- SUGGESTED TOPICS
- The Magazine
- Managing Yourself
- Managing Teams
- Work-life Balance
- The Big Idea
- Data & Visuals
- Reading Lists
- Case Selections
- HBR Learning
- Topic Feeds
- Account Settings
- Email Preferences
Present Your Data Like a Pro
- Joel Schwartzberg
Demystify the numbers. Your audience will thank you.
While a good presentation has data, data alone doesn’t guarantee a good presentation. It’s all about how that data is presented. The quickest way to confuse your audience is by sharing too many details at once. The only data points you should share are those that significantly support your point — and ideally, one point per chart. To avoid the debacle of sheepishly translating hard-to-see numbers and labels, rehearse your presentation with colleagues sitting as far away as the actual audience would. While you’ve been working with the same chart for weeks or months, your audience will be exposed to it for mere seconds. Give them the best chance of comprehending your data by using simple, clear, and complete language to identify X and Y axes, pie pieces, bars, and other diagrammatic elements. Try to avoid abbreviations that aren’t obvious, and don’t assume labeled components on one slide will be remembered on subsequent slides. Every valuable chart or pie graph has an “Aha!” zone — a number or range of data that reveals something crucial to your point. Make sure you visually highlight the “Aha!” zone, reinforcing the moment by explaining it to your audience.
With so many ways to spin and distort information these days, a presentation needs to do more than simply share great ideas — it needs to support those ideas with credible data. That’s true whether you’re an executive pitching new business clients, a vendor selling her services, or a CEO making a case for change.
- JS Joel Schwartzberg oversees executive communications for a major national nonprofit, is a professional presentation coach, and is the author of “ Get to the Point! Sharpen Your Message and Make Your Words Matter ” and “ The Language of Leadership: How to Engage and Inspire Your Team .” You can find him on LinkedIn and on Twitter @TheJoelTruth.
We use essential cookies to make Venngage work. By clicking “Accept All Cookies”, you agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts.
Cookies and similar technologies collect certain information about how you’re using our website. Some of them are essential, and without them you wouldn’t be able to use Venngage. But others are optional, and you get to choose whether we use them or not.
Strictly Necessary Cookies
These cookies are always on, as they’re essential for making Venngage work, and making it safe. Without these cookies, services you’ve asked for can’t be provided.
Show cookie providers
- Google Login
These cookies help us provide enhanced functionality and personalisation, and remember your settings. They may be set by us or by third party providers.
These cookies help us analyze how many people are using Venngage, where they come from and how they're using it. If you opt out of these cookies, we can’t get feedback to make Venngage better for you and all our users.
- Google Analytics
These cookies are set by our advertising partners to track your activity and show you relevant Venngage ads on other sites as you browse the internet.
- Google Tag Manager
- Graphic Design
- Graphs and Charts
- Data Visualization
- Human Resources
- Training and Development
- Beginner Guides
Blog Data Visualization
10 Data Presentation Examples For Strategic Communication
By Krystle Wong , Sep 28, 2023
Knowing how to present data is like having a superpower.
Data presentation today is no longer just about numbers on a screen; it’s storytelling with a purpose. It’s about captivating your audience, making complex stuff look simple and inspiring action.
To help turn your data into stories that stick, influence decisions and make an impact, check out Venngage’s free chart maker or follow me on a tour into the world of data storytelling along with data presentation templates that work across different fields, from business boardrooms to the classroom and beyond. Keep scrolling to learn more!
Click to jump ahead:
10 Essential data presentation examples + methods you should know
What should be included in a data presentation, what are some common mistakes to avoid when presenting data, faqs on data presentation examples, transform your message with impactful data storytelling.
Data presentation is a vital skill in today’s information-driven world. Whether you’re in business, academia, or simply want to convey information effectively, knowing the different ways of presenting data is crucial. For impactful data storytelling, consider these essential data presentation methods:
1. Bar graph
Ideal for comparing data across categories or showing trends over time.
Bar graphs, also known as bar charts are workhorses of data presentation. They’re like the Swiss Army knives of visualization methods because they can be used to compare data in different categories or display data changes over time.
In a bar chart, categories are displayed on the x-axis and the corresponding values are represented by the height of the bars on the y-axis.
It’s a straightforward and effective way to showcase raw data, making it a staple in business reports, academic presentations and beyond.
Make sure your bar charts are concise with easy-to-read labels. Whether your bars go up or sideways, keep it simple by not overloading with too many categories.
2. Line graph
Great for displaying trends and variations in data points over time or continuous variables.
Line charts or line graphs are your go-to when you want to visualize trends and variations in data sets over time.
One of the best quantitative data presentation examples, they work exceptionally well for showing continuous data, such as sales projections over the last couple of years or supply and demand fluctuations.
The x-axis represents time or a continuous variable and the y-axis represents the data values. By connecting the data points with lines, you can easily spot trends and fluctuations.
A tip when presenting data with line charts is to minimize the lines and not make it too crowded. Highlight the big changes, put on some labels and give it a catchy title.
3. Pie chart
Useful for illustrating parts of a whole, such as percentages or proportions.
Pie charts are perfect for showing how a whole is divided into parts. They’re commonly used to represent percentages or proportions and are great for presenting survey results that involve demographic data.
Each “slice” of the pie represents a portion of the whole and the size of each slice corresponds to its share of the total.
While pie charts are handy for illustrating simple distributions, they can become confusing when dealing with too many categories or when the differences in proportions are subtle.
Don’t get too carried away with slices — label those slices with percentages or values so people know what’s what and consider using a legend for more categories.
4. Scatter plot
Effective for showing the relationship between two variables and identifying correlations.
Scatter plots are all about exploring relationships between two variables. They’re great for uncovering correlations, trends or patterns in data.
In a scatter plot, every data point appears as a dot on the chart, with one variable marked on the horizontal x-axis and the other on the vertical y-axis.
By examining the scatter of points, you can discern the nature of the relationship between the variables, whether it’s positive, negative or no correlation at all.
If you’re using scatter plots to reveal relationships between two variables, be sure to add trendlines or regression analysis when appropriate to clarify patterns. Label data points selectively or provide tooltips for detailed information.
Best for visualizing the distribution and frequency of a single variable.
Histograms are your choice when you want to understand the distribution and frequency of a single variable.
They divide the data into “bins” or intervals and the height of each bar represents the frequency or count of data points falling into that interval.
Histograms are excellent for helping to identify trends in data distributions, such as peaks, gaps or skewness.
Here’s something to take note of — ensure that your histogram bins are appropriately sized to capture meaningful data patterns. Using clear axis labels and titles can also help explain the distribution of the data effectively.
6. Stacked bar chart
Useful for showing how different components contribute to a whole over multiple categories.
Stacked bar charts are a handy choice when you want to illustrate how different components contribute to a whole across multiple categories.
Each bar represents a category and the bars are divided into segments to show the contribution of various components within each category.
This method is ideal for highlighting both the individual and collective significance of each component, making it a valuable tool for comparative analysis.
Stacked bar charts are like data sandwiches—label each layer so people know what’s what. Keep the order logical and don’t forget the paintbrush for snazzy colors. Here’s a data analysis presentation example on writers’ productivity using stacked bar charts:
7. Area chart
Similar to line charts but with the area below the lines filled, making them suitable for showing cumulative data.
Area charts are close cousins of line charts but come with a twist.
Imagine plotting the sales of a product over several months. In an area chart, the space between the line and the x-axis is filled, providing a visual representation of the cumulative total.
This makes it easy to see how values stack up over time, making area charts a valuable tool for tracking trends in data.
For area charts, use them to visualize cumulative data and trends, but avoid overcrowding the chart. Add labels, especially at significant points and make sure the area under the lines is filled with a visually appealing color gradient.
8. Tabular presentation
Presenting data in rows and columns, often used for precise data values and comparisons.
Tabular data presentation is all about clarity and precision. Think of it as presenting numerical data in a structured grid, with rows and columns clearly displaying individual data points.
A table is invaluable for showcasing detailed data, facilitating comparisons and presenting numerical information that needs to be exact. They’re commonly used in reports, spreadsheets and academic papers.
When presenting tabular data, organize it neatly with clear headers and appropriate column widths. Highlight important data points or patterns using shading or font formatting for better readability.
9. Textual data
Utilizing written or descriptive content to explain or complement data, such as annotations or explanatory text.
Textual data presentation may not involve charts or graphs, but it’s one of the most used qualitative data presentation examples.
It involves using written content to provide context, explanations or annotations alongside data visuals. Think of it as the narrative that guides your audience through the data.
Well-crafted textual data can make complex information more accessible and help your audience understand the significance of the numbers and visuals.
Textual data is your chance to tell a story. Break down complex information into bullet points or short paragraphs and use headings to guide the reader’s attention.
Using simple icons or images to represent data is especially useful for conveying information in a visually intuitive manner.
Pictograms are all about harnessing the power of images to convey data in an easy-to-understand way.
Instead of using numbers or complex graphs, you use simple icons or images to represent data points.
For instance, you could use a thumbs up emoji to illustrate customer satisfaction levels, where each face represents a different level of satisfaction.
Pictograms are great for conveying data visually, so choose symbols that are easy to interpret and relevant to the data. Use consistent scaling and a legend to explain the symbols’ meanings, ensuring clarity in your presentation.
Looking for more data presentation ideas? Use the Venngage graph maker or browse through our gallery of chart templates to pick a template and get started!
A comprehensive data presentation should include several key elements to effectively convey information and insights to your audience. Here’s a list of what should be included in a data presentation:
1. Title and objective
- Begin with a clear and informative title that sets the context for your presentation.
- State the primary objective or purpose of the presentation to provide a clear focus.
2. Key data points
- Present the most essential data points or findings that align with your objective.
- Use charts, graphical presentations or visuals to illustrate these key points for better comprehension.
3. Context and significance
- Provide a brief overview of the context in which the data was collected and why it’s significant.
- Explain how the data relates to the larger picture or the problem you’re addressing.
4. Key takeaways
- Summarize the main insights or conclusions that can be drawn from the data.
