnumber to your postal address. Raja Ram Mohun Roy ISBN Agency Room No. 13,  Jeevan Deep Building,  4th Floor, Parliament street  New Delhi Phone: +91-11-26179675

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If publishing process is powered by, books are generally assigned with a fresh free ISBN  with no delay unless the standard of the content and presentations are not up to the mark as per the editorial team. The ISBN becomes machine-readable in the form of a 13-digit EAN bar code which is fast to read & less error prone. provides the related barcode along with the ISBN for free in case the book is getting processed by them.

Please note: is not the authority in India to provide the ISBN. requests Raja Rammohan National Agency for ISBN in bulk due to the large numbers of books processed by them.

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isbn number how to get it in india

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If you are planning to write a book or have one already written, then you need an ISBN to it. There are two case scenarios- if you want your publisher to do it , he can get it done at the same price, but if you're going to  self-publish  it, then you would want to follow the steps given below: STEP 1- Before applying for ISBN, you must finalize the font style, size of the text, margins, and everything. DON'T forget to mention the number of pages; do it correctly because they won't allow you to alter the number of pages later! STEP 2- Get your book printed just the way you want it to be because you're going to need the front and the back cover while sending the application. STEP 3- Finalize the maximum retail price you want to sell it. The typical cost a book consists of is printing, binding, storage, marketing, publisher's commission, etc., so don't forget to make some profit! STEP 4- Write down the application enclosed with a copy of the cover page, photocopy of ID proof, and a self-addressed envelope for return communication. STEP 5- Send your draft application enclosed with the documents mentioned above on the given address- Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN West Block-I, Wing-6, 2nd Floor, Sector -I, R.K. Puram, New Delhi-110066 Phone: +91-11-26172903/26172916 That's all! And you are good to go!

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  • How to get an ISBN number in India?
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How to get an ISBN number in India?

Just like all of us have different identities and personalities, our books have their own different identities – well except the  book cover , titles, and stories; it is called an ISBN number. 

You must have noticed a small bar code and a number above at the back cover of the book i.e., ISBN number.

ISBN is International Standard Book Number which is a 13 digit number . It is a unique serial number which helps us identify the book. Each book has a different ISBN, even if you want to change the name of the author, title, sub-title – a new ISBN will be applied and assigned to the book.

For eg: “Harry Potter and The Sorcerer’s Stone” and “Harry Potter and The Philosopher’s Stone” even though are the same books but are with different titles therefore will have two different ISBN.

Read:  How much do self-published authors earn?

What is an ISBN number?

There are in total five parts in an ISBN number namely Prefix Elements, Registration Group Elements, Registrant Element, Publication Element, and Check digit.

Prefix element is of three digits and it is the starting of the  ISBN number.

Registration Group Element helps us know that which language or region the book belongs to. This can be of one to five.  Registrant Element lets us know who is the publisher or the  publication house  and this is upto seven digits.

Publication Element is to identify the special edition of any book and goes up to six digits.

Check Digit is the last digit of an ISBN number which validates the other digits of the ISBN.

Read:  How to copyright a book in India?

what is the process to apply for isbn number in india | your book for free

What is the use of ISBN number and how to apply?

ISBN number helps  Book Publishers , Book Sellers, Libraries, and Internet Book Suppliers to track the records and identify the product – how many sales have come, how much are in storage, etc.

Pointers to keep in mind about ISBN number–

  • ISBN number was founded by David Whitaker in 1967.
  • ISBN takes at least 20-30 days to get allotted as it is a government procedure. Also they don’t expire so you don’t need to worry about reapplying for it ever.
Read:  Best ways to write a book?

Process to apply for ISBN –

  • The applicant should register first on the ISBN portal in order to apply for an ISBN number.
  • After the submission of the registration form, you will receive an email for the username i.e. your email address and the password for the online system.

You only need one ISBN number worldwide as it is an International Standard Book Number.

If you want to  publish your book  in different format – you will need different ISBN as they are different version of your books.

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How to Get an ISBN Number

Last Updated: April 11, 2023 Approved

This article was reviewed by Gerald Posner . Gerald Posner is an Author & Journalist based in Miami, Florida. With over 35 years of experience, he specializes in investigative journalism, nonfiction books, and editorials. He holds a law degree from UC College of the Law, San Francisco, and a BA in Political Science from the University of California-Berkeley. He’s the author of thirteen books, including several New York Times bestsellers, the winner of the Florida Book Award for General Nonfiction, and has been a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in History. He was also shortlisted for the Best Business Book of 2020 by the Society for Advancing Business Editing and Writing. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 90% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 147,044 times.

An International Standard Book Number is used to identify books, ebooks, and other publications. If you’re a publisher, self-publishing writer, or a company representative interested in putting out literature that can be easily catalogued, you should probably get an ISBN. The process of obtaining an ISBN varies somewhat from nation to nation. To begin the process, identify your national ISBN agency through the International ISBN Agency website. Click on your country and follow the directions provided by your national ISBN agency.

Gathering Necessary Information

Step 1 Find your national ISBN agency.

  • The website for the International ISBN Agency is available at .

Step 2 Select the national agency in which your company’s headquarters is located.

Completing the Application

Step 1 Find your application.

  • The application should cite the cost of submitting the application. If it does not, ask your national ISBN agency about the cost and payment options.

Step 4 Get your ISBN.

  • In some cases you might get your ISBN mailed or emailed to you.
  • The length of time required for approval varies from place to place. Your national ISBN agency should be able to tell you how long you'll need to wait.

Community Q&A

Community Answer

  • Every publisher has their own block of ISBNs. These numbers cannot be shared or sold. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Do not reuse ISBNs for new editions. Any time you publish a new edition, a new ISBN is required. For instance, if you publish a softcover version of a book that was previously released as a hardback, you’ll need a new ISBN. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

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To get an ISBN number, start by visiting the website for the International ISBN agency and clicking on the orange button labeled “Find an agency.” Next, select the national agency in which your company’s headquarters is located or your nation if you’re applying for yourself. Then, create an account with your national ISBN agency and fill out the application. In order to finish the application, you’ll need information such as the publisher’s name and address, the title of the publication, and the format of the publication. When you’re done with the application, pay the fee, and receive your ISBN by mail or email. To learn how to find the application for an ISBN, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How to get an ISBN number in India

  • September 18, 2021 September 18, 2021

How to register for ISBN number

Table of Contents

What is an ISBN?

ISBN is an abbreviation for International Standard Book Number, a unique 13-digit numerical code use to identify commercial books. Earlier, It is used to have 10 digits till December 2006. However, After 1 January 2007, this may raise to 13. This may allot behind calculation with a secret mathematical formula. In addition, they contain a ‘check digit to validate the number.

The structure of an ISBN

Firstly, Each ISBN consists of 5 essential components and spaces separate each section (below the barcode) or hyphens (above the barcode). Below are 5 components of the ISBN code:

  • Prefix element – It is starting with 978 or 979. This is the prefix element.
  • Registration Team Element – This section refers to a specific country, state, or region from the International ISBN Organization. It can be from 1 to 5 digits.
  • Registration element – This element identifies the publisher. It can be up to 7 digits long.
  • Publishing element – This section refers to the specific version and format of the topic. It can be up to 6 digits.
  • Check the number – this is the ending area, which is the last single digit of this code. This mathematically confirms the remainder of the ISBN. It may calculate with the “Mode 10” system with 1 and 3 alternating weights.

ISBN registration process

  • Upload the required documents and information to our website.
  • Contact our Business Advisor on how to obtain this number.
  • Our professional will verify the validity of the documents and information provided.
  • In addition, Upon successful submission of this application, your application will send for clarification.
  • Send an appropriate reply to the explanation for the objection to this number.
  • In satisfactory response, it will assign.

Documents required for ISBN registration

Proof of identity: The identity of the author of the book or research article must be recorded. Moreover, This may include PAN, Aadhar card, Voter ID card, etc. The content of the entire book for this registration must register.

How to get an ISBN for a self-publishing book

Firstly, ISBN is an international standard book number. Thirteen digits are used as unique identifiers for books, such as a book edition, a particular book, and any other book-like product. This international standard book number can be used to study the language, code digits, edition, publisher, book title, and also format of the book. In addition, the International Standard Book Number is used internationally and requires a brief number for every version of the book.

Who can apply for ISBN?

We know that with the increasing demand for online shopping, e-libraries and also e-books are creating more competition among booksellers and publishers, making their books available on every side of the market. Importantly, The concept of e-book has increased the range of authors to make their books available worldwide.

Questions about ISBN Registration – FAQ

International Standard Book Number, this for short, may a unique thirteen-digit number assign to each book. Also, tapes, CDs, and pre-release e-books, which record details such as language, publisher details and source. However, Displayed in ISBN barcode format and acts as a license plate, guaranteeing the unique identity of each book and other related products.

Frequently Asked Questions

Who needs an ISBN?

Book publishers, booksellers, and libraries for ordering, inventory, and also stock management use an ISBN code. However, It distinguishes publishers and helps them identify specific editions of a particular topic in a particular format.

Where can I get an ISBN?

Moreover, ISBNs may assign to publishers in the country where their headquarters are located. It is regardless of the target market for the publishing language or book.

Which products can ISBN not be assigned to?

The following non-text products are not eligible:

  • Series, Periodicals, Magazines, and Journals.
  • Record books
  • Audio / Video VCD, DVD, and other media
  • Computer games
  • Computer application

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ISBN for Self Publishers in India

The ISBN agency has launched an online portal and according to their website they are no longer accepting paper application. To register for an account and apply for an ISBN, please  go to their portal .

The application process mentioned in the article below is no longer relevant.

ISBN  stands for International Standard Book Number, a unique code that can be assigned to a book.

While  an ISBN is not required to publish a book, it is a good idea to get one for your book , specially if you want to sell it through standard book distribution channel. For selling it only through, you do not need to have an ISBN.

ISBNs are allotted to publishers. Books on are usually published by the authors or their relatives individually. Earlier ISBNs were allotted only in blocks. But the good news for self-publishers is that now individual ISBNs can be allotted to the self-publishers too.

What more - Getting an ISBN in India is free. You need to send an application to Raja Rammohan Roy National Agency for  ISBN .