- Highlight the key takeaways that the audience should remember.
5. Visuals and charts
- Use clear and appropriate visual aids to complement the data.
- Ensure that visuals are easy to understand and support your narrative.
6. Implications or actions
- Discuss the practical implications of the data or any recommended actions.
- If applicable, outline next steps or decisions that should be taken based on the data.
7. Q&A and discussion
- Allocate time for questions and open discussion to engage the audience.
- Address queries and provide additional insights or context as needed.
Presenting data is a crucial skill in various professional fields, from business to academia and beyond. To ensure your data presentations hit the mark, here are some common mistakes that you should steer clear of:
Overloading with data
Presenting too much data at once can overwhelm your audience. Focus on the key points and relevant information to keep the presentation concise and focused. Here are some free data visualization tools you can use to convey data in an engaging and impactful way.
Assuming everyone’s on the same page
It’s easy to assume that your audience understands as much about the topic as you do. But this can lead to either dumbing things down too much or diving into a bunch of jargon that leaves folks scratching their heads. Take a beat to figure out where your audience is coming from and tailor your presentation accordingly.
Using misleading visuals, such as distorted scales or inappropriate chart types can distort the data’s meaning. Pick the right data infographics and understandable charts to ensure that your visual representations accurately reflect the data.
Not providing context
Data without context is like a puzzle piece with no picture on it. Without proper context, data may be meaningless or misinterpreted. Explain the background, methodology and significance of the data.
Not citing sources properly
Neglecting to cite sources and provide citations for your data can erode its credibility. Always attribute data to its source and utilize reliable sources for your presentation.
Not telling a story
Avoid simply presenting numbers. If your presentation lacks a clear, engaging story that takes your audience on a journey from the beginning (setting the scene) through the middle (data analysis) to the end (the big insights and recommendations), you’re likely to lose their interest.
Infographics are great for storytelling because they mix cool visuals with short and sweet text to explain complicated stuff in a fun and easy way. Create one with Venngage’s free infographic maker to create a memorable story that your audience will remember.
Ignoring data quality
Presenting data without first checking its quality and accuracy can lead to misinformation. Validate and clean your data before presenting it.
Simplify your visuals
Fancy charts might look cool, but if they confuse people, what’s the point? Go for the simplest visual that gets your message across. Having a dilemma between presenting data with infographics v.s data design? This article on the difference between data design and infographics might help you out.
Missing the emotional connection
Data isn’t just about numbers; it’s about people and real-life situations. Don’t forget to sprinkle in some human touch, whether it’s through relatable stories, examples or showing how the data impacts real lives.
Skipping the actionable insights
At the end of the day, your audience wants to know what they should do with all the data. If you don’t wrap up with clear, actionable insights or recommendations, you’re leaving them hanging. Always finish up with practical takeaways and the next steps.
Can you provide some data presentation examples for business reports?
Business reports often benefit from data presentation through bar charts showing sales trends over time, pie charts displaying market share,or tables presenting financial performance metrics like revenue and profit margins.
What are some creative data presentation examples for academic presentations?
Creative data presentation ideas for academic presentations include using statistical infographics to illustrate research findings and statistical data, incorporating storytelling techniques to engage the audience or utilizing heat maps to visualize data patterns.
What are the key considerations when choosing the right data presentation format?
When choosing a chart format , consider factors like data complexity, audience expertise and the message you want to convey. Options include charts (e.g., bar, line, pie), tables, heat maps, data visualization infographics and interactive dashboards.
Knowing the type of data visualization that best serves your data is just half the battle. Here are some best practices for data visualization to make sure that the final output is optimized.
How can I choose the right data presentation method for my data?
To select the right data presentation method, start by defining your presentation’s purpose and audience. Then, match your data type (e.g., quantitative, qualitative) with suitable visualization techniques (e.g., histograms, word clouds) and choose an appropriate presentation format (e.g., slide deck, report, live demo).
For more presentation ideas , check out this guide on how to make a good presentation or use a presentation software to simplify the process.
How can I make my data presentations more engaging and informative?
To enhance data presentations, use compelling narratives, relatable examples and fun data infographics that simplify complex data. Encourage audience interaction, offer actionable insights and incorporate storytelling elements to engage and inform effectively.
The opening of your presentation holds immense power in setting the stage for your audience. To design a presentation and convey your data in an engaging and informative, try out Venngage’s free presentation maker to pick the right presentation design for your audience and topic.
What is the difference between data visualization and data presentation?
Data presentation typically involves conveying data reports and insights to an audience, often using visuals like charts and graphs. Data visualization , on the other hand, focuses on creating those visual representations of data to facilitate understanding and analysis.
Now that you’ve learned a thing or two about how to use these methods of data presentation to tell a compelling data story , it’s time to take these strategies and make them your own.
But here’s the deal: these aren’t just one-size-fits-all solutions. Remember that each example we’ve uncovered here is not a rigid template but a source of inspiration. It’s all about making your audience go, “Wow, I get it now!”
Think of your data presentations as your canvas – it’s where you paint your story, convey meaningful insights and make real change happen.
So, go forth, present your data with confidence and purpose and watch as your strategic influence grows, one compelling presentation at a time.
Research Techniques for Computer Science, Information Systems and Cybersecurity pp 115–138 Cite as
Data Collection, Presentation and Analysis
- Uche M. Mbanaso 4 ,
- Lucienne Abrahams 5 &
- Kennedy Chinedu Okafor 6
- First Online: 25 May 2023
This chapter covers the topics of data collection, data presentation and data analysis. It gives attention to data collection for studies based on experiments, on data derived from existing published or unpublished data sets, on observation, on simulation and digital twins, on surveys, on interviews and on focus group discussions. One of the interesting features of this chapter is the section dealing with using measurement scales in quantitative research, including nominal scales, ordinal scales, interval scales and ratio scales. It explains key facets of qualitative research including ethical clearance requirements. The chapter discusses the importance of data visualization as key to effective presentation of data, including tabular forms, graphical forms and visual charts such as those generated by Atlas.ti analytical software.
- Computer science data
- Cybersecurity data analysis
- Cybersecurity experiments
- Information systems data collection
- Information systems visualization
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution .
- Available as PDF
- Read on any device
- Instant download
- Own it forever
- Available as EPUB and PDF
- Durable hardcover edition
- Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
- Free shipping worldwide - see info
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use only
Abdullah, M. F., & Ahmad, K. (2013). The mapping process of unstructured data to structured data. Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Research and Innovation in Information Systems (ICRIIS) , Malaysia , 151–155. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICRIIS.2013.6716700
Adnan, K., & Akbar, R. (2019). An analytical study of information extraction from unstructured and multidimensional big data. Journal of Big Data, 6 , 91. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40537-019-0254-8
CrossRef Google Scholar
Alsheref, F. K., & Fattoh, I. E. (2020). Medical text annotation tool based on IBM Watson Platform. Proceedings of the 2020 6th international conference on advanced computing and communication systems (ICACCS) , India , 1312–1316. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICACCS48705.2020.9074309
Cinque, M., Cotroneo, D., Della Corte, R., & Pecchia, A. (2014). What logs should you look at when an application fails? Insights from an industrial case study. Proceedings of the 2014 44th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks , USA , 690–695. https://doi.org/10.1109/DSN.2014.69
Gideon, L. (Ed.). (2012). Handbook of survey methodology for the social sciences . Springer.
Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2015). Practical research planning and design (12th ed.). Pearson Education.
Madaan, A., Wang, X., Hall, W., & Tiropanis, T. (2018). Observing data in IoT worlds: What and how to observe? In Living in the Internet of Things: Cybersecurity of the IoT – 2018 (pp. 1–7). https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2018.0032
Mahajan, P., & Naik, C. (2019). Development of integrated IoT and machine learning based data collection and analysis system for the effective prediction of agricultural residue/biomass availability to regenerate clean energy. Proceedings of the 2019 9th International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology – Signal and Information Processing (ICETET-SIP-19) , India , 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICETET-SIP-1946815.2019.9092156 .
Mahmud, M. S., Huang, J. Z., Salloum, S., Emara, T. Z., & Sadatdiynov, K. (2020). A survey of data partitioning and sampling methods to support big data analysis. Big Data Mining and Analytics, 3 (2), 85–101. https://doi.org/10.26599/BDMA.2019.9020015
Miswar, S., & Kurniawan, N. B. (2018). A systematic literature review on survey data collection system. Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Information Technology Systems and Innovation (ICITSI) , Indonesia , 177–181. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICITSI.2018.8696036
Mosina, C. (2020). Understanding the diffusion of the internet: Redesigning the global diffusion of the internet framework (Research report, Master of Arts in ICT Policy and Regulation). LINK Centre, University of the Witwatersrand. https://hdl.handle.net/10539/30723
Nkamisa, S. (2021). Investigating the integration of drone management systems to create an enabling remote piloted aircraft regulatory environment in South Africa (Research report, Master of Arts in ICT Policy and Regulation). LINK Centre, University of the Witwatersrand. https://hdl.handle.net/10539/33883
QuestionPro. (2020). Survey research: Definition, examples and methods . https://www.questionpro.com/article/survey-research.html
Rajanikanth, J. & Kanth, T. V. R. (2017). An explorative data analysis on Bangalore City Weather with hybrid data mining techniques using R. Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Current Trends in Computer, Electrical, Electronics and Communication (CTCEEC) , India , 1121-1125. https://doi/10.1109/CTCEEC.2017.8455008
Rao, R. (2003). From unstructured data to actionable intelligence. IT Professional, 5 , 29–35. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/3426648_From_Unstructured_Data_to_Actionable_Intelligence
Schulze, P. (2009). Design of the research instrument. In P. Schulze (Ed.), Balancing exploitation and exploration: Organizational antecedents and performance effects of innovation strategies (pp. 116–141). Gabler. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-8349-8397-8_6
Usanov, A. (2015). Assessing cybersecurity: A meta-analysis of threats, trends and responses to cyber attacks . The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319677972_Assessing_Cyber_Security_A_Meta-analysis_of_Threats_Trends_and_Responses_to_Cyber_Attacks
Van de Kaa, G., De Vries, H. J., van Heck, E., & van den Ende, J. (2007). The emergence of standards: A meta-analysis. Proceedings of the 2007 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science (HICSS’07) , USA , 173a–173a. https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2007.529
Authors and affiliations.
Centre for Cybersecurity Studies, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
Uche M. Mbanaso
LINK Centre, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Kennedy Chinedu Okafor
You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar
Rights and permissions
Reprints and Permissions
© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG
About this chapter
Cite this chapter.
Mbanaso, U.M., Abrahams, L., Okafor, K.C. (2023). Data Collection, Presentation and Analysis. In: Research Techniques for Computer Science, Information Systems and Cybersecurity. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-30031-8_7
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-30031-8_7
Published : 25 May 2023
Publisher Name : Springer, Cham
Print ISBN : 978-3-031-30030-1
Online ISBN : 978-3-031-30031-8
eBook Packages : Engineering Engineering (R0)
Share this chapter
Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:
Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.
Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative
- Find a journal
- Publish with us
An official website of the United States government
The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.
The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.
- Account settings
- Advanced Search
- Journal List
- Korean J Anesthesiol
- v.70(3); 2017 Jun
Statistical data presentation
1 Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
2 Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Data are usually collected in a raw format and thus the inherent information is difficult to understand. Therefore, raw data need to be summarized, processed, and analyzed. However, no matter how well manipulated, the information derived from the raw data should be presented in an effective format, otherwise, it would be a great loss for both authors and readers. In this article, the techniques of data and information presentation in textual, tabular, and graphical forms are introduced. Text is the principal method for explaining findings, outlining trends, and providing contextual information. A table is best suited for representing individual information and represents both quantitative and qualitative information. A graph is a very effective visual tool as it displays data at a glance, facilitates comparison, and can reveal trends and relationships within the data such as changes over time, frequency distribution, and correlation or relative share of a whole. Text, tables, and graphs for data and information presentation are very powerful communication tools. They can make an article easy to understand, attract and sustain the interest of readers, and efficiently present large amounts of complex information. Moreover, as journal editors and reviewers glance at these presentations before reading the whole article, their importance cannot be ignored.
Data are a set of facts, and provide a partial picture of reality. Whether data are being collected with a certain purpose or collected data are being utilized, questions regarding what information the data are conveying, how the data can be used, and what must be done to include more useful information must constantly be kept in mind.
Since most data are available to researchers in a raw format, they must be summarized, organized, and analyzed to usefully derive information from them. Furthermore, each data set needs to be presented in a certain way depending on what it is used for. Planning how the data will be presented is essential before appropriately processing raw data.
First, a question for which an answer is desired must be clearly defined. The more detailed the question is, the more detailed and clearer the results are. A broad question results in vague answers and results that are hard to interpret. In other words, a well-defined question is crucial for the data to be well-understood later. Once a detailed question is ready, the raw data must be prepared before processing. These days, data are often summarized, organized, and analyzed with statistical packages or graphics software. Data must be prepared in such a way they are properly recognized by the program being used. The present study does not discuss this data preparation process, which involves creating a data frame, creating/changing rows and columns, changing the level of a factor, categorical variable, coding, dummy variables, variable transformation, data transformation, missing value, outlier treatment, and noise removal.
We describe the roles and appropriate use of text, tables, and graphs (graphs, plots, or charts), all of which are commonly used in reports, articles, posters, and presentations. Furthermore, we discuss the issues that must be addressed when presenting various kinds of information, and effective methods of presenting data, which are the end products of research, and of emphasizing specific information.
Data can be presented in one of the three ways:
–in tabular form; or
–in graphical form.
Methods of presentation must be determined according to the data format, the method of analysis to be used, and the information to be emphasized. Inappropriately presented data fail to clearly convey information to readers and reviewers. Even when the same information is being conveyed, different methods of presentation must be employed depending on what specific information is going to be emphasized. A method of presentation must be chosen after carefully weighing the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of presentation. For easy comparison of different methods of presentation, let us look at a table ( Table 1 ) and a line graph ( Fig. 1 ) that present the same information [ 1 ]. If one wishes to compare or introduce two values at a certain time point, it is appropriate to use text or the written language. However, a table is the most appropriate when all information requires equal attention, and it allows readers to selectively look at information of their own interest. Graphs allow readers to understand the overall trend in data, and intuitively understand the comparison results between two groups. One thing to always bear in mind regardless of what method is used, however, is the simplicity of presentation.
Values are expressed as mean ± SD. Group C: normal saline, Group D: dexmedetomidine. SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure, MBP: mean blood pressure, HR: heart rate. * P < 0.05 indicates a significant increase in each group, compared with the baseline values. † P < 0.05 indicates a significant decrease noted in Group D, compared with the baseline values. ‡ P < 0.05 indicates a significant difference between the groups.
Text is the main method of conveying information as it is used to explain results and trends, and provide contextual information. Data are fundamentally presented in paragraphs or sentences. Text can be used to provide interpretation or emphasize certain data. If quantitative information to be conveyed consists of one or two numbers, it is more appropriate to use written language than tables or graphs. For instance, information about the incidence rates of delirium following anesthesia in 2016–2017 can be presented with the use of a few numbers: “The incidence rate of delirium following anesthesia was 11% in 2016 and 15% in 2017; no significant difference of incidence rates was found between the two years.” If this information were to be presented in a graph or a table, it would occupy an unnecessarily large space on the page, without enhancing the readers' understanding of the data. If more data are to be presented, or other information such as that regarding data trends are to be conveyed, a table or a graph would be more appropriate. By nature, data take longer to read when presented as texts and when the main text includes a long list of information, readers and reviewers may have difficulties in understanding the information.
Tables, which convey information that has been converted into words or numbers in rows and columns, have been used for nearly 2,000 years. Anyone with a sufficient level of literacy can easily understand the information presented in a table. Tables are the most appropriate for presenting individual information, and can present both quantitative and qualitative information. Examples of qualitative information are the level of sedation [ 2 ], statistical methods/functions [ 3 , 4 ], and intubation conditions [ 5 ].
The strength of tables is that they can accurately present information that cannot be presented with a graph. A number such as “132.145852” can be accurately expressed in a table. Another strength is that information with different units can be presented together. For instance, blood pressure, heart rate, number of drugs administered, and anesthesia time can be presented together in one table. Finally, tables are useful for summarizing and comparing quantitative information of different variables. However, the interpretation of information takes longer in tables than in graphs, and tables are not appropriate for studying data trends. Furthermore, since all data are of equal importance in a table, it is not easy to identify and selectively choose the information required.
For a general guideline for creating tables, refer to the journal submission requirements 1) .
Heat maps for better visualization of information than tables
Heat maps help to further visualize the information presented in a table by applying colors to the background of cells. By adjusting the colors or color saturation, information is conveyed in a more visible manner, and readers can quickly identify the information of interest ( Table 2 ). Software such as Excel (in Microsoft Office, Microsoft, WA, USA) have features that enable easy creation of heat maps through the options available on the “conditional formatting” menu.
All numbers were created by the author. SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure, MBP: mean blood pressure, HR: heart rate.
Whereas tables can be used for presenting all the information, graphs simplify complex information by using images and emphasizing data patterns or trends, and are useful for summarizing, explaining, or exploring quantitative data. While graphs are effective for presenting large amounts of data, they can be used in place of tables to present small sets of data. A graph format that best presents information must be chosen so that readers and reviewers can easily understand the information. In the following, we describe frequently used graph formats and the types of data that are appropriately presented with each format with examples.
Scatter plots present data on the x - and y -axes and are used to investigate an association between two variables. A point represents each individual or object, and an association between two variables can be studied by analyzing patterns across multiple points. A regression line is added to a graph to determine whether the association between two variables can be explained or not. Fig. 2 illustrates correlations between pain scoring systems that are currently used (PSQ, Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire; PASS, Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale; PCS, Pain Catastrophizing Scale) and Geop-Pain Questionnaire (GPQ) with the correlation coefficient, R, and regression line indicated on the scatter plot [ 6 ]. If multiple points exist at an identical location as in this example ( Fig. 2 ), the correlation level may not be clear. In this case, a correlation coefficient or regression line can be added to further elucidate the correlation.
Bar graph and histogram
A bar graph is used to indicate and compare values in a discrete category or group, and the frequency or other measurement parameters (i.e. mean). Depending on the number of categories, and the size or complexity of each category, bars may be created vertically or horizontally. The height (or length) of a bar represents the amount of information in a category. Bar graphs are flexible, and can be used in a grouped or subdivided bar format in cases of two or more data sets in each category. Fig. 3 is a representative example of a vertical bar graph, with the x -axis representing the length of recovery room stay and drug-treated group, and the y -axis representing the visual analog scale (VAS) score. The mean and standard deviation of the VAS scores are expressed as whiskers on the bars ( Fig. 3 ) [ 7 ].
By comparing the endpoints of bars, one can identify the largest and the smallest categories, and understand gradual differences between each category. It is advised to start the x - and y -axes from 0. Illustration of comparison results in the x - and y -axes that do not start from 0 can deceive readers' eyes and lead to overrepresentation of the results.
One form of vertical bar graph is the stacked vertical bar graph. A stack vertical bar graph is used to compare the sum of each category, and analyze parts of a category. While stacked vertical bar graphs are excellent from the aspect of visualization, they do not have a reference line, making comparison of parts of various categories challenging ( Fig. 4 ) [ 8 ].
A pie chart, which is used to represent nominal data (in other words, data classified in different categories), visually represents a distribution of categories. It is generally the most appropriate format for representing information grouped into a small number of categories. It is also used for data that have no other way of being represented aside from a table (i.e. frequency table). Fig. 5 illustrates the distribution of regular waste from operation rooms by their weight [ 8 ]. A pie chart is also commonly used to illustrate the number of votes each candidate won in an election.