Self Publishers, please read on to know how to get an ISBN for your book.

Getting an ISBN in India


Make sure that your book in ready for the ISBN application. In particular

  • Interior book design should be done so you know the number of pages.
  • Book cover design should be ready.
  • You should know whether you want to publish paperback, hard cover or eBook. Each of these formats needs a separate ISBN. So, if you are planning to publish in more than one format, please send an application for each of them.
  • Retail price of the book should be decided.

Also keep handy the following

  • Self-attested id proof.
  • A copy of the book cover.
  • Self-addressed envelope affixed with postage stamp for speed post despatch from Delhi.
  • Any earlier ISBN asigned to you by the agency.
  • A copy of the book using the earlier ISBN, if not already sent to the agency.

Application Template

Application template is available on MS Word and PDF formats. You can download the one convenient for you.

Application & Attachments

Complete the application by inserting the details about your book.

  • Title of Book:
  • Author/Editor Name:
  • Publisher:  Self-Published/Name of the publisher
  • Whether you have published before and if so its ISBN:
  • Whether the earlier book is attached:
  • Year of Publication:
  • Place of Publication:
  • Format (paperback, hard cover or eBook):
  • Your address for communication


  • a copy of self-attested id proof (PAN card, passport, voter id card etc.)
  • a print out of cover
  • a self addressed envelop for return communication
  • a copy of any earlier book published with an ISBN, if not already sent

Important Points:

  • Publisher: Please make sure that the publisher's name is NOT If you yourself are publishing the book, you should write self-published in that head. If another individual or organization is publishing it, then their name should be mentioned. But under no circumstances should's name be mentioned there.
  • Paperback / Paperback / eBook: Different ISBNs need to be taken for the hardcover, paperback and eBook formats. So, be clear about which version you want the ISBN for.
  • Self-attestation: Remember to self-attest attached documents.

Postal address for sending the application:

  • Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Room No. 13, Jeevan Deep Building, 4th Floor, Parliament Street, New Delhi - 110001 Phone: +91-11-26172903/26172916

Please note that we have tried to provide the information as accurately as possible. However, we do not take responsibility of any omissions or mistakes that might have come in. This article is provided for informational purposes only. For any legal issues, please consult a qualified professional.

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What is an ISBN Number?

Rohit Mehta

Rohit Mehta

Rohit Mehta is an Indian blogger, author and entrepreneur. He owns a blog named Digital Gabbar which is Available in English & Hindi. Rohit has been in the digital marketi ng and IT sector for over 10 years. He can be reached at Facebook, Instagram or Twitter (@bloggermehta). LESS ... MORE

If you love reading books, or you sell or buy books then you must have noticed a number of the books. That number is called ISBN number and you will find it in every book. Do you know why the ISBN is mentioned in every book? So in today’s article, we are going to provide complete information about ISBN numbers.

Full form of ISBN

The full form of ISBN is International Standard Book Number and it is of 13 digits. Before 2006 ISBN numbers were 10 digits but now it is 13 digits. All the books which are put for sale or free distribution will have an ISBN number on them and all the books are identified by this ISBN number.

ISBN number is a unique serial number through which we can identify the product. ISBN number is used by Publishers, Book Distributors, Libraries, Internet Booksellers for listing, Sale records and stock control purposes.

Understand the Elements of ISBN Numbers

There are a total of 5 elements in any ISBN number.

* Prefix Elements- The prefix elements of any ISBN number is of 3 digits and it is at the starting of the ISBN. Currently, it is only 978 or 979.

* Registration Group Element- This is helpful to identify the particular region or language to which the book belongs. Registration Group Element digits Can be of 1 to 5.

* Registrant Element- By this element, we can know who is the publisher or publication house of the book. Registrant Element can be up to 7 digits.

* Publication Element- This helps us to identify the special edition of the book title and the publication element can be up to 6 digits.

* Check Digit- This is the last digit of an ISBN number and it is only in single digit. Which validates the other digits in ISBN number.

Why ISBN Numbers are Used?

ISBN number is used to identify any product and it is used by Book Publishers, Book Sellers, Libraries and Internet Book Suppliers. By ISBN number it is very easy to track bookselling records, Ordering Books, Listing Books and storage control. You can also visit the official website of ISBN for further information on ISBN numbers.

ISBN was founded by David Whitaker of the United Kingdom in 1967. He configure the ISBN and he was also referred to as the father of ISBN.

How to get ISBN Number?

To obtain the ISBN number the publisher needs to contact his country’s national ISBN agency and from there he can apply for the ISBN number. If you are a publisher in India then you will be required to contact the National ISBN Agency of India to get the ISBN number.

Benefits of ISBN Number

Until now we have understood what is ISBN, how it works and how to get it. Now we will discuss as what are the main benefits of ISBN.

* An ISBN number reflects and serves as a unique international identifier for all the monographic publication houses and publishers. This helps them to search any of their books very easily.

* Having ISBN numbers on the books helps any book store or online store to analyse their sales.

* With the help of ISBN numbers, you can make more productive marketing and dispersion of your books.

* By ISBN numbers you can link the most essential information about your books. It also helps you to gather the information that can be very helpful for you.

* Through ISBN numbers on books, establishing the publisher of records is very easy.

* ISBN numbers help to include your books in the databases which are used by the booksellers and libraries to reach for the particular book.

If you do not want to place your book in any store or libraries then there is no need to obtain ISBN numbers.

When anyone wants to publish various types of books like any hardcover or an e-book or any paperback. Then every book needs to have a separate ISBN number.

Interesting Facts About ISBN Numbers

* ISBN Numbers are segregated into 5 parts. Which all have their unique digits.

* Standard Book Numbering (SBN) was started by Great Britain’s largest bookseller WHSmith in 1967. That time it was the way to synchronise the books in the latest computerized warehouse.

* If we speak about the International ISBN agency then it is located in London, UK. This is also an ISBN registration authority worldwide.

* Most libraries and bookstores will not sell and feature any of your books until it is not having an ISBN number.

* Initially, there is no bounding to use ISBNs on books as it doesn’t provide any type of copyright protection or legal protection.

* There are few countries in the world wherein there is a law to have an ISBN number on books so the publication houses can easily be traced if required.

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How to Get an ISBN Number for a Self-Published Book

POSTED ON Jun 20, 2023

Scott Allan

Written by Scott Allan

Figuring out how to get an ISBN number for a self-published book may sound scary, but it's actually more simple than many authors think!

If you're self-publishing a printed book , the best action you can take is to get your own ISBN as a self-published author. 

Regardless if a book was self-published or traditionally published , every printed book needs an ISBN, and securing this number is a big step in your publishing endeavors.

But, many writers that are just taking the first step toward becoming an author still have a lot of questions about this topic.

Questions like… What is an ISBN number? How do you get an ISBN number for a self-published book? Do I buy one or just get it for free through KDP or an aggregator? How much does an ISBN cost? Are ISBNs for big-name publishers only?

In this post, we want to answer the commonly asked questions about ISBN numbers for self-published books , as well as everything else you need to know to buy, register, and imprint your ISBN.

Self-Publishing Company

As you read through these questions, we encourage you to open up these two websites in different tabs:

  • MyIdentifiers  
  • ISBN International  

There is a wealth of information on those sites regarding ISBNs (including how to buy an ISBN number for your self-published book) that we will cover while going through these questions.

Now, before you start thinking about ISBN numbers, let me ask you this: Do you have a book ready to publish? If not, you can start preparing for an ISBN now, but you’ll definitely want to finish writing your book first !

Here are the questions we will answer about book ISBNs:

1. what is an isbn number for a book.

Let's start with the most basic question: “What is an ISBN number?”

ISBN, which stands for International Standard Book Number , is an internationally-recognized, 13-digit number that’s used as a unique identifier for books. Each individual book, specific book edition, and any other book-like product must have an ISBN number in order to be printed and distributed in retail bookstores, libraries, and wholesale companies. This number can be used to identify the book's code digits, language, publisher, book title , edition, and format.

ISBN numbers are not required for eBooks, and for books that will not be available in stores or libraries.

2. How and why were ISBNs created?

In the days of WW2, MI6 recruited a young mathematician named Gordon Foster to work as a codebreaker, where he scanned millions of numbers looking for patterns in the code used by the Japanese military.

Decades later, when the book industry needed a standardized tracking program to organize the growing number of titles being published every year, Gordon Foster was approached by British retailer, WH Smith. He hired Foster to write a report on how to create such a system.

And this report ultimately led to the ISBN system that is now used worldwide.

3. Can self-publishers get an ISBN?

ISBN numbers can be acquired by any publisher. And a self-publisher is a publisher, so yes! You will apply for an ISBN like anyone else. Refer to or keep reading to learn how to get an ISBN number.

4. How do I buy an ISBN in the US? If I live outside the USA?

ISBNs are issued based on location. 

If you live in the United States, you can purchase an ISBN through Bowker , which is the only company authorized to administer ISBN numbers in the US. 

Here is how to buy an ISBN number in the US:

  • Go to
  • Click on “ISBN”
  • Select the quantity you'd like to purchase
  • Click “Buy Now”
  • Complete checkout

In Canada , where the ISBNs are issued for free, you can visit the ISBN Canada—Library and Archives website.

Living in the UK, Ireland, or a British Overseas Territory , check out Nielsen ISBN Store .

For other international authors, you can visit the International ISBN Agency . 

Note: While ISBNs are assigned locally, you can use them internationally.

5. Do I need a different ISBN for every country the book is published in?

No, you don’t need an ISBN if the book is available in other countries – as long as it appears in the same format and language.

However, you DO need an ISBN for each format and edition of the book. This includes publications in different languages. Refer to the International ISBN Agency for a list of language codes.

6. How to get an ISBN number for a self-published book?

As a self-publisher, you have two options. You can either buy an ISBN number for your book(s) or obtain one for free through your self-publishing platform .

If you’re a resident of the United States, you can purchase an ISBN through Bowker by following the step-by-step instructions above. Or, you can obtain one for free via Amazon’s KDP or by uploading to Draft2Digital or SmashWords . 

Regardless of how you get an ISBN number, it's important to note that you only need one ISBN number per book. This is registered to your self-published book and stays with the book – regardless of the different stores or platforms, it's sold on.

7. How many numbers should an ISBN have?

Due to the large volume of eBooks now published each year, all ISBN numbers are now 13 digits. All ISBN numbers issued prior to 2007 were 10 digits long.

Note: Older ISBN numbers with only 10 digits can now be converted into a 13-digit code with the ISBN conversion tool from Bowker .

8. What is an ISBN number used for?

An ISBN is the standard ID number used to identify books by booksellers, libraries, book wholesalers, and distributors.

It is used to identify each published book and each edition of the same book, as well as the publisher of the book. You can tell a lot about a book, its author, and the publisher by knowing how to read the ISBN number.

Let's use the picture here to show you how it works in practice.

What Is The Isbn Of A Book

The 13-digit ISBN number is broken up into 5 parts that identify the following:

  • Book Code Digits: The first three digits, “978” indicate that this string of numbers is for a book ISBN.
  • Language of the Book: The language for an English version is identified with an “0” or “1.” You can reference this complete list at the International ISBN Agency .
  • Book title, Edition, and Format: The six-digit series represents the title of the book.
  • Check Digit: “0” is the last digit and is known as the “check digit.” This number is mathematically calculated as a fixed, single digit.

9. How do I find the ISBN number of a book? 

There are several ways to look up the ISBN number of a book, both on the book itself and online. Here's how to find an ISBN number of any book:

  • Check the back cover of the book , and look for the ISBN near the publisher's barcode.
  • Look on the copyright page located at the front of the book near the title page.
  • Search for the book's ISBN online using the author or title on ISBN Search .

Find Isbn Number

11. How can I find my book’s ISBN number?

You can easily find the ISBN of your book using the same online tool.

To look up your book's ISBN number, follow these steps:

  • Visit the website ISBN Search
  • Enter your (the author's) name or book title.
  • Click “Search,” and the related books will appear in the results.

Lookup Isbn Numbers

12. Should a self-published author get an ISBN?

Yes, your self-published book should have an ISBN if you plan to sell your printed book in bookstores and libraries , through Amazon self-publishing , and/or online retailers and book aggregators.

There are limitations to this. For eBooks , a book ISBN number is not needed, except for certain exceptions, like if you publish through digital online distributors/aggregators. For example, Draft2Digital requires your book to have an ISBN. Although they will provide you with an ISBN for free, we recommend buying your own , for reasons explained further down in this post.

Here are the top reasons to buy an ISBN for a self-published book:

  • If you want your book sold in bookstores and retail stores
  • If you want your book circulated in libraries
  • If your book will be printed (not solely an eBook)
  • If you plan to use a book aggregator company to publish

In short, it doesn’t matter if you are writing a children’s book or a nonfiction book . Your printed book needs an ISBN if you envision it in the bookstore or on the shelves of your local library.

13. What reasons would a self-published author not need an ISBN?

If you are only publishing an eBook, and you have no plans to write and publish anything more, you won’t need an ISBN. 

Or, if you are happy to only publish through Amazon KDP (print edition) and not use other online retailers, you can request a free ISBN book number via Amazon. 

14. If I get an ISBN, does that mean my book is copyrighted?

No, ISBN is administered by a private company for the use of the international book trade, while copyright is administered by the Library of Congress and is an extension of intellectual property law.

15. Does a book have to be published to have an ISBN?

No, you can obtain an ISBN for your book even if it is not published yet.

ISBNs are issued to publishers, who then assign them to individual books. This can be done at any time, even before the book is written.

16. Can I register my ISBN once it has been approved?

Yes, you can register your ISBN number once it is approved.

Once you have received your number, you should register it at Bowkerlink . Bowker hosts about 12 million international titles, and registration with them places your book in their massive bibliographic database.

17. Are ISBN numbers transferable across different book formats?

No. A single ISBN can be issued for each book only.

For example, if you publish your book in paperback, hardcover, and eBook versions, a separate ISBN number is required for each format.

It is one ISBN per book only, and once assigned to a book, an ISBN number can never be reused.

18. Why would you have to assign a new ISBN number to a book?

ISBNs will need to be changed if certain changes are made to your book. This can be summarized into these 6 common changes and updates:

  • The book is printed in Large Print. Remember, every variation/version requires its own ISBN.
  • The book is published in a foreign language. This would be considered a different format and needs a separate ISBN.
  • If additional material is added to the book. For example, several new chapters are added. This could also mean the book is relaunched as a 2nd edition.
  • If the title and/or subtitle are changed.
  • If changes are made to the binding.
  • If the book is published in another size. For example, for a 5×8, 5.5×8.5, or 6×9, each of these would require a separate ISBN.

Essentially, any changes to the book that makes it appear as a “different product” would require a new book ISBN.

It's important to note that not all changes require a new ISBN number.

Changes that don't require a new ISBN:

  • Changing the book price
  • Creating a new cover design
  • Changing your distributor or printer
  • Small corrections to the content of the book. This includes correcting grammatical errors or improving a few paragraphs.

Here's a guide you can use to determine whether or not you need to buy another ISBN number for your book:

19. If I revise the inside content of a book, do I need to replace the current ISBN?

If you only make line edits or correct typographical errors and don’t make any substantial changes and/or additions to the text, this is considered a reprint, and you don’t need a new ISBN number.

A new edition would contain a significant amount of new material, a major revision, or the addition of completely new chapters and/or sections. Anything that makes it a ‘new book’ is likely to create a new edition. Therefore, a new ISBN would be required.

20. If I just change the cover or the title of the book, do I need a new ISBN?

You can continue to use the same ISBN if the cover is changed.

But if you change the title and/or subtitles and you will have to launch the print version of the book as a new title again, as this is recognized as a different book.

21. Is it acceptable to have several ISBNs for the same book?

No, you really don’t want several ISBNs for your book. This can become a tangled mess and looks unprofessional. But it can happen when several retailers issue free ISBNs for the book.

Online aggregators such as Draft2Digital and Smashwords free ISBNs are not transferable. So, if they are issuing a free one, it is exclusive to that site only. This is the same with Amazon.

The best solution? Buy your own ISBN (more on that later). When you buy your own, the same number is used for that format no matter where it is published.

22. How much does an ISBN cost?

The price of ISBN numbers varies and you can buy single ISBNs or a bundle of them. The going rate for a single ISBN costs $125, while 10 ISBNs cost $295, 100 ISBNs cost $575, and 1000 ISBNs cost $1500.

The most affordable option is to buy one single ISBN number on Bowker .

But just remember, if you ever publish another edition of your book, or another book entirely, you will need more than one ISBN. Therefore, buying multiple ISBNs at once could save you a lot of money over time.

How Much Does An Isbn Cost

Note: that these prices are based on the price listings at Bowker for those living in the United States. For ISBNs purchased internationally, prices do vary (and are often cheaper).

23. How many ISBNs should I buy?

Deciding how many ISBNs to buy is a personal decision and depends on your publishing goals. If you are a busy author publishing a new book every 4-6 weeks, in multiple languages and several formats, it would be smart to buy 100 ISBN numbers from the onset.

Remember that ISBNs do not expire. 

And, consider if you use 3 ISBNs for each book in one language, you could use up a block of ten very quickly if publishing regularly.

The number of ISBNs you should buy also depends on whether or not you are assigning an ISBN to your eBook as well as printed versions. Although eBooks are not, at this time, required to have an ISBN, it does look more professional.

If you write one book and you don’t have plans to do any more, one ISBN will probably do. But for career authors, you should begin with the end in mind. 

24. How to get an ISBN for free? 

If you live in Canada, ISBNs are issued for free. If you live in the United States, you can get your book’s ISBN for free through your self-publishing platform, such as Amazon and Draft2Digital .

25. What are the pros and cons of getting a free ISBN?

The main advantage is…it’s free . This can be convenient if you're publishing on a budget . Or if it’s difficult to obtain an ISBN in the region you live in. 

The disadvantage of receiving a free ISBN:

  • You have to list Amazon (or the self-publishing platform) as the publisher along with other limitations .
  • You could end up with several ISBNs for the same book, and this looks unprofessional. For example, you receive a different ISBN from Amazon, Draft2Digital, and Smashwords . 
  • Free ISBNs are non-transferable. You can’t take your free ISBN from Amazon and use it with another retailer.

If you can, we recommend buying your own ISBN.

If you are in the US, you purchase through Bowker , or if you’re in the UK, you purchase through Nielson . Both sites make it very easy to buy ISBNs. Depending on your international location, you could go through a lot of red tape to get your book ISBN number, but most authors agree it's worth the trouble.

26. Do I need an ISBN number to get my book into libraries?

Yes. If you want to stock your book in libraries, you’ll need an ISBN that you purchased and registered. 

The library market is huge, and, if you are serious about expanding the distribution of your book, this is not an opportunity you want to pass up.

Overdrive is the biggest supplier of eBooks to libraries and has circulated over 105 million+ books to date to libraries.

Again, a free ISBN will not do. The ISBN number needs to be registered to a publisher – that would be you as the author (or your self-publishing company ).

27. Where does the ISBN number need to be printed on a self-published book?

You’ll print it on the copyright page, and it’s included in the Cataloging-in-Publication data block if you use one. 

Otherwise, just print it on the copyright page and on the back cover as part of the barcode.

28. Is an ISBN the same as a barcode? If not, what are the differences?

The ISBN and barcode are different. Although both are found on the back of the book in the same place, they both fulfill a different function.

The ISBN is found above the barcode on the back of the book. And by now, you can answer the question, “ What is an ISBN number? “

The barcode is a representation of the ISBN in a form that can be identified by scanners. It includes extra information such as:

  • The book’s fixed price and;
  • The currency it’s being sold in.

Here are some facts about barcodes and ISBNs according to Bowker :

  • A barcode is not an ISBN. It's a graphical representation of your book's ISBN and price.
  • To use a barcode, you'll already need your book's ISBN number and pricing information.
  • You can purchase and download a barcode after you've created an account at
  • You can store your barcodes for future use at .
  • Make sure you enter the correct price on the barcode . Once the barcode is generated, the price cannot be changed.
  • If you change the cost of your self-published book, you will need a new barcode. The ISBN, however, does not expire and does not need to be changed if you change the price. 