Line plot with whiskers
A line plot is useful for representing time-series data such as monthly precipitation and yearly unemployment rates; in other words, it is used to study variables that are observed over time. Line graphs are especially useful for studying patterns and trends across data that include climatic influence, large changes or turning points, and are also appropriate for representing not only time-series data, but also data measured over the progression of a continuous variable such as distance. As can be seen in Fig. 1 , mean and standard deviation of systolic blood pressure are indicated for each time point, which enables readers to easily understand changes of systolic pressure over time [ 1 ]. If data are collected at a regular interval, values in between the measurements can be estimated. In a line graph, the x-axis represents the continuous variable, while the y-axis represents the scale and measurement values. It is also useful to represent multiple data sets on a single line graph to compare and analyze patterns across different data sets.
Box and whisker chart
A box and whisker chart does not make any assumptions about the underlying statistical distribution, and represents variations in samples of a population; therefore, it is appropriate for representing nonparametric data. AA box and whisker chart consists of boxes that represent interquartile range (one to three), the median and the mean of the data, and whiskers presented as lines outside of the boxes. Whiskers can be used to present the largest and smallest values in a set of data or only a part of the data (i.e. 95% of all the data). Data that are excluded from the data set are presented as individual points and are called outliers. The spacing at both ends of the box indicates dispersion in the data. The relative location of the median demonstrated within the box indicates skewness ( Fig. 6 ). The box and whisker chart provided as an example represents calculated volumes of an anesthetic, desflurane, consumed over the course of the observation period ( Fig. 7 ) [ 9 ].
Most of the recently introduced statistical packages and graphics software have the three-dimensional (3D) effect feature. The 3D effects can add depth and perspective to a graph. However, since they may make reading and interpreting data more difficult, they must only be used after careful consideration. The application of 3D effects on a pie chart makes distinguishing the size of each slice difficult. Even if slices are of similar sizes, slices farther from the front of the pie chart may appear smaller than the slices closer to the front ( Fig. 8 ).
Drawing a graph: example
Finally, we explain how to create a graph by using a line graph as an example ( Fig. 9 ). In Fig. 9 , the mean values of arterial pressure were randomly produced and assumed to have been measured on an hourly basis. In many graphs, the x- and y-axes meet at the zero point ( Fig. 9A ). In this case, information regarding the mean and standard deviation of mean arterial pressure measurements corresponding to t = 0 cannot be conveyed as the values overlap with the y-axis. The data can be clearly exposed by separating the zero point ( Fig. 9B ). In Fig. 9B , the mean and standard deviation of different groups overlap and cannot be clearly distinguished from each other. Separating the data sets and presenting standard deviations in a single direction prevents overlapping and, therefore, reduces the visual inconvenience. Doing so also reduces the excessive number of ticks on the y-axis, increasing the legibility of the graph ( Fig. 9C ). In the last graph, different shapes were used for the lines connecting different time points to further allow the data to be distinguished, and the y-axis was shortened to get rid of the unnecessary empty space present in the previous graphs ( Fig. 9D ). A graph can be made easier to interpret by assigning each group to a different color, changing the shape of a point, or including graphs of different formats [ 10 ]. The use of random settings for the scale in a graph may lead to inappropriate presentation or presentation of data that can deceive readers' eyes ( Fig. 10 ).
Owing to the lack of space, we could not discuss all types of graphs, but have focused on describing graphs that are frequently used in scholarly articles. We have summarized the commonly used types of graphs according to the method of data analysis in Table 3 . For general guidelines on graph designs, please refer to the journal submission requirements 2) .
Text, tables, and graphs are effective communication media that present and convey data and information. They aid readers in understanding the content of research, sustain their interest, and effectively present large quantities of complex information. As journal editors and reviewers will scan through these presentations before reading the entire text, their importance cannot be disregarded. For this reason, authors must pay as close attention to selecting appropriate methods of data presentation as when they were collecting data of good quality and analyzing them. In addition, having a well-established understanding of different methods of data presentation and their appropriate use will enable one to develop the ability to recognize and interpret inappropriately presented data or data presented in such a way that it deceives readers' eyes [ 11 ].
Output for presentation.
Discovery and communication are the two objectives of data visualization. In the discovery phase, various types of graphs must be tried to understand the rough and overall information the data are conveying. The communication phase is focused on presenting the discovered information in a summarized form. During this phase, it is necessary to polish images including graphs, pictures, and videos, and consider the fact that the images may look different when printed than how appear on a computer screen. In this appendix, we discuss important concepts that one must be familiar with to print graphs appropriately.
The KJA asks that pictures and images meet the following requirement before submission 3)
“Figures and photographs should be submitted as ‘TIFF’ files. Submit files of figures and photographs separately from the text of the paper. Width of figure should be 84 mm (one column). Contrast of photos or graphs should be at least 600 dpi. Contrast of line drawings should be at least 1,200 dpi. The Powerpoint file (ppt, pptx) is also acceptable.”
Unfortunately, without sufficient knowledge of computer graphics, it is not easy to understand the submission requirement above. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an understanding of image resolution, image format (bitmap and vector images), and the corresponding file specifications.
Resolution is often mentioned to describe the quality of images containing graphs or CT/MRI scans, and video files. The higher the resolution, the clearer and closer to reality the image is, while the opposite is true for low resolutions. The most representative unit used to describe a resolution is “dpi” (dots per inch): this literally translates to the number of dots required to constitute 1 inch. The greater the number of dots, the higher the resolution. The KJA submission requirements recommend 600 dpi for images, and 1,200 dpi 4) for graphs. In other words, resolutions in which 600 or 1,200 dots constitute one inch are required for submission.
There are requirements for the horizontal length of an image in addition to the resolution requirements. While there are no requirements for the vertical length of an image, it must not exceed the vertical length of a page. The width of a column on one side of a printed page is 84 mm, or 3.3 inches (84/25.4 mm ≒ 3.3 inches). Therefore, a graph must have a resolution in which 1,200 dots constitute 1 inch, and have a width of 3.3 inches.
Bitmap and Vector
Methods of image construction are important. Bitmap images can be considered as images drawn on section paper. Enlarging the image will enlarge the picture along with the grid, resulting in a lower resolution; in other words, aliasing occurs. On the other hand, reducing the size of the image will reduce the size of the picture, while increasing the resolution. In other words, resolution and the size of an image are inversely proportionate to one another in bitmap images, and it is a drawback of bitmap images that resolution must be considered when adjusting the size of an image. To enlarge an image while maintaining the same resolution, the size and resolution of the image must be determined before saving the image. An image that has already been created cannot avoid changes to its resolution according to changes in size. Enlarging an image while maintaining the same resolution will increase the number of horizontal and vertical dots, ultimately increasing the number of pixels 5) of the image, and the file size. In other words, the file size of a bitmap image is affected by the size and resolution of the image (file extensions include JPG [JPEG] 6) , PNG 7) , GIF 8) , and TIF [TIFF] 9) . To avoid this complexity, the width of an image can be set to 4 inches and its resolution to 900 dpi to satisfy the submission requirements of most journals [ 12 ].
Vector images overcome the shortcomings of bitmap images. Vector images are created based on mathematical operations of line segments and areas between different points, and are not affected by aliasing or pixelation. Furthermore, they result in a smaller file size that is not affected by the size of the image. They are commonly used for drawings and illustrations (file extensions include EPS 10) , CGM 11) , and SVG 12) ).
Finally, the PDF 13) is a file format developed by Adobe Systems (Adobe Systems, CA, USA) for electronic documents, and can contain general documents, text, drawings, images, and fonts. They can also contain bitmap and vector images. While vector images are used by researchers when working in Powerpoint, they are saved as 960 × 720 dots when saved in TIFF format in Powerpoint. This results in a resolution that is inappropriate for printing on a paper medium. To save high-resolution bitmap images, the image must be saved as a PDF file instead of a TIFF, and the saved PDF file must be imported into an imaging processing program such as Photoshop™(Adobe Systems, CA, USA) to be saved in TIFF format [ 12 ].
1) Instructions to authors in KJA; section 5-(9) Table; https://ekja.org/index.php?body=instruction
2) Instructions to Authors in KJA; section 6-1)-(10) Figures and illustrations in Manuscript preparation; https://ekja.org/index.php?body=instruction
3) Instructions to Authors in KJA; section 6-1)-(10) Figures and illustrations in Manuscript preparation; https://ekja.org/index.php?body=instruction
4) Resolution; in KJA, it is represented by “contrast.”
5) Pixel is a minimum unit of an image and contains information of a dot and color. It is derived by multiplying the number of vertical and horizontal dots regardless of image size. For example, Full High Definition (FHD) monitor has 1920 × 1080 dots ≒ 2.07 million pixel.
6) Joint Photographic Experts Group.
7) Portable Network Graphics.
8) Graphics Interchange Format
9) Tagged Image File Format; TIFF
10) Encapsulated PostScript.
11) Computer Graphics Metafile.
12) Scalable Vector Graphics.
13) Portable Document Format.
- Online Degree Explore Bachelor’s & Master’s degrees
- MasterTrack™ Earn credit towards a Master’s degree
- University Certificates Advance your career with graduate-level learning
- Top Courses
- Join for Free
Data Analysis and Presentation Skills: the PwC Approach Specialization
Make Smarter Business Decisions With Data Analysis. Understand data, apply data analytics tools and create effective business intelligence presentations
Taught in English
Some content may not be translated
Instructor: Alex Mannella
Financial aid available
153,734 already enrolled
Specialization - 5 course series
Skills you'll gain
- Data Analysis
- Microsoft Excel
- Data Visualization (DataViz)
Details to know
Add to your LinkedIn profile
Available in English
Subtitles: English, Arabic, French, Ukrainian, Chinese (Simplified), Greek, Italian, Portuguese (Brazilian), Vietnamese, Dutch, Korean, German, Russian, Thai, Indonesian, Swedish, Turkish, Spanish, Hindi, Japanese, Kazakh, Polish
See how employees at top companies are mastering in-demand skills
Advance your subject-matter expertise
- Learn in-demand skills from university and industry experts
- Master a subject or tool with hands-on projects
- Develop a deep understanding of key concepts
- Earn a career certificate from PwC
Earn a career certificate
Add this credential to your LinkedIn profile, resume, or CV
Share it on social media and in your performance review
If you are a PwC Employee, gain access to the PwC Specialization and Courses for free using the instructions on Vantage.