The standard barcode is known as the EAN (European Article Number) barcode and your barcode must be in this format to sell your book in bookstores.

29. What is the difference between the ASIN and ISBN numbers?

An ASIN is not the same as an ISBN. ASIN is a number used by Amazon to identify products, whereas ISBN is the universal number for identifying a book. 

ASIN numbers are only used by Amazon to manage and identify the products they are selling. It’s a 10-character alphanumeric unique identifier that’s assigned by only.

If you want to sell through other platforms—or in brick-and-mortar stores— you’re going to need an ISBN.

You can find this ASIN on your book page. In your browser, the Amazon ASIN will be after the product’s name and “dp.” The next place to find this is in your book or product details area of your book page.

Note: ASIN numbers are exclusive to Amazon, are non-transferable, and cannot be used in place of an ISBN.

30. What is the Bookland EAN Barcode?

According to Publisher Services, an official US ISBN Agency Partner:

“An EAN—which begins with the Bookland prefix 978—is called a Bookland EAN code and is used on books and book related products internationally. The Bookland symbol is the barcode of choice in the book industry because it allows for encodation of ISBNs (the numbers publishers use to identify their products).”

Since an ISBN is unique to one particular title (or product), the corresponding Bookland EAN symbol is a title-specific marking that is unique for that title.

For example, if a title is available in hardcover, softcover, and as an eBook, three unique ISBN Bookland EAN barcodes are required.

31. Should I use a “free” barcode-generating tool to save money?

No, it’s not a good idea to use a free barcode-generating tool, and we do not recommend it to authors. 

Here's why: While it's a tempting way to save money while self-publishing, many free barcodes are created with unreliable bitmapped images. They run the risk of not scanning when your book is being purchased. And you won’t be saving money if the barcode can’t be scanned properly.

For peace of mind, always pay for your book barcode(s) through a reliable source.

32. Are book ISBN numbers and barcodes sold separately?

Yes, the ISBN and barcode are sold separately. But, the barcode cannot be purchased without the ISBN being bought first.

You need an ISBN to get a barcode, but you don’t need a barcode to publish a book. 

Bowker offers an ISBN and barcode savings pack. It is a great value if you want to save some money and make it easier for setting up your ISBN and barcode together.

Isbn Vs Barcode

33. What are the best resources for finding out more about ISBNs and barcodes?

As we have mentioned throughout these questions, there are several best resources for finding out everything on ISBNs, including how to buy and set up for your book.

Additional resources for researching ISBNs include:

  • International ISBN Agency
  • by Bowker
  • Bowkerlink Publisher Access System
  • Bowker Identifier Services
  • U.S. Copyright Office
  • ISBN Guides: Basic Information
  • SmashWords ISBN Manager
  • ISBN Canada: Library and Archives Canada

That's it! You’ve reached the end of our frequently asked questions about ISBNs.

If you'd like for experienced publishing professionals to handle the entire process of getting an ISBN for your book, we can do that for you! Discover how can help you publish your book !

Now you know exactly how to get an ISBN number for your self-published book, why it’s important, and if you actually need it.

isbn number how to get it in india

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What's behind the rise in undocumented Indian immigrants crossing U.S. borders on foot

Migrants seeking asylum in the U.S. arrive in Yuma, Arizona

An unprecedented number of undocumented Indian immigrants are crossing U.S. borders on foot, according to new data from U.S. Customs and Border Protection. What has been a years-long increase in migration has now developed into a dramatic spike.

From October 2022 to this September, the 2023 fiscal year, there were 96,917 Indians encountered — apprehended, expelled or denied entry — having entered the U.S. without papers. It marks a fivefold increase from the same period from 2019 to 2020, when there were just 19,883.

Immigration experts say several factors are at play, including an overall growth in global migration since the pandemic, oppression of minority communities in India, smugglers’ use of increasingly sophisticated and in-demand methods of getting people to America, and extreme visa backlogs. 

The number of undocumented Indians in the U.S. has been climbing since borders opened post-Covid, with 30,662 encountered in the 2021 fiscal year and 63,927 in the 2022 fiscal year.

Out of the nearly 97,000 encounters this year, 30,010 were at the Canadian border and 41,770 at the Southern border.

“The Southern border has just become a staging ground for migrants from all parts of the world to come to the U.S. most quickly,” said Muzaffar Chishti, a lawyer and the director of non-partisan research group Migration Policy Institute’s New York office. “Why would you wait for a visitor visa in Delhi if you can make it faster to the Southern border?”

The Canadian border, on the other hand, has large stretches that are virtually unguarded at times, said Gaurav Khanna, an assistant professor of economics at the University of California at San Diego, whose research concentrates on immigration. 

While not all routes look the same, a journey from India to the U.S. might take migrants on several legs, all while being passed among various facilitators.

“People will get you to, let’s say, the Middle East, or people will get you to Europe,” Chishti said. “The next journey from there would be to Africa. If not Africa, maybe then to South America. Then the next person will get you from South America to the south of Mexico. Then from the south of Mexico to the northern cities of Mexico, and then the next person will get you over to the U.S.”

Long, treacherous journeys often land migrants in limbo, facing overwhelmed immigration systems, he said. CBP told NBC News that families coming to the U.S. illegally will face removal.

“No one should believe the lies of smugglers through these travel agencies. The fact is that individuals and families without a legal basis to remain in the United States will be removed,” a CBP spokesperson said. 

But when those migrants are coming from across an ocean, experts say, the reality is far more complicated.

“You can easily turn people back to Mexico — that’s their country, ‘make a U-turn,’” Chishti said. “But you can’t deport people to faraway places that easily. Mexico won’t take them. Why would Mexico take an Indian?”

mmigrants from India wait to board a bus to be taken for processing after crossing the border from Mexico

Who's migrating and immigrating and why

Though still relatively low compared to migration from Mexico and Central America, the number of undocumented Indians crossing U.S. borders has been growing for several years, said Pawan Dhingra, a professor of American studies at Amherst College. But the growth this past fiscal year was unprecedented. 

He and other South Asian American scholars worry that the recent spike might have something to do with worsening conditions for minorities like Muslims, Sikhs and Christians in India under Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government, which has been widely criticized for human rights violations . 

“Many of them are Sikh, seeking asylum based on how they feel they’ve been mistreated and targeted in Punjab under Modi’s government,” he said. “Now the U.S. has a big problem on its hands. It’s cozying up to Modi in every possible way, in terms of state visits and rhetoric, but it has an increased set of asylum-seekers from this country.”

A series of laws deregulating India’s agricultural sector in 2020 threatened to upend the lives of many farmers, especially in the North Indian state of Punjab. Modi’s government, among other things, removed the minimum prices of key crops, leading to massive protests around the country that were sometimes met with violence from the state.

In September 2021, over 500,000 farmers gathered in the state of Uttar Pradesh to protest the laws.

The bills were formally repealed in December 2021. 

But experts say the destabilization and the scale of the protests were enough to constitute an asylum claim.

“They have a perception that they have no future in that country,” Chishti said.

In comparison to an India that migrants might feel is pushing them out, a promised new life in the U.S. seems ideal. The general success of Indian Americans in the U.S. or of previous migrants who have taken the same journey are some of the factors that pull people in. 

“People in Punjab might know people who went from their village, cousins and aunts and uncles and so forth,” Khanna said. “That creates more waves of movement.”

Decades-long visa backlogs have made it difficult for would-be immigrants to join their families in the U.S., leaving many with little recourse. On top of that, Covid’s devastation has also created a crop of desperate migrants in India and around the world, experts said. 

With social media-savvy groups masquerading as travel agencies, hopeful migrants often pay their life savings to make the journey, Khanna and Chishti said. 

“The poorest people in the country do not migrate; they can’t afford to,” Dhingra said. “But those who will undergo such challenges to migrate are still desperate for some kind of economic or political change.”

With lofty claims and misinformation often circulated on Facebook and WhatsApp and even plastered around small towns in India, migrants might not know exactly what they are getting themselves into, they said. 

“It is extremely treacherous, but people might not actually know how treacherous it is,” Khanna said. 

Last year, a lower-income family of four with two young children was found dead near the U.S. border with Canada . Having made the journey from a village in Gujarat through a similar illegal pathway, they were separated from the rest of the group during a blizzard. Their bodies were found just 13 yards from the border.

“You have to really either mortgage your life savings or mortgage your life to take this difficult journey,” Chishti said. 

Patel family

What happens at the border

Those who make it to the U.S., sometimes after having traversed multiple continents, are often met with an immigration system that is extremely disorganized and lacks the capacity to give them real answers, Chishti said. 

The processes at the Southern border have, for decades, been designed with the idea that single Mexican men are coming in to work, Chishti said. But that’s not the case anymore, and the systems have not adapted to meet the new volume and challenges, he said. 

Now, there are more families, as well as those who are neither Mexican or Central American, and the biggest reason is asylum.

“There are not enough beds and not enough Border Patrol officers to screen you,” Chishti said. “So what we do now, mostly, we just let people in in various buckets.” 

A spokesperson for U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement told NBC News that each case is carefully and individually assessed before a decision is made. 

“Regardless of nationality, ICE makes custody determinations on a case-by-case basis, in accordance with U.S. law and U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) policy, considering the circumstances of each case,” they said. 

Though sending asylum-seekers back is also not as easy as it sounds, Chishti said. 

“It’s a diplomatic hassle to return people,” he said, noting it requires an agreement between two countries that does not exist between the U.S. and India. 

What typically happens, instead, is that Indian migrants are issued notices to appear before judges on specific dates, he said, and those immigration courts have backlogs of their own. If migrants do not have lawyers, their hearing dates may be delayed for months or years.

“It is a system breaking under its own weight,” Chishti said. “So smugglers know that; they publicize that.”

The U.S. as a promised land for the South Asian diaspora

While it might be logistically easier for migrants to go to Europe or the U.K., the U.S. holds a unique promise for Indian nationals specifically, experts said. 

“I don’t think it takes much propaganda or marketing for people to see the U.S. as a highly developed country that has opportunities,” Dhingra said. “So the question becomes ‘What are my chances of making it there versus making it somewhere else?’”

For a burgeoning diaspora with a high median household income, level of English proficiency and college education level, it remains to be seen how Indian Americans will receive this growing group of lower-income undocumented immigrants. 