This Specialization will help you get practical with data analysis, turning business intelligence into real-world outcomes. We'll explore how a combination of better understanding, filtering, and application of data can help you solve problems faster - leading to smarter and more effective decision-making. You’ll learn how to use Microsoft Excel, PowerPoint, and other common data analysis and communication tools, and perhaps most importantly, we'll help you to present data to others in a way that gets them engaged in your story and motivated to act.
Please note: If you'd like to audit the courses in this Specialization, you'll need to enroll in each course separately and then you will see the audit option.
This specialization was created by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP with an address at 300 Madison Avenue, New York, New York, 10017.
Applied Learning Project
This specialization will include a project at the end of each module and a capstone project at the end of the specialization. Each project will provide you the chance to apply the skills of that lesson. In the first module you'll plan an analysis approach, in the second and third modules you will analyze sets of data using the Excel skills you learn. In the fourth module you will prepare a business presentation.
In the final Capstone Project, you'll apply the skills you’ve learned by working through a mock client business problem. You'll analyze a set of data, looking for the business insights. Then you'll create and visualize your findings, before recording a video to present your recommendations to the client.
Data-driven Decision Making
What you'll learn.
Welcome to Data-driven Decision Making. In this course, you'll get an introduction to Data Analytics and its role in business decisions. You'll learn why data is important and how it has evolved. You'll be introduced to “Big Data” and how it is used. You'll also be introduced to a framework for conducting Data Analysis and what tools and techniques are commonly used. Finally, you'll have a chance to put your knowledge to work in a simulated business setting.
This course was created by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP with an address at 300 Madison Avenue, New York, New York, 10017.
Problem Solving with Excel
This course explores Excel as a tool for solving business problems. In this course you will learn the basic functions of excel through guided demonstration. Each week you will build on your excel skills and be provided an opportunity to practice what you’ve learned. Finally, you will have a chance to put your knowledge to work in a final project. Please note, the content in this course was developed using a Windows version of Excel 2013.
Data Visualization with Advanced Excel
In this course, you will get hands-on instruction of advanced Excel 2013 functions. You’ll learn to use PowerPivot to build databases and data models. We’ll show you how to perform different types of scenario and simulation analysis and you’ll have an opportunity to practice these skills by leveraging some of Excel's built in tools including, solver, data tables, scenario manager and goal seek. In the second half of the course, will cover how to visualize data, tell a story and explore data by reviewing core principles of data visualization and dashboarding. You’ll use Excel to build complex graphs and Power View reports and then start to combine them into dynamic dashboards.
Note: Learners will need PowerPivot to complete some of the exercises. Please use MS Excel 2013 version. If you have other MS Excel versions or a MAC you might not be able to complete all assignments. This course was created by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP with an address at 300 Madison Avenue, New York, New York, 10017.
Effective Business Presentations with Powerpoint
This course is all about presenting the story of the data, using PowerPoint. You'll learn how to structure a presentation, to include insights and supporting data. You'll also learn some design principles for effective visuals and slides. You'll gain skills for client-facing communication - including public speaking, executive presence and compelling storytelling. Finally, you'll be given a client profile, a business problem, and a set of basic Excel charts, which you'll need to turn into a presentation - which you'll deliver with iterative peer feedback.
Data Analysis and Presentation Skills: the PwC Approach Final Project
In this Capstone Project, you'll bring together all the new skills and insights you've learned through the four courses. You'll be given a 'mock' client problem and a data set. You'll need to analyze the data to gain business insights, research the client's domain area, and create recommendations. You'll then need to visualize the data in a client-facing presentation. You'll bring it all together in a recorded video presentation.
With offices in 157 countries and more than 208,000 people, PwC is among the leading professional services networks in the world. Our purpose is to build trust in society and solve important problems. We help organisations and individuals create the value they’re looking for, by delivering quality in assurance, tax and advisory services.
Why people choose Coursera for their career
Open new doors with Coursera Plus
Unlimited access to 7,000+ world-class courses, hands-on projects, and job-ready certificate programs - all included in your subscription
Advance your career with an online degree
Earn a degree from world-class universities - 100% online
Join over 3,400 global companies that choose Coursera for Business
Upskill your employees to excel in the digital economy
Frequently asked questions
How long does it take to complete the specialization.
Exactly how long it takes will vary, depending on your schedule. Most learners complete the Specialization in five to six months.
What background knowledge is necessary?
You don't need any background knowledge. We've designed this Specialization for learners who are new to the field of data and analytics.
Do I need to take the courses in a specific order?
We recommend you take them in the order they appear on Coursera. Each course builds on the knowledge you learned in the last one.
Will I earn university credit for completing the Specialization?
Coursera courses and certificates don't carry university credit, though some universities may choose to accept Specialization Certificates for credit. You should check with your institution to find out more.
What will I be able to do upon completing the Specialization?
You'll be able to use the data and analytics framework to develop a plan to solve a business problem. You'll be able to use Excel to analyze data using formulas and present a series of visualizations with a summary recommendation to solve the business problem. You'll also be able to take data and create a dynamic data dashboard in Excel that accepts inputs and refreshes with new data. Finally, you'll be able to develop and deliver a presentation using PowerPoint and the results of your data analysis - so you can share your point of view on how to solve the business problem.
How do I audit the Specialization?
If you'd like to audit the courses in this Specialization, you'll need to enroll in each course separately and then you will see the audit option.
What tools do I need for this Specialization?
In the "Data Visualization and Advance Excel" course learners will need PowerPivot to complete some of the exercises. Please use MS Excel 2013 version. If you have other MS Excel versions or a MAC you might not be able to complete all assignments.
Is this course really 100% online? Do I need to attend any classes in person?
This course is completely online, so there’s no need to show up to a classroom in person. You can access your lectures, readings and assignments anytime and anywhere via the web or your mobile device.
What is the refund policy?
If you subscribed, you get a 7-day free trial during which you can cancel at no penalty. After that, we don’t give refunds, but you can cancel your subscription at any time. See our full refund policy Opens in a new tab .
Can I just enroll in a single course?
Yes! To get started, click the course card that interests you and enroll. You can enroll and complete the course to earn a shareable certificate, or you can audit it to view the course materials for free. When you subscribe to a course that is part of a Specialization, you’re automatically subscribed to the full Specialization. Visit your learner dashboard to track your progress.
Is financial aid available?
Yes. In select learning programs, you can apply for financial aid or a scholarship if you can’t afford the enrollment fee. If fin aid or scholarship is available for your learning program selection, you’ll find a link to apply on the description page.
Can I take the course for free?
When you enroll in the course, you get access to all of the courses in the Specialization, and you earn a certificate when you complete the work. If you only want to read and view the course content, you can audit the course for free. If you cannot afford the fee, you can apply for financial aid Opens in a new tab .
Call Us Today! +91 99907 48956 | [email protected]
It is the simplest form of data Presentation often used in schools or universities to provide a clearer picture to students, who are better able to capture the concepts effectively through a pictorial Presentation of simple data.
2. Column chart
It is a simplified version of the pictorial Presentation which involves the management of a larger amount of data being shared during the presentations and providing suitable clarity to the insights of the data.
3. Pie Charts
Pie charts provide a very descriptive & a 2D depiction of the data pertaining to comparisons or resemblance of data in two separate fields.
4. Bar charts
A bar chart that shows the accumulation of data with cuboid bars with different dimensions & lengths which are directly proportionate to the values they represent. The bars can be placed either vertically or horizontally depending on the data being represented.
It is a perfect Presentation of the spread of numerical data. The main differentiation that separates data graphs and histograms are the gaps in the data graphs.
6. Box plots
Box plot or Box-plot is a way of representing groups of numerical data through quartiles. Data Presentation is easier with this style of graph dealing with the extraction of data to the minutes of difference.
Map Data graphs help you with data Presentation over an area to display the areas of concern. Map graphs are useful to make an exact depiction of data over a vast case scenario.
All these visual presentations share a common goal of creating meaningful insights and a platform to understand and manage the data in relation to the growth and expansion of one’s in-depth understanding of data & details to plan or execute future decisions or actions.
Importance of Data Presentation
Data Presentation could be both can be a deal maker or deal breaker based on the delivery of the content in the context of visual depiction.
Data Presentation tools are powerful communication tools that can simplify the data by making it easily understandable & readable at the same time while attracting & keeping the interest of its readers and effectively showcase large amounts of complex data in a simplified manner.
If the user can create an insightful presentation of the data in hand with the same sets of facts and figures, then the results promise to be impressive.
There have been situations where the user has had a great amount of data and vision for expansion but the presentation drowned his/her vision.
To impress the higher management and top brass of a firm, effective presentation of data is needed.
Data Presentation helps the clients or the audience to not spend time grasping the concept and the future alternatives of the business and to convince them to invest in the company & turn it profitable both for the investors & the company.
Although data presentation has a lot to offer, the following are some of the major reason behind the essence of an effective presentation:-
- Many consumers or higher authorities are interested in the interpretation of data, not the raw data itself. Therefore, after the analysis of the data, users should represent the data with a visual aspect for better understanding and knowledge.
- The user should not overwhelm the audience with a number of slides of the presentation and inject an ample amount of texts as pictures that will speak for themselves.
- Data presentation often happens in a nutshell with each department showcasing their achievements towards company growth through a graph or a histogram.
- Providing a brief description would help the user to attain attention in a small amount of time while informing the audience about the context of the presentation
- The inclusion of pictures, charts, graphs and tables in the presentation help for better understanding the potential outcomes.
- An effective presentation would allow the organization to determine the difference with the fellow organization and acknowledge its flaws. Comparison of data would assist them in decision making.
Using powerbi &tableau.
Tableau for Data Analysis
MySQL Certification Program
The PowerBI Masterclass
Need help call our support team 7:00 am to 10:00 pm (ist) at (+91 999-074-8956 | 9650-308-956), keep in touch, email: [email protected].
10 Methods of Data Presentation with 5 Great Tips to Practice, Best in 2024
Leah Nguyen • 27 Oct 2023 • 10 min read
Finding ways to present information effectively? You can end deathly boring and ineffective data presentation right now with our 10 methods of data presentation . Check out the examples from each technique!
Have you ever presented a data report to your boss/coworkers/teachers thinking it was super dope like you’re some cyber hacker living in the Matrix, but all they saw was a pile of static numbers that seemed pointless and didn’t make sense to them?
Understanding digits is rigid . Making people from non-analytical backgrounds understand those digits is even more challenging.
How can you clear up those confusing numbers in the types of presentation that have the flawless clarity of a diamond? So, let’s check out best way to present data. 💎
Table of Contents
- What are Methods of Data Presentations?
- #1 – Tabular
#2 – Text
#3 – pie chart, #4 – bar chart, #5 – histogram, #6 – line graph, #7 – pictogram graph, #8 – radar chart, #9 – heat map, #10 – scatter plot.
- 5 Mistakes to Avoid
- Best Method of Data Presentation
Frequently Asked Questions
More tips with ahaslides.
- Marketing Presentation
- Survey Result Presentation
- Types of Presentation
Start in seconds.
Get any of the above examples as templates. Sign up for free and take what you want from the template library!
What are Methods of Data Presentation?
The term ’data presentation’ relates to the way you present data in a way that makes even the most clueless person in the room understand.
Some say it’s witchcraft (you’re manipulating the numbers in some ways), but we’ll just say it’s the power of turning dry, hard numbers or digits into a visual showcase that is easy for people to digest.
Presenting data correctly can help your audience understand complicated processes, identify trends, and instantly pinpoint whatever is going on without exhausting their brains.
Good data presentation helps…
- Make informed decisions and arrive at positive outcomes . If you see the sales of your product steadily increase throughout the years, it’s best to keep milking it or start turning it into a bunch of spin-offs (shoutout to Star Wars👀).
- Reduce the time spent processing data . Humans can digest information graphically 60,000 times faster than in the form of text. Grant them the power of skimming through a decade of data in minutes with some extra spicy graphs and charts.
- Communicate the results clearly . Data does not lie. They’re based on factual evidence and therefore if anyone keeps whining that you might be wrong, slap them with some hard data to keep their mouths shut.
- Add to or expand the current research . You can see what areas need improvement, as well as what details often go unnoticed while surfing through those little lines, dots or icons that appear on the data board.
Methods of Data Presentation and Examples
Imagine you have a delicious pepperoni, extra-cheese pizza. You can decide to cut it into the classic 8 triangle slices, the party style 12 square slices, or get creative and abstract on those slices.
There are various ways for cutting a pizza and you get the same variety with how you present your data. In this section, we will bring you the 10 ways to slice a pizza – we mean to present your data – that will make your company’s most important asset as clear as day. Let’s dive into 10 ways to present data efficiently.
#1 – Tabular
Among various types of data presentation, tabular is the most fundamental method, with data presented in rows and columns. Excel or Google Sheets would qualify for the job. Nothing fancy.
This is an example of a tabular presentation of data on Google Sheets. Each row and column has an attribute (year, region, revenue, etc.), and you can do a custom format to see the change in revenue throughout the year.
When presenting data as text, all you do is write your findings down in paragraphs and bullet points, and that’s it. A piece of cake to you, a tough nut to crack for whoever has to go through all of the reading to get to the point.
- 65% of email users worldwide access their email via a mobile device.
- Emails that are optimised for mobile generate 15% higher click-through rates.
- 56% of brands using emojis in their email subject lines had a higher open rate.
(Source: CustomerThermometer )
All the above quotes present statistical information in textual form. Since not many people like going through a wall of texts, you’ll have to figure out another route when deciding to use this method, such as breaking the data down into short, clear statements, or even as catchy puns if you’ve got the time to think of them.
A pie chart (or a ‘donut chart’ if you stick a hole in the middle of it) is a circle divided into slices that show the relative sizes of data within a whole. If you’re using it to show percentages, make sure all the slices add up to 100%.
The pie chart is a familiar face at every party and is usually recognised by most people. However, one setback of using this method is our eyes sometimes can’t identify the differences in slices of a circle, and it’s nearly impossible to compare similar slices from two different pie charts, making them the villains in the eyes of data analysts.
Bonus example: A literal ‘pie’ chart! 🥧
The bar chart is a chart that presents a bunch of items from the same category, usually in the form of rectangular bars that are placed at an equal distance from each other. Their heights or lengths depict the values they represent.
They can be as simple as this:
Or more complex and detailed like this example of presentation of data. Contributing to an effective statistic presentation, this one is a grouped bar chart that not only allows you to compare categories but also the groups within them as well.
Similar in appearance to the bar chart but the rectangular bars in histograms don’t often have the gap like their counterparts.
Instead of measuring categories like weather preferences or favourite films as a bar chart does, a histogram only measures things that can be put into numbers.
Teachers can use presentation graphs like a histogram to see which score group most of the students fall into, like in this example above.
Recordings to ways of displaying data, we shouldn’t overlook the effectiveness of line graphs. Line graphs are represented by a group of data points joined together by a straight line. There can be one or more lines to compare how several related things change over time.
On a line chart’s horizontal axis, you usually have text labels, dates or years, while the vertical axis usually represents the quantity (e.g.: budget, temperature or percentage).
A pictogram graph uses pictures or icons relating to the main topic to visualise a small dataset. The fun combination of colours and illustrations makes it a frequent use at schools.
Pictograms are a breath of fresh air if you want to stay away from the monotonous line chart or bar chart for a while. However, they can present a very limited amount of data and sometimes they are only there for displays and do not represent real statistics.
If presenting five or more variables in the form of a bar chart is too stuffy then you should try using a radar chart, which is one of the most creative ways to present data.
Radar charts show data in terms of how they compare to each other starting from the same point. Some also call them ‘spider charts’ because each aspect combined looks like a spider web.
Radar charts can be a great use for parents who’d like to compare their child’s grades with their peers to lower their self-esteem. You can see that each angular represents a subject with a score value ranging from 0 to 100. Each student’s score across 5 subjects is highlighted in a different colour.
If you think that this method of data presentation somehow feels familiar, then you’ve probably encountered one while playing Pokémon .
A heat map represents data density in colours. The bigger the number, the more colour intense that data will be represented.
Most U.S citizens would be familiar with this data presentation method in geography. For elections, many news outlets assign a specific colour code to a state, with blue representing one candidate and red representing the other. The shade of either blue or red in each state shows the strength of the overall vote in that state.
Another great thing you can use a heat map for is to map what visitors to your site click on. The more a particular section is clicked the ‘hotter’ the colour will turn, from blue to bright yellow to red.
If you present your data in dots instead of chunky bars, you’ll have a scatter plot.
A scatter plot is a grid with several inputs showing the relationship between two variables. It’s good at collecting seemingly random data and revealing some telling trends.
For example, in this graph, each dot shows the average daily temperature versus the number of beach visitors across several days. You can see that the dots get higher as the temperature increases, so it’s likely that hotter weather leads to more visitors.
5 Data Presentation Mistakes to Avoid
#1 – assume your audience understands what the numbers represent.
You may know all the behind-the-scenes of your data since you’ve worked with them for weeks, but your audience doesn’t.
Showing without telling only invites more and more questions from your audience, as they have to constantly make sense of your data, wasting the time of both sides as a result.
While showing your data presentations, you should tell them what the data are about before hitting them with waves of numbers first. You can use interactive activities such as polls , word clouds and Q&A sections to assess their understanding of the data and address any confusion beforehand.
#2 – Use the wrong type of chart
Charts such as pie charts must have a total of 100% so if your numbers accumulate to 193% like this example below, you’re definitely doing it wrong.
Before making a chart, ask yourself: what do I want to accomplish with my data? Do you want to see the relationship between the data sets, show the up and down trends of your data, or see how segments of one thing make up a whole?
Remember, clarity always comes first. Some data visualisations may look cool, but if they don’t fit your data, steer clear of them.
#3 – Make it 3D
3D is a fascinating graphical presentation example. The third dimension is cool, but full of risks.
Can you see what’s behind those red bars? Because we can’t either. You may think that 3D charts add more depth to the design, but they can create false perceptions as our eyes see 3D objects closer and bigger than they appear, not to mention they cannot be seen from multiple angles.
#4 – Use different types of charts to compare contents in the same category
This is like comparing a fish to a monkey. Your audience won’t be able to identify the differences and make an appropriate correlation between the two data sets.
Next time, stick to one type of data presentation only. Avoid the temptation of trying various data visualisation methods in one go and make your data as accessible as possible.
#5 – Bombard the audience with too much information
The goal of data presentation is to make complex topics much easier to understand, and if you’re bringing too much information to the table, you’re missing the point.
The more information you give, the more time it will take for your audience to process it all. If you want to make your data understandable and give your audience a chance to remember it, keep the information within it to an absolute minimum.
What are the Best Methods of Data Presentation?
Finally, which is the best way to present data?
The answer is…
There is none 😄 Each type of presentation has its own strengths and weaknesses and the one you choose greatly depends on what you’re trying to do.
- Go for a scatter plot if you’re exploring the relationship between different data values, like seeing whether the sales of ice cream go up because of the temperature or because people are just getting more hungry and greedy each day?
- Go for a line graph if you want to mark a trend over time.
- Go for a heat map if you like some fancy visualisation of the changes in a geographical location, or to see your visitors’ behaviour on your website.
- Go for a pie chart (especially in 3D) if you want to be shunned by others because it was never a good idea👇
Got a question? We've got answers.
What is chart presentation?
When can i use charts for presentation, why should use charts for presentation, what are the 4 graphical methods of presenting data.
A former event organiser on the ultimate quest - to help presenters create the juiciest online experiences and leave all attendees on a high note.