“Will we be a community that preaches acceptance of these migrants and others, or will we be a community that’s focused on quote-unquote ‘law and order’ that has very little sympathy towards those who cross without full documents?” he asked. “That’s hard to predict.”

Sakshi Venkatraman is a reporter for NBC Asian America.

BH-W Flag

Sixers need 51 runs in 36 balls.

IND Flag

Australia won by 6 wickets (with 42 balls remaining)

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Southern Superstars

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Urbanrisers Hyderabad

Match starts in 2 hrs 5 mins

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Strikers won by 3 runs

  • Cummins: An Aussie World Cup winning captain like no other 6h Osman Samiuddin
  • Australia's irrepressible trio of quicks cement their legacy 1d Sidharth Monga
  • Advance Australia, inevitably 1d Osman Samiuddin
  • Head's magnificent 137 leads Australia to sixth World Cup title 1d Andrew Miller
  • Head hunts down victory as India fall prey once again 1d Shashank Kishore
  • Cummins pleased Australia 'saved the best for last' 1d Sruthi Ravindranath
  • Wolvaardt's one woman show helps Strikers down Thunder 2h AAP and ESPNCricinfo staff
  • Heat lose second in a row as Day and Sutherland give Stars rare win 2d AAP and ESPNcricinfo staff
  • ICC shifts Men's Under 19 World Cup from Sri Lanka to South Africa 21min Nagraj Gollapudi
  • Toppers, duffers, can-do-betters - the World Cup report cards are out 7h Andrew Fidel Fernando
  • Suryakumar to lead India for Australia T20Is; Axar returns 18h ESPNcricinfo staff
  • Rohit, Kohli, Maxwell, Mitchell in ESPNcricinfo's team of the tournament 20h S Rajesh
  • Is Mohammed Shami's 24 wickets in the 2023 World Cup a record? 2h Steven Lynch
  • Vote for the best Kohli ODI hundred - Mirpur 183 vs Cape Town 160* 4h ESPNcricinfo staff
  • Sherfane Rutherford, Matthew Forde receive West Indies call for England ODIs 14h ESPNcricinfo staff
  • Warner to miss T20I series against India after World Cup triumph 9h ESPNcricinfo staff
  • Hardik Pandya not fit to play T20Is against Australia 6d Nagraj Gollapudi
  • Wade to captain Australia in T20I series against India 24d Andrew McGlashan
  • Borovec to coach Australia for India T20Is with McDonald resting 6d Alex Malcolm

India lost to the conditions, but could they have been braver with the bat?

As they come to terms with another World Cup heartbreak, India may wonder if their middle order could have taken a few more chances

'We kept losing wickets at critical intervals'

India's heartbreak is most poignant in the dashed hopes of Rohit Sharma and Rahul Dravid

Advance Australia, inevitably

Rahul Dravid: 'We haven't played any fearful cricket in this final'

Head hunts down victory as India fall prey once again

Head's magnificent 137 leads Australia to sixth World Cup title

Dravid: 'We gave it everything we had'

'Rohit and Kohli stood up for India in every moment - Anil Kumble

Sidharth Monga is an assistant editor at ESPNcricinfo

India v Australia: What time is the Cricket World Cup final? How to watch the ODI final in Australia

Sport India v Australia: What time is the Cricket World Cup final? How to watch the ODI final in Australia

Cricket WWC

Australia is through to its eighth ODI Cricket World Cup final after Travis Head inspired his teammates across the line against South Africa in the semifinal .

The Aussies will now face India in the final, after the unbeaten hosts dismantled New Zealand and secured their fourth appearance in the final of the World Cup.

Here's everything you need to know in order to be across the match as it happens.

When is the ODI Cricket World Cup final?

The match between India and Australia will played Sunday, November 19 at Narendra Modi Stadium in Ahmedabad.

The game is set to begin at 7:30pm AEDT (Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart), 7pm ACDT (Adelaide),  6:30pm AEST (Brisbane), 6pm ACST (Darwin) and 4:30pm AWST (Perth).

The match starts at 2pm local time in India.

How can I watch the ODI Cricket World Cup final?

Channel 9 and Fox Sports/Kayo will be the visual broadcasters for the match, while ABC Sport will provide audio coverage via the ABC Listen app and the ABC Sport home page .

ABC Sport will also be live blogging the match with Simon Smale from start to finish, including post-match coverage.

Who has won the most Cricket World Cups?

Australia remains the dominant force in ODI World Cup cricket having won five tournaments (1987, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2015) and lost two finals (1975, 1996).

India has won two titles (1983, 2011) and lost one final (2003), sharing the same record as the West Indies who have won twice (1975, 1979) and lost once (1983). The West Indies did not appear in this year's tournament.

England (2019), Sri Lanka (1996), and Pakistan (1992) have all won the World Cup once, while England has lost the final three times (1979, 1987, 1992), Sri Lanka has lost twice (2007, 2011), and Pakistan has lost once (1999).

New Zealand has appeared in two finals (2015 and 2019) and lost both.

South Africa has never made an ODI World Cup final.

Who is the favourite to win the final?

India has been faultless on its home turf during this tournament, winning every match on its way to the final.

Australia finished third on the table with a 7-2 record, having lost to India by four wickets with 12 balls to spare in the World Cup opener , before going down to South Africa in the second match of their tournament by a record margin. Since then, Australia has not lost a match.

While India looks like the clear favourite having lost just three of its 21 matches on home soil in 2023, all three of those losses came against Australia .

Which players have the best stats from the tournament so far?

Most runs: Virat Kohli (IND) — 711

Best batting average: Virat Kohli (IND) — 101.57

Highest score: Glenn Maxwell (AUS) — 201*

Most wickets: Mohammed Shami (IND) — 23

Best bowling: Mohammed Shami (IND) — 7/57

Best bowling average: Mohammed Shami (IND) — 9.13

Best bowling economy: Ravi Ashwin (IND) — 3.40


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isbn number how to get it in india

India vs Australia: Cricket World Cup final fever soars in Ahmedabad

Excitement builds in Ahmedabad as unbeaten hosts get set to face Australia in the ICC Cricket World Cup final.

Cricket fans perform rituals for the victory of the Indian team

Mumbai and Ahmedabad, India – It is a case of not just all roads, but all rail lines, air routes – and, who knows, tunnels and teleporters – leading to Ahmedabad, where an unprecedented number of home fans are hoping to be there in the flesh to watch India take on Australia in the Cricket World Cup final .

If they can get into the ground, that is.

Keep reading

Rohit says india ready for ‘pressure’ in the world cup final with australia, australia legend gillespie says india ‘ripe for picking’ in world cup final, sport weekly: india’s cricket world cup approaches its climax, india’s ‘visionary’: virat kohli’s huge influence, in cricket and beyond.

On the morning train from Mumbai on Saturday, packed with cricket travellers, every phone conversation seemed to carry the words, “He’s asking for too much” or “I’ll get back to you” or “We need two more.”

One passenger showed Al Jazeera a black market ticket dealer’s asking prices on a WhatsApp chat.

A presidential gallery ticket was listed at Rs 467,000 ($5,600), more than twice the country’s annual median per capita income.

Less fancy tickets were being traded for Rs 60,000 upwards, 20 or 30 times the printed price.

Even those with tickets in hand could scarcely contain their frustration at the shambolic rollout by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), run by Jay Shah, son of India’s Home Minister Amit Shah.

There have been no declarations about what proportion of tickets have been put on public sale. Some travellers had tickets just because they knew a person at the booking portal, giving them a workaround to the endless online queues that would have likely ended in failure.

Meanwhile, rooms in leading hotels in the city are going for 200,000 rupees ($2,400) a night. Up to 200 charter flights are expected to fly in. To return to Mumbai, the nearest megalopolis, since flights and trains are sold out, people are hunting for buses to charter back at exorbitant rates.

INTERACTIVE - Men's World Cup-prize-money-trophy-award-winner-2023-1695558421

In Ahmedabad, business picked up in the predictable sectors.

“I’ve had customers from London, Goa, Pune, and Mumbai in the last few hours,” said Vijay Dave, a taxi driver.

“Cinemas that are going to show the match – even those tickets are sold out! The road outside the Indian team hotel was totally jammed this morning. Everyone had gathered there to catch sight of the team. People have gone mad.”

There is a touch of Beatlemania, the fanaticism surrounding the English rock band the Beatles in the 1960s, around the Indian cricket team even at the worst of times. The team’s undefeated run in the competition has escalated the frenzy.

Crowds have been waiting outside stadiums for hours after the matches finish to wave the players off.

It was no different near the gates of the Narendra Modi Stadium on Saturday, as people congregated on streets lined with vendors selling knockoffs of the ubiquitous blue jersey for Rs 200.

People sell cricket merchandise at Narendra Modi stadium

Rohit Sharma, the Indian captain, was well cognisant of the expectations .

“Emotionally it’s a big thing, a big occasion, without a doubt,” he told the press on Saturday evening. “Whatever hard work and dreams you have, you have for this. And tomorrow that day will be in front of us. But see, the biggest challenge for professional athletes is how you can put all this aside and focus on their work.”

All through his press interaction, he stressed that he would like to keep it “nice and easy”, “nice and relaxed and calm”, “nice and balanced”.

On the other side, Australian captain Pat Cummins was asked: “A hundred thousand people wanting you to fail is probably something new?”

“I think you’ve got to embrace it,” he replied. “In sport, there’s nothing more satisfying than hearing a big crowd go silent and that’s the aim for us tomorrow.”

If Cummins expects “a very one-sided” crowd, part of the reason is BCCI’s delays in releasing the itinerary – it was finalised a mere two months before the first game – and the subsequent ticket sagas.

Two busloads of Australians were spotted making a guided tour of the city, visiting spots such as the Gandhi Ashram. There won’t be too many like them.

By night, the crowd of India fans outside the stadium had only grown. They were watching the drone show rehearsal, one act in a closing ceremony that will resemble a somewhat nationalistic variety show as much as a sporting finale.

Between the toss and the start of play, the Indian Air Force will perform a nine-aircraft aerobatic show.

The innings break will see a mini concert, no doubt featuring a few patriotic renditions. A stadium favourite throughout the competition has been “Maa Tujhe Salam” (“I Salute You, Mother India).