More from AhaSlides
Top 5 Easy-to-Follow Data Presentation Examples
You’ll agree when we say that poring through numbers is tedious at best and mentally exhausting at worst.
And this is where data presentation examples come in.
Charts come in and distill data into meaningful insights. And this saves tons of hours, which you can use to relax or execute other tasks. Besides, when creating data stories, you need charts that communicate insights with clarity.
There’re 5 solid and reliable data presentation methods: textual, statistical data presentation, measures of dispersion, tabular, and graphical data representation.
Besides, some of the tested and proven charts for data presentation include:
- Double Bar Graph
- Slope Chart
- Treemap Charts
- Radar Chart
- Sankey Chart
There’re visualization tools that produce simple, insightful, and ready-made data presentation charts. Yes, you read that right. These tools create charts that complement data stories seamlessly.
Remember, without visualizing data to extract insights, chances of creating a compelling narrative will go down.
Table of Content:
What is data presentation, top 5 data presentation examples:, how to generate sankey chart in excel for data presentation, importance of data presentation in business, benefits of data presentation, what are the top 5 methods of data presentation.
Data presentation is the process of using charts and graphs formats to display insights into data. The insights could be:
- Trend and patterns
Data Analysis and Data Presentation have a practical implementation in every possible field. It can range from academic studies, commercial, industrial , and marketing activities to professional practices .
In its raw form, data can be extremely complicated to decipher. Data presentation examples are an important step toward breaking down data into understandable charts or graphs.
You can use tools (which we’ll talk about later) to analyze raw data.
Once the required information is obtained from the data, the next logical step is to present the data in a graphical presentation.
The presentation is the key to success.
Once you’ve extracted actionable insights, you can craft a compelling data story. Keep reading because we’ll address the following in the coming section: the importance of data presentation in business.
Let’s take a look at the five data presentation examples below:
1. Double Bar Graph
A Double Bar Chart displays more than one data series in clustered horizontal columns.
Each data series shares the same axis labels, so horizontal bars are grouped by category.
Bars directly compare multiple series in a given category. The chart is amazingly easy to read and interpret, even for a non-technical audience.
2. Slope Chart
Slope Charts are simple graphs that quickly and directly show transitions, changes over time, absolute values, and even rankings .
Besides, they’re also called Slope Graphs.
This is one of the data presentation examples you can use to show the before and after story of variables in your data.
Slope Graphs can be useful when you have two time periods or points of comparison and want to show relative increases and decreases quickly across various categories between two data points.
Take a look at the table below. Can you provide coherent and actionable insights into the table below?
Notice the difference after visualizing the table. You can easily tell the performance of individual segments in:
- Macy’s Store
4. Radar Chart
Radar Chart is also known as Spider Chart or Spider Web Chart. A radar chart is very helpful to visualize the comparison between multiple categories and variables.
A radar Chart is one of the data presentation examples you can use to compare data of two different time ranges e.g. Current vs Previous. Radar Chart with different scales makes it easy for you to identify trends, patterns, and outliers in your data. You can also use Radar Chart to visualize the data of Polar graph equations.
5. Sankey Chart
You can use Sankey Chart to visualize data with flow-like attributes, such as material, energy, cost, etc.
This chart draws the reader’s attention to the enormous flows, the largest consumer, the major losses , and other insights.
The aforementioned visualization design is one of the data presentation examples that use links and nodes to uncover hidden insights into relationships between critical metrics.
The size of a node is directly proportionate to the quantity of the data point under review.
So how can you access the data presentation examples (highlighted above)?
Excel is one of the most used tools for visualizing data because it’s easy to use.
However, you cannot access ready-made and visually appealing data presentation charts for storytelling. But this does not mean you should ditch this freemium data visualization tool.
Did you know you can supercharge your Excel with add-ins to access visually stunning and ready-to-go data presentation charts?
Yes, you can increase the functionality of your Excel and access ready-made data presentation examples for your data stories.
The add-on we recommend you to use is ChartExpo.
What is ChartExpo?
We recommend this tool (ChartExpo) because it’s super easy to use.
You don’t need to take programming night classes to extract insights from your data. ChartExpo is more of a ‘drag-and-drop tool,’ which means you’ll only need to scroll your mouse and fill in respective metrics and dimensions in your data.
ChartExpo comes with a 7-day free trial period.
The tool produces charts that are incredibly easy to read and interpret . And it allows you to save charts in the world’s most recognized formats, namely PNG and JPG.
In the coming section, we’ll show you how to use ChartExpo to visualize your data with one of the data presentation examples (Sankey).
To install ChartExpo add-in into your Excel, click this link .
- Open your Excel and paste the table above.
- Click the My Apps button.
- Then select ChartExpo and click on INSERT, as shown below.
- Click the Search Box and type “Sankey Chart” .
- Once the chart pops up, click on its icon to get started.
- Select the sheet holding your data and click the Create Chart from Selection button.
How to Edit the Sankey Chart?
- Click the Edit Chart button, as shown above.
- Once the Chart Header Properties window shows, click the Line 1 box and fill in your title.
- To change the color of the nodes, click the pen-like icons on the nodes.
- Once the color window shows, select the Node Color and then the Apply button.
- Save your changes by clicking the Apply button.
- Check out the final chart below.
Data presentation examples are vital, especially when crafting data stories for the top management. Top management can use data presentation charts, such as Sankey, as a backdrop for their decision.
Presentation charts, maps, and graphs are powerful because they simplify data by making it understandable & readable at the same time. Besides, they make data stories compelling and irresistible to target audiences.
Big files with numbers are usually hard to read and make it difficult to spot patterns easily. However, many businesses believe that developing visual reports focused on creating stories around data is unnecessary; they think that the data alone should be sufficient for decision-making.
Visualizing supports this and lightens the decision-making process.
Luckily, there are innovative applications you can use to visualize all the data your company has into dashboards, graphs, and reports. Data visualization helps transform your numbers into an engaging story with details and patterns.
Check out more benefits of data presentation examples below:
1. Easy to understand
You can interpret vast quantities of data clearly and cohesively to draw insights, thanks to graphic representations.
Using data presentation examples, such as charts, managers and decision-makers can easily create and rapidly consume key metrics.
If any of the aforementioned metrics have anomalies — ie. sales are significantly down in one region — decision-makers will easily dig into the data to diagnose the problem.
2. Spot patterns
Data visualization can help you to do trend analysis and respond rapidly on the grounds of what you see.
Such patterns make more sense when graphically represented; because charts make it easier to identify correlated parameters.
3. Data Narratives
You can use data presentation charts, such as Sankey, to build dashboards and turn them into stories.
Data storytelling can help you connect with potential readers and audiences on an emotional level.
4. Speed up the decision-making process
We naturally process visual images 60,000 times faster than text. A graph, chart, or other visual representation of data is more comfortable for our brain to process.
Thanks to our ability to easily interpret visual content, data presentation examples can dramatically improve the speed of decision-making processes.
Take a look at the table below?
Can you give reliable insights into the table above?
Keep reading because we’ll explore easy-to-follow data presentation examples in the coming section. Also, we’ll address the following question: what are the top 5 methods of data presentation?
1. Textual Ways of Presenting Data
Out of the five data presentation examples, this is the simplest one.
Just write your findings coherently and your job is done. The demerit of this method is that one has to read the whole text to get a clear picture. Yes, you read that right.
The introduction, summary, and conclusion can help condense the information.
2. Statistical data presentation
Data on its own is less valuable. However, for it to be valuable to your business, it has to be:
No matter how well manipulated, the insights into raw data should be presented in an easy-to-follow sequence to keep the audience waiting for more.
Text is the principal method for explaining findings, outlining trends, and providing contextual information. A table is best suited for representing individual information and represents both quantitative and qualitative information.
On the other hand, a graph is a very effective visual tool because:
- It displays data at a glance
- Facilitates comparison
- Reveals trends, relationships, frequency distribution, and correlation
Text, tables, and graphs are incredibly effective data presentation examples you can leverage to curate persuasive data narratives.
3. Measure of Dispersion
Statistical dispersion is how a key metric is likely to deviate from the average value. In other words, dispersion can help you to understand the distribution of key data points.
There are two types of measures of dispersion, namely:
- Absolute Measure of Dispersion
- Relative Measure of Dispersion
4. Tabular Ways of Data Presentation and Analysis
To avoid the complexities associated with qualitative data, use tables and charts to display insights.
This is one of the data presentation examples where values are displayed in rows and columns. All rows and columns have an attribute (name, year, gender, and age).
5. Graphical Data Representation
Graphical representation uses charts and graphs to visually display, analyze, clarify, and interpret numerical data, functions, and other qualitative structures.
Data is ingested into charts and graphs, such as Sankey, and then represented by a variety of symbols, such as lines and bars.
Data presentation examples, such as Bar Charts , can help you illustrate trends, relationships, comparisons, and outliers between data points.
What is the main objective of data presentation?
Discovery and communication are the two key objectives of data presentation.
In the discovery phase, we recommend you try various charts and graphs to understand the insights into the raw data. The communication phase is focused on presenting the insights in a summarized form.
What is the importance of graphs and charts in business?
Big files with numbers are usually hard to read and make it difficult to spot patterns easily.
Presentation charts, maps, and graphs are vital because they simplify data by making it understandable & readable at the same time. Besides, they make data stories compelling and irresistible to target audiences.
Poring through numbers is tedious at best and mentally exhausting at worst.
This is where data presentation examples come into play.
Charts come in and distill data into meaningful insights. And this saves tons of hours, which you can use to handle other tasks. Besides, when creating data stories, it would be best if you had charts that communicate insights with clarity.
Excel, one of the popular tools for visualizing data, comes with very basic data presentation charts, which require a lot of editing.
We recommend you try ChartExpo because it’s one of the most trusted add-ins. Besides, it has a super-friendly user interface for everyone, irrespective of their computer skills.
Create simple, ready-made, and easy-to-interpret Bar Charts today without breaking a sweat.
How much did you enjoy this article?
How is Qualitative Data Analyzed?
Learn how qualitative data is analyzed in Excel and how it helps to generate hypotheses, identify patterns, and provide rich insights.
How to Make Multiple Line Graphs in Excel?
Click here to learn how to create multiple line graphs in Excel. You’ll also discover the different types of line charts and when to use them.
How to Make a Bar Graph With 3 Variables in Excel?
Learn to make Bar Graph with 3 variables in Excel. It will help to Track Data Changes, Track Organizational Growth Patterns and Data Comparison.
How to Create a Free Survey?
Learn how to create a free survey using online tools like Google Forms. You’ll also learn the best practices for creating surveys and analyzing the data.
Visualizing Quantitative and Qualitative Data Examples in Excel
Learn how to visualize quantitative and qualitative data examples in Excel. You’ll also understand the difference between these data types and how to analyze them.
Your Modern Business Guide To Data Analysis Methods And Techniques
Table of Contents
1) What Is Data Analysis?
2) Why Is Data Analysis Important?
3) What Is The Data Analysis Process?
4) Types Of Data Analysis Methods
5) Top Data Analysis Techniques To Apply
6) Quality Criteria For Data Analysis
7) Data Analysis Limitations & Barriers
8) Data Analysis Skills
9) Data Analysis In The Big Data Environment
In our data-rich age, understanding how to analyze and extract true meaning from our business’s digital insights is one of the primary drivers of success.
Despite the colossal volume of data we create every day, a mere 0.5% is actually analyzed and used for data discovery , improvement, and intelligence. While that may not seem like much, considering the amount of digital information we have at our fingertips, half a percent still accounts for a vast amount of data.
With so much data and so little time, knowing how to collect, curate, organize, and make sense of all of this potentially business-boosting information can be a minefield – but online data analysis is the solution.
In science, data analysis uses a more complex approach with advanced techniques to explore and experiment with data. On the other hand, in a business context, data is used to make data-driven decisions that will enable the company to improve its overall performance. In this post, we will cover the analysis of data from an organizational point of view while still going through the scientific and statistical foundations that are fundamental to understanding the basics of data analysis.
To put all of that into perspective, we will answer a host of important analytical questions, explore analytical methods and techniques, while demonstrating how to perform analysis in the real world with a 17-step blueprint for success.
What Is Data Analysis?
Data analysis is the process of collecting, modeling, and analyzing data using various statistical and logical methods and techniques. Businesses rely on analytics processes and tools to extract insights that support strategic and operational decision-making.
All these various methods are largely based on two core areas: quantitative and qualitative research.
To explain the key differences between qualitative and quantitative research, here’s a video for your viewing pleasure:
Gaining a better understanding of different techniques and methods in quantitative research as well as qualitative insights will give your analyzing efforts a more clearly defined direction, so it’s worth taking the time to allow this particular knowledge to sink in. Additionally, you will be able to create a comprehensive analytical report that will skyrocket your analysis.
Apart from qualitative and quantitative categories, there are also other types of data that you should be aware of before dividing into complex data analysis processes. These categories include:
- Big data: Refers to massive data sets that need to be analyzed using advanced software to reveal patterns and trends. It is considered to be one of the best analytical assets as it provides larger volumes of data at a faster rate.
- Metadata: Putting it simply, metadata is data that provides insights about other data. It summarizes key information about specific data that makes it easier to find and reuse for later purposes.
- Real time data: As its name suggests, real time data is presented as soon as it is acquired. From an organizational perspective, this is the most valuable data as it can help you make important decisions based on the latest developments. Our guide on real time analytics will tell you more about the topic.
- Machine data: This is more complex data that is generated solely by a machine such as phones, computers, or even websites and embedded systems, without previous human interaction.
Why Is Data Analysis Important?
Before we go into detail about the categories of analysis along with its methods and techniques, you must understand the potential that analyzing data can bring to your organization.
- Informed decision-making : From a management perspective, you can benefit from analyzing your data as it helps you make decisions based on facts and not simple intuition. For instance, you can understand where to invest your capital, detect growth opportunities, predict your income, or tackle uncommon situations before they become problems. Through this, you can extract relevant insights from all areas in your organization, and with the help of dashboard software , present the data in a professional and interactive way to different stakeholders.
- Reduce costs : Another great benefit is to reduce costs. With the help of advanced technologies such as predictive analytics, businesses can spot improvement opportunities, trends, and patterns in their data and plan their strategies accordingly. In time, this will help you save money and resources on implementing the wrong strategies. And not just that, by predicting different scenarios such as sales and demand you can also anticipate production and supply.
- Target customers better : Customers are arguably the most crucial element in any business. By using analytics to get a 360° vision of all aspects related to your customers, you can understand which channels they use to communicate with you, their demographics, interests, habits, purchasing behaviors, and more. In the long run, it will drive success to your marketing strategies, allow you to identify new potential customers, and avoid wasting resources on targeting the wrong people or sending the wrong message. You can also track customer satisfaction by analyzing your client’s reviews or your customer service department’s performance.
What Is The Data Analysis Process?
When we talk about analyzing data there is an order to follow in order to extract the needed conclusions. The analysis process consists of 5 key stages. We will cover each of them more in detail later in the post, but to start providing the needed context to understand what is coming next, here is a rundown of the 5 essential steps of data analysis.
- Identify: Before you get your hands dirty with data, you first need to identify why you need it in the first place. The identification is the stage in which you establish the questions you will need to answer. For example, what is the customer's perception of our brand? Or what type of packaging is more engaging to our potential customers? Once the questions are outlined you are ready for the next step.
- Collect: As its name suggests, this is the stage where you start collecting the needed data. Here, you define which sources of data you will use and how you will use them. The collection of data can come in different forms such as internal or external sources, surveys, interviews, questionnaires, and focus groups, among others. An important note here is that the way you collect the data will be different in a quantitative and qualitative scenario.
- Clean: Once you have the necessary data it is time to clean it and leave it ready for analysis. Not all the data you collect will be useful, when collecting big amounts of data in different formats it is very likely that you will find yourself with duplicate or badly formatted data. To avoid this, before you start working with your data you need to make sure to erase any white spaces, duplicate records, or formatting errors. This way you avoid hurting your analysis with bad-quality data.
- Analyze : With the help of various techniques such as statistical analysis, regressions, neural networks, text analysis, and more, you can start analyzing and manipulating your data to extract relevant conclusions. At this stage, you find trends, correlations, variations, and patterns that can help you answer the questions you first thought of in the identify stage. Various technologies in the market assist researchers and average users with the management of their data. Some of them include business intelligence and visualization software, predictive analytics, and data mining, among others.
- Interpret: Last but not least you have one of the most important steps: it is time to interpret your results. This stage is where the researcher comes up with courses of action based on the findings. For example, here you would understand if your clients prefer packaging that is red or green, plastic or paper, etc. Additionally, at this stage, you can also find some limitations and work on them.
Now that you have a basic understanding of the key data analysis steps, let’s look at the top 17 essential methods.
17 Essential Types Of Data Analysis Methods
Before diving into the 17 essential types of methods, it is important that we go over really fast through the main analysis categories. Starting with the category of descriptive up to prescriptive analysis, the complexity and effort of data evaluation increases, but also the added value for the company.
a) Descriptive analysis - What happened.
The descriptive analysis method is the starting point for any analytic reflection, and it aims to answer the question of what happened? It does this by ordering, manipulating, and interpreting raw data from various sources to turn it into valuable insights for your organization.
Performing descriptive analysis is essential, as it enables us to present our insights in a meaningful way. Although it is relevant to mention that this analysis on its own will not allow you to predict future outcomes or tell you the answer to questions like why something happened, it will leave your data organized and ready to conduct further investigations.
b) Exploratory analysis - How to explore data relationships.
As its name suggests, the main aim of the exploratory analysis is to explore. Prior to it, there is still no notion of the relationship between the data and the variables. Once the data is investigated, exploratory analysis helps you to find connections and generate hypotheses and solutions for specific problems. A typical area of application for it is data mining.
c) Diagnostic analysis - Why it happened.
Diagnostic data analytics empowers analysts and executives by helping them gain a firm contextual understanding of why something happened. If you know why something happened as well as how it happened, you will be able to pinpoint the exact ways of tackling the issue or challenge.
Designed to provide direct and actionable answers to specific questions, this is one of the world’s most important methods in research, among its other key organizational functions such as retail analytics , e.g.
c) Predictive analysis - What will happen.
The predictive method allows you to look into the future to answer the question: what will happen? In order to do this, it uses the results of the previously mentioned descriptive, exploratory, and diagnostic analysis, in addition to machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI). Through this, you can uncover future trends, potential problems or inefficiencies, connections, and casualties in your data.
With predictive analysis, you can unfold and develop initiatives that will not only enhance your various operational processes but also help you gain an all-important edge over the competition. If you understand why a trend, pattern, or event happened through data, you will be able to develop an informed projection of how things may unfold in particular areas of the business.
e) Prescriptive analysis - How will it happen.
Another of the most effective types of analysis methods in research. Prescriptive data techniques cross over from predictive analysis in the way that it revolves around using patterns or trends to develop responsive, practical business strategies.
By drilling down into prescriptive analysis, you will play an active role in the data consumption process by taking well-arranged sets of visual data and using it as a powerful fix to emerging issues in a number of key areas, including marketing, sales, customer experience, HR, fulfillment, finance, logistics analytics , and others.
As mentioned at the beginning of the post, data analysis methods can be divided into two big categories: quantitative and qualitative. Each of these categories holds a powerful analytical value that changes depending on the scenario and type of data you are working with. Below, we will discuss 17 methods that are divided into qualitative and quantitative approaches.
Without further ado, here are the 17 essential types of data analysis methods with some use cases in the business world:
A. Quantitative Methods
To put it simply, quantitative analysis refers to all methods that use numerical data or data that can be turned into numbers (e.g. category variables like gender, age, etc.) to extract valuable insights. It is used to extract valuable conclusions about relationships, differences, and test hypotheses. Below we discuss some of the key quantitative methods.
1. Cluster analysis
The action of grouping a set of data elements in a way that said elements are more similar (in a particular sense) to each other than to those in other groups – hence