A light-and-laser spectacle is slated for a drinks interval at night. Earlier in the tournament, Australian batter Glenn Maxwell had complained of the disorienting effects of plunging a stadium in darkness mid-match.

“It takes me a while for my eyes to readjust and I just think it’s the dumbest idea for cricketers,” Maxwell had said.

Cricket fans gather outside Narendra Modi stadium

In attendance will be Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, as well as Australian Deputy Prime Minister Richard Marles.

The last time Modi attended a cricket match was also in Ahmedabad, and that too against Australia, in March.

The toss then was delayed as he rode around the outfield with Australian Prime Minister Anthony Albanese in a motorised chariot to gushing television commentary, and was afterwards presented a portrait of himself in a stadium he got named after himself.

He would probably settle for presenting the trophy to the Indian captain this time around. That is something even he cannot control.

But Indian triumph, though not ordained, is widely being seen as a natural consequence of the team’s exquisite showing over the past two months.

In times past Indian fans felt trepidation before a big final.

“For once, that sense of nervousness is not there,” said one fan.

“This is a special team and we know that.”

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Heartbreak for Kohli and India as Australia wins the Cricket World Cup for 6th time. Head hits 137

Australian players celebrate with the trophy after winning against India during the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov.19, 2023. (AP Photo/Aijaz Rahi)

Australia players celebrate with the trophy after Australia won the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match against India in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov. 19, 2023. (AP Photo/Rafiq Maqbool)

India’s Virat Kohli walks past ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup trophy to receive player of the tournament award after the final match against Australia, in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov.19, 2023. (AP Photo/Aijaz Rahi)

Australia’s captain Pat Cummins shares a lighter moment with the coaching staff members during the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match between Australia and India in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov.19, 2023. (AP Photo/Mahesh Kumar A.)

Australia players celebrate after wining against India by 6 wickets during the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov.19, 2023. (AP Photo/Aijaz Rahi)

Australia’s Travis Head celebrates after scoring a century during the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match between Australia and India in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov.19, 2023. (AP Photo/Mahesh Kumar A.)

Australia’s Marnus Labuschagne, left, hugs Travis Head as latter celebrates his century during the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match between India and Australia in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov.19, 2023. (AP Photo/Aijaz Rahi)

India’s Jasprit Bumrah, front, holds his head in disappointment after a not-out decision against Australia’s Marnus Labuschagne was upheld by the third umpire during the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match between Australia and India in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov. 19, 2023. (AP Photo/Rafiq Maqbool)

An Indian fan looks dejected during the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match between Australia and India in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov. 19, 2023. (AP Photo/Rafiq Maqbool)

Australia’s Travis Head plays a shot during the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match between Australia and India in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov. 19, 2023. (AP Photo/Rafiq Maqbool)

Australia’s Mitchell Starc, right, Steve Smith, left, and Marnus Labuschagne celebrates after the dismissal of India’s KL Rahul during the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match between Australia and India in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov.19, 2023. (AP Photo/Mahesh Kumar A.)

India’s wicketkeeper KL Rahul reacts as he leaves the ground after losing his wicket during the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match between India and Australia in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov.19, 2023. (AP Photo/Aijaz Rahi)

India’s Suryakumar Yadav plays a shot during the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match between Australia and India in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov.19, 2023. (AP Photo/Mahesh Kumar A.)

Indian fans arrive to watch the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match between Australia and India at Narendra Modi stadium in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov. 19, 2023. (AP Photo/Ajit Solanki)

Indian fans wave flag as team India attends a training session ahead of the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match between India and Australia in Ahmedabad, India, Saturday, Nov. 18, 2023. (AP Photo/Mahesh Kumar A.)

Australia’s captain Pat Cummins, Australia’s Travis Head and Marnus Labuschagne pose with the trophy after wining the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match against India in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov.19, 2023. (AP Photo/Aijaz Rahi)

Bollywood actress Anushka Sharma hugs her husband and Indian cricketer Virat Kohli after India lost the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match against Australia in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov. 19, 2023. (AP Photo/Mir Farid)

Australia’s players celebrate after Australia won the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match against India in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov. 19, 2023. (AP Photo/Rafiq Maqbool)

Australia’s Glenn Maxwell, facing the camera and teammate Marnus Labuschagne celebrate after Australia won the ICC Men’s Cricket World Cup final match against India in Ahmedabad, India, Sunday, Nov. 19, 2023. (AP Photo/Rafiq Maqbool)

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AHMEDABAD, India (AP) — Virat Kohli covered his face with his India cap. Rohit Sharma walked off with his head down. What felt like the only cheers inside the 132,000-capacity Narendra Modi stadium that was a sea of Indian blue all day came from the jubilant Australian players on the field.

Australia regained its status as the king of one-day cricket by claiming a record-extending sixth World Cup title on Sunday, ending India’s dominant run in its home tournament with a six-wicket victory in a low-scoring final on the back of a brilliant innings of 137 by Travis Head .

The crowd — officially announced as 92,453 — was silenced as Head combined with Marnus Labuschagne (58 not out ) in a 192-run partnership to chase down the target of 241.

Australia was wobbling in its chase on 47-3 after seven overs but Head and Labuschagne dug in to help their country add to its 50-over world titles in 1987, 1999, 2003, 2007 and 2015.

FILE - Pakistan's bowler Umar Gul runs to celebrate after taking the wicket of New Zealand's batsman Brendon McCullum, not seen, during their ICC Twenty20 Cricket World Cup match in Pallekele, Sri Lanka, on Sept. 23, 2012. The Pakistan Cricket Board appointed former international players Umar Gul and Saeed Ajmal as bowling coaches for the national team on Tuesday, Nov. 21, 2023. (AP Photo/Aijaz Rahi, File)

Head was dismissed off what proved to be the next-to-last ball of the match, caught in the deep while attempting to hit a title-clinching boundary. In came Glenn Maxwell and he ran two off his first ball, securing a victory that prompted fireworks above the world’s largest cricket venue.

India won all 10 of its matches before the final and was seeking a third trophy in its fourth appearance in a title match that brought a country of 1.4 billion people to a virtual standstill. They were outplayed in every department by battle-ready Australia, though, and restricted to 240 all out on a slow pitch after losing the toss with only Virat Kohli (54) and Lokesh Rahul (66) making half-centuries.

“We were not good enough today,” India skipper Rohit Sharma said. “We tried everything, but it didn’t work. We needed 20-30 more runs — we were looking at 270-280 but we kept losing wickets. When you have 240 on the board, you want to keep taking wickets. We took three, but credit to Head and Labuschagne for their partnership. We couldn’t open up the game.”

Kohli finished with 765 runs in 11 games with an average of 95.62. He was named player of the tournament.

The final, though, belonged to Head who was named man of the match. He became only the seventh player to score a century in a men’s World Cup final – and the third Australian after Ricky Ponting and Adam Gilchrist – and he also delivered a significant moment in India’s innings when taking a diving catch running back from cover to remove Sharma (47).

Head’s ton saw him join an illustrious list, which includes West Indies’ Clive Lloyd and Viv Richards, as well as Sri Lanka’s Aravinda de Silva and Mahela Jayawardene. Ponting’s 140 not out had also helped Australia beat India in the 2003 final. Jayawardene’s century is the only one in a losing cause with India winning the 2011 final.

“What an amazing day, I’m just thrilled to be a part of it,” Head said. “It’s a lot better than sitting on the couch at home.”

Head had started the tournament sidelined by a broken left hand.

“I was a little bit nervous, but Marnus played exceptional and it was just an amazing partnership. It’s going to be an amazing couple of days now,” Head said. “To be able to do that on the biggest stage, in front of a full house, under all that pressure . . . is something I’ll be able to look back on later in my life.”

Australia finished the 2023 tournament with a run of nine straight wins, after starting with back-to-back defeats to India and South Africa.

India won the World Cup in 1983 and 2011. Its last major success was winning the ICC Champions Trophy in 2013. Former India winning captains and film stars were at the game, along with prominent politicians including India Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Australia Deputy Prime Minister Richard Marles.

India’s Mohammed Shami (1-47 in seven overs) was the most successful bowler in the tournament with 24 wickets, including the dismissal of attack-minded David Warner in the final. The opener was caught at slip for seven by Kohli, who had a chance to catch Warner off the first ball of the match. Australia’s Adam Zampa finished with figures of 1-44, ending the tournament with 23 wickets and equaling Sri Lanka’s Muttiah Muralitharan (2007) for most wickets by a spinner at a World Cup.

Steve Smith (4) finished on the winning side but will regret not reviewing his lbw dismissal by Jasprit Bumrah (2-43) as he would have been not out on impact.

Head scored 50 off 58 balls, and then reached 100 off 95 balls. In all, Head struck 15 fours and four sixes, each of them met with stoic silence from the stunned crowd.

Earlier, after Australia boldly decided to field first, Sharma provided another quick start for the home side, hitting four fours and three sixes. It made up for Shubman Gill’s tame dismissal for four runs. Sharma and Kohli put on 46 off 32 balls, hitting a flurry of boundaries to the delight of the Ahmedabad crowd.

Maxwell removed the dangerous Sharma, who had hit the spinner for a six and a four, but was greedy in going for another big shot only for Head, running back from cover, to hold a stunning diving catch.

India found itself at 81-3 before Kohli and Rahul stabilized the hosts with 67 runs for the fourth wicket. However, they could only add 50 runs from 88 balls as Australia began to take control of the match.

India lost its last five wickets for 37 runs, ending its innings with a whimper.

Australia captain Pat Cummins bowled exceptionally well, returning figures of 2-34 in 10 overs including the dismissals of Kohli and Shreyas Iyer. Kohli reached 50 off 56 balls before playing on off Cummins. The ensuing silence following his dismissal was likely not restricted just to the stadium but spreading across all of India.

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Australia win Cricket World Cup after beating India by six wickets in final – as it happened

Travis Head’s brilliant 137 shattered the dreams of a billion home fans and made Australia world champions for a sixth time

  • 2d ago Travis Head’s World Cup in numbers
  • 2d ago The Australia captain Pat Cummins speaks
  • 2d ago WICKET! Australia 239-4 (Head c Gill b Siraj 137)
  • 2d ago Fifty for Labuschagne!
  • 2d ago Labuschagne is not out!
  • 2d ago Breaking news: Jasprit Bumrah is bowling
  • 2d ago Fifty for Travis Head!
  • 2d ago WICKET! Australia 47-3 (Smith LBW b Bumrah 4)
  • 2d ago WICKET! Australia 41-2 (Marsh c Rahul b Bumrah 15)
  • 2d ago WICKET! Australia 16-1 (Warner c Kohli b Shami 7)
  • 2d ago "How much do you want it?"
  • 2d ago WICKET! Kuldeep run out Labuschagne/Cummins 10 (India 240 all out)- Australia need 241 to win.
  • 2d ago WICKET! Suryakumar c Inglis b Hazlewood 18 (India 226 -9)
  • 2d ago WICKET! Bumrah lbw Zampa 1 (India 214-8)
  • 2d ago WICKET! Shami c Inglis b Starc 6 (India 211-7)
  • 2d ago WICKET! Rahul c Inglis b Starc 66 (India 203-6)
  • 2d ago WICKET! Jadeja c Inglis b Hazlewood 9 (India 178-5)
  • 2d ago Fifty for Rahul!
  • 2d ago WICKET! Kohli b Cummins 54 (India 148-4)
  • 2d ago Fifty for Kohli!
  • 2d ago WICKET! Shreyas c Inglis b Cummins 4 (India 81-3)
  • 2d ago WICKET! Rohit c Head by Maxwell 47 (India 76-2)
  • 2d ago WICKET! Shubman Gill c Zampa b Starc 4 (India 30-1)
  • 2d ago Teams: Australia
  • 2d ago Teams: India
  • 2d ago Australia win the toss and will BOWL!
  • 2d ago Preamble

Pat Cummins, Travis Head and Marnus Labuschagne pose with the trophy after Australia’s victory.

It’s time to wrap up the OBO for today, and indeed the 2023 World Cup. Even a relatively modest tournament has left us with dozens of vivid memories: Virat Kohli’s 50th hundred, Angelo Mathews being timed out, Ibrahim Zadran’s historic century, Mohammad Shami the human statgasm, Glenn Maxwell’s double hundred, England being fried in Mumbai against South Africa, the spine-tingling elegance of Rachin Ravindra and many more.

The abiding memory is usually the last one. This time it’ll be Travis Head pulverising an all-time-great bowling attack and Australia winning an apparently unwinnable final at a canter. It’ll be a while before anyone writes them off again.

On behalf of all the OBO writers, thanks for your company and emails throughout the tournament. And don’t worry, there’s a 20-over World Cup next year.

Travis Head’s World Cup in numbers

109 off 67 balls v New Zealand

11 off 10 v England

0 off 2 v Afghanistan

10 off 11 balls v Bangladesh

62 off 48 v South Africa

137 off 120 v India

That’s 329 runs at an average of 54.83, with a0 strike rate of 128. He also took key wickets in both knockout games. Heinrich Klaasen with the ball, Rohit Sharma with a stunning catch. Yet he still bumbles along, happy to live in the shadows when he’s not killing dreams out in the middle. Yet Head was player of the match in the semi-final, the final – and the final of the Test Championship. He’s the phenomenon next door.

The Indian prime minister Narendra Modi walks onto the stage, grin fixed in place, and hands the World Cup trophy to Pat Cummins. They pose for photos and then Modi strolls off to shake hands with some of the Australian players.

Cummins stands alone on the podium, looking a bit awkward, probably wondering what the hell kind of coronation this is. A ridiculous scene – but eventually his mates join him and he lifts the trophy as high as his weary muscles will allow. Australia are world champions yet again, and they have achieved it in a manner that brooks not a solitary argument. Onyer, ondem.

Trophy time.

The Australia captain Pat Cummins speaks

I think we saved our best for last. A couple of big-match players turned up and we’re pretty chuffed. We batted first for most of the tournament but we thought it was a good night to chase and that it might get a bit easier to bat. Everyone was pretty keen to get out there [in the field]. The pitch was slower than I thought and didn’t spin as much as we expected. Everyone adjusteed well and bowled some tight lines. [On the fielding] It started last week against South Africa; the boys were fantastic. We’ve got an ageing side but everyone threw themselves around. We were really chuffed with keeping India to 240. We’d probably have been happy with anything under 300. I was pacing upstairs [at 47 for 3] but the partnership was magnificent. Marnus came in and showed a cool head straight away and Trav just does what he does. Really brave again: he takes the game on, puts the pressure back on the bowlers, and to do it on the biggest stage shows a lot of character. It was a big risk we took [picking Head in the squad with a broken hand] so credit to the selectors and the medical staff. I couldn’t be happier for Trav. He’s a legend, we love him – and how fun is he to watch? I was happy the crowd was silent for most of the bowling innings. A couple of times they got loud and it was really loud. IT’s fantastic: the passion in India is unrivalled. You looked around and everyone was wearing a blue shirt. Whatever happened we were never gonna forget today. [On Australia’s recovery after losing their first two games] You’ve got to go and win a World Cup, you can’t just wait for it to happen. You’ve got to be brave at times and take the game on. There was a rteal shift, particularly in our batting, after those first two games. The openers were really aggressive after that. There was a total buy-in from everyone, and in the end it worked. We’ll remember this year [Test Championship winners, Ashes retained, World Cup winners] for a long, long time. It’s been awesome. We’ve spent pretty much the whole Aussie winter away. We’ve had a lot of success but this pips it all. This is the top of the mountain.

Overall, this has been a poor World Cup , culminating in a final that may have been decided by the toss. That won’t matter one bit to Australia’s team of champions, who were the last men standing yet again.

There are some spec tac ular images in this gallery

The Indian captain Rohit Sharma speaks

We were not good enough today. I’m really proud of the team, how we played from game one. It just wasn’t our day. We tried everything, but it wasn’t supposed to be. When Virat and KL were batting we were looking at 270-280, but we kept losing wickets after that. We needed to stitch a big partnership, which is exactly what Australia did. When you have 240 on the bad you have to take early wickets. We got three and we thought another wicket then would open up the game. Credit to Travis Head and Marnus, they took it away from us. I thought the wicket got slightly better to bat on under the lights. I don’t want to use that as an excuse - we didn’t bat well enough.

The player of the tournament is… Virat Kohli

He walks up, ashen-faced, to collect his trophy, looking like a Bullseye contestant who missed out on a state-of-the-air washing machine and won only their bus fare home.

Virat Kohli is named player of the tournament.

It’s time for the presentation. Fair to say Ravi Shastri is no longer doing his Michael Buffer impersonation. There are a few shell-shocked Indians on the podium, though Sachin Tendulkar is still able to summon a smile.

“The Aussies won this in the field,” says Chris Paraskevas. “From the minute Ravi Shastri’s Michael Buffer impersonation ended, they were at it... proactive and all expecting the ball to come their way. How many runs did they save? A figure of 50 was touted but I’d say more. Hard to think of a fielding performance that has so affected such a big game.”

“Watching the India players slowly deflate showed the flip side of home advantage,” says Niall Mullen. “For so long you think that you are destined for this but then destiny deserts. It must be difficult/impossible to find the energy you need to rise again.”

Nasser Hussain , who knows of what he speaks, is praising Pat Cummins on Sky

It started with the toss… the weak captains make a decision that, if it goes wrong, makes them look less bad. That was a really brave decision. Pat Cummins absolutely nailed everything today: field placements, bowling changes. That was a magnificent win.

“Today is proof positive that the best team doesn’t necessarily win the tournament,” says Simon McMahon. “Though I’m sure India will get over it more quickly than Scotland did after Argentina 78.”

“Has the time come to rework Gary Lineker’s famous adage about football and the Germans?” says Colum Fordham. “Cricket is a (relatively) simple game - 22 men or women hitting, bowling and chasing a ball for a considerable amount of time and, at the end, the Australians (almost always) win.”

Couldn’t cope with Bazball though could they Absolutely. I think one of the TMS commentators said the same thing after the semi-final. There were written off by so many people after the first two games – “too old”, “don’t like it up ‘em” – and here they are again, back on the podium.

India’s 10-year wait for an ICC trophy goes on. In that time they’ve had a number of desperately disappointing defeats, including a Champions Trophy final, two World Test Championship and two World Cup semi-finals. None come close to this.

Virat Kohli, Rohit Sharma, Ravindra Jadeja, Mohammad Shami and Suryakumar Yadav will never play another 50-over World Cup. Jasprit Bumrah and Mohammad Siraj will be 33 in 2027, KL Rahul 35, Kuldeep 32. We love a bit of ostentatious empathy at Guardian Towers but I don’t think it’s possible to understand the breadth of the despair they must be feeling right now.

Imagine how alive they felt at this precise moment


“Surely the ultimate Usual Suspects reference would be Maxwell against Afghanistan?” says Dave Moore. “I can’t feel my legs, Kaiser…”

Match report: Australia win the World Cup

“Bazball is yesterday’s news,” writes Showbizguru. “Welcome to Headbanging.”

Very good. The funny thing is that he predates Bazball. I don’t think Ben Stokes has explicitly said as much, but the way he talks about bowling to Head in that 2021-22 Ashes series makes you think he was a bit of an inspiration to Stokes. Eff fear, eff failure, that’s four.

The player of the match is the utterly wonderful Travis Head

Not in a million years [did I think this could happen]. What an amazing day, I’m just thrilled to be part of it. It’s a lot better than sitting on the couch at home. Very lucky that everything went well with my rehab and I was able to get back here. I was a little bit nervous for the first 20 balls but Marnus played exceptionally – it’s awesome to bat with him, he soaks up the pressure, and it was just an amazing partnership. Mitch Marsh set the tone for us, even if he didn’t take it on. It was a great decision to bowl first. The wicket took a bit of spin but it got better as the day went on. It’s gonna be an amazing couple of days now. [You’re the third Australian to get a World Cup hundred after Ponting and Gilchrist. How does that feel?] I’m definitely third on that list*. It’s nice to be here, nice to contribute… I said to the boys, I’m looking forward to the reunion!

* Oh no you’re not sunshine

Travis Head of Australia poses after being named Player of the Match.

“Typical Australians,” says James Gladstone. “Don’t they know it’s just plain rude to turn up at somebody’s party, start shouting, vomit up over the new carpet and leave the bathroom in a state… They need to be told.”

In November 2021, Travis Head was a solid international batsman , relatively anonymous. Then he was recalled for the first Ashes Test and decided ‘bugger this relative anonymity’ and launched Travis Head 2.0. Since then he has been world cricket’s barnstormer-in-chief. He’s a helluvan advert for a change of mindset.

An emotional Marnus Labuschagne – the guy behind the guy today, the man with nine lives across tshe tournament – is speaking to the host broadcaster

Mate, it’s the best achievement I’ve ever been part of. India have been the team of the tournament, they’ve been unbelievable, but… you know, if we played our best cricket we’re a chance. I’m a man of faith, I believe in God, and the way things have panned out for me in this tournament has been unbelievable. Three months ago I wasn’t even in the squad for South Africa, so to play 19 games straight is a miracle. I’m lost for words. The amount of times I thought, “I’m done”. Even last night, the team wasn’t named until about 10 to 10. My eyes went to the ground.

Australia, bloody hell. In 2021 they were humiliated by England in the group stage of the World T20 and won the tournament. A few months ago they were battered from pillar to post by England and regained the Ashes. And now, after losing their first two games of the World Cup to India and South Africa, they have beaten both in the knockout stage to win the bloody thing yet again. Oh, and they’re Test champions as well.

Travis Head is the player of the match by a country mile – not just for his astonishing 137 but arguably the key moment of the entire tournament, the stunning catch to dismiss a rampant Rohit Sharma.

Travis Head

Mohammad Siraj is in tears, with Bumrah trying to console him. India will have a thousand bittersweet memories from an extraordinary tournament; I doubt they will ever truly get over this. As was said earlier, it’s cricket Maracanazo. I never thought I’d use Travis Head and Alcides Ghiggia in the same sentence.


Australia win by six wickets with 42 balls remaining!

43rd over: Australia 241-4 (Labuschagne 58, Maxwell 2) Glenn Maxwell pulls his first ball for two and the Australian squad all charge onto the field, growling with delight. Fireworks go off almost apologetically.

This is their sixth World Cup in the last 10 tournaments. No other team has ever won more than two.

Marnus Labuschagne and Glenn Maxwell celebrate after winning the ICC Cricket World Cup.

WICKET! Australia 239-4 (Head c Gill b Siraj 137)

There’s a hushed silence around the ground; empty, confused faces. They will be put out of their misery any second now.

Travis Head flogs a short ball from Siraj over mid-off for four. With two needed, he tries to finish the match in style but holes out to cow corner. He walks off wearily, tongue hanging out, and is warmly congratulated by the Indian team.

He played the innings of his life: 137 from 120 balls with 15 fours and four sixes. Those numbers make it look like a typical Head assault but it was much subtler than that.

Travis Head bumps fists with KL Rahul scoring a match-winning 137.

42nd over: Australia 231-3 (Head 130, Labuschagne 57) The Australian dugout are all grinning like Jack Nicholson back in the day. Just as in 1999, they’re recovered from two very early defeats to win every game.

In a sense, 1999 was harder as there was less margin for error. But they didn’t have to beat the unbeatable in the final. This task was the cricketing equivalent of the boat heist in the Usual Suspects , and they’ve all come out alive.

41st over: Australia 230-3 (Head 129, Labuschagne 57) You have to wonder what impact the new-ball demotion had on Siraj’s confidence, never mind giving him too many overs in the middle of the innings.

Labuschagne helps him round the corner for another boundary. India scored only four fours after the fourth over; Australia have hit four sixes , and 16 fours. The dew has helped but it has still been an immense performance.

Fifty for Labuschagne!

40th over: Australia 225-3 (Head 128, Labuschagne 53) Bumrah returns. It’s too late, he should have extended his second spell. Labuschagne flicks him four to bring up his 17th Test-match fifty from 99 balls. It’s been a serene, almost flawless innings.

I may be misremembering this as it was quite a complicated situation, but I’m not sure Labuschagne would have made the squad but for Travis Head breaking his hand. Now they’re together in the middle, casually winning the World Cup

Marnus Labuschagne scores a fifty, in an eerily quiet stadium.

39th over: Australia 219-3 (Head 127, Labuschagne 48) Ravi Shastri is commentating, and he sounds like somebody who has just been given the dreaded news by the vet. Before the game it was hard to see Australia winning; it was impossible to see them battering India like this.

Labuschagne’s role has been so vital – he’s hit only two boundaries, one off the edge, but with Head playing such a commanding innings, his only job has been to hang around and rotate strike. I also think his first 10 or 20 balls were crucial; not that he survived them so much as the assurance with which he did so. It was the first suggestion that Australia might be able to withstand an unprecedented storm.

“This is a cross between the Maracanazo of 1950 and West Germany beating Hungary in 1954: the most dominant World Cup run ever, ruined in front of a home crowd,” writes Daniel Harris. “Incredible.”

Heh, quite, although the pedant in me would argue Australia’s 2007 run was even more dominant, regardless of today’s result.

38th over: Australia 214-3 (Head 125, Labuschagne 45) Same again! Kuldeep tosses one up, so Head pummels it over wide long on That’s his fourth six to give with 14 fours. Another thing that makes Head’s innings even more impressive is that he was all over the place in the first few overs.

It would have been so easy to keep swinging and pray, knowing he coul use the ‘it’s the way I play defence’. But he dug in – at one stage he made 2 off 19 balls, riding his luck along the way – and waited until batting got a little easier. And then a lot easier.

37th over: Australia 204-3 (Head 117, Labuschagne 43) A dream is dying in front of 130,000 people. The new bowler Siraj is pulled mightily over midwicket for six by Head, who is doing to India’s World Cup dream what Gerald Coetzee did to his hand a couple of months ago. That injury and subsequent layoff makes this innings even more remarkable.

36th over: Australia 195-3 (Head 109, Labuschagne 42) “Second World Cup final in a row with a slow, difficult wicket,” says Luke Dealtry. “Are batsmen ever selected for what they can do on this type of pitch? Trying to think of the kind of batsman that can use their timing and power to dominate in these conditions. Stokes eventually came good in the last final but it was tough even for him.”

Well, one player was picked for a pitch like this, and he’s currently 42 not out. I know what you mean though. I find it odd that people say the 2019 final was superior to the 1999 semi-final. The greatest finale, no question, but for 95 overs it was a prosaic game.

35th over: Australia 192-3 (Head 107, Labuschagne 41) Head’s in a hurry now. He slog-sweeps Jadeja mightily for six more, and the usual singles bring the target down to 49 from 90 balls. Jadeja, a potential matchwinner, finishes with figures of 10-0-43-0. That’s drinks .

All tournament, we’ve been looking to the past for statistical similarities and precedents. Well, my friends, this is becoming the 1996 final in reverse , and Head is playing Aravinda de Silva.


34th over: Australia 185-3 (Head 100, Labuschagne 41) Head launches Kuldeep over the leg side for successive boundaries. Two more down the ground takes him to 99 – and then he reaches his hundred with an absurdly risky single! He would have been miles out with a direct hit.

Head lives on the edge, so in that sense it’s apt he reached his hundred with such a dodgy single, but actually this innings has been notable for his management of risk. He has surely never played with such destructive power and maturity.

With an extremely respectful nod to Clive Lloyd, Viv Richards, Aravinda de Silva, Ricky Ponting, Adam Gilchrist, Mahela Jayawardene, this is the greatest hundred in a men’s World Cup final: 95 balls, 14 fours and one six. If he sees it through, it’ll have a case for being the greatest ODI innings ever played.

Travis Head celebrates his hundred.

33rd over: Australia 174-3 (Head 89, Labuschagne 41) Head hacks Jadeja to cow corner, one of only two singles in the over. He has 89 from 90 balls, Labuschagne 41 from 81. His role is crystal clear.

“Not sure if it’s been commented on,” says Jon Salisbury, “but a marked difference in the desperation of the two sides to save boundaries.”

What makes Australia’s fielding even better is that most of them are in their thirties. That first 10 overs against South Africa was among the most exhilarating team displays of fielding I can recall.

32nd over: Australia 173-3 (Head 88, Labuschagne 40) Kuldeep replaces Bumrah to no great effect. Rohit has been a giant all tournament, with brain and bat, but I think he’s been too defensive here.

Now, if you were to ask me to name three great World Cup batters, who delivered when it really mattered, I wouldn’t say Richards, Kohli, Ponting. I’d go Head, Boon. Brearley.

Players with 50+ scores opening the batting in both semi-final and final of a men's World Cup tournament: 2023 - Travis Head 1987 - David Boon 1979 - Mike Brearley — Andy Zaltzman (@ZaltzCricket) November 19, 2023

31st over: Australia 170-3 (Head 87, Labuschagne 39) Jadeja continues. At this rate Siraj will have to bowl his last seven overs off the reel.

There are four dot balls in a row to Labuschagne, though that’s no issue for Australia. Head is stealing the show but he couldn’t have done this without Labuschagne’s soothing presence. The pressure and noise when he came to the crease were like nothing he has ever experienced.

Australia need 71 from 114 balls. India can still win this – I wouldn’t want to be a new batter in this atmosphere – but time is running out.

30th over: Australia 167-3 (Head 86, Labuschagne 37) Bumrah produces two superb yorkers that are dug out, one by each batter. That’s his seventh over done. I’d give him at least two more if that’s what it takes to get a wicket. In this atmosphere a spectacular collapse is always possible – but only if they break this partnership very soon. No point saving Bumrah’s overs for when Australia are 210 for three.

“The best team never to win the World Cup is definitely West Indies, 1983,” says Taimur Khan Jhagra. “The only team that lost the final that no one would ever have believed on the day, ironically, defeated by India.”

Yep, fair point. They beat everyone apart from India by huge margins.

29th over: Australia 163-3 (Head 85, Labuschagne 35) Three from Jadeja’s over. Pat Cummins’ surprising decision at the toss looks increasingly like a stroke of genius.

  • Cricket World Cup 2023
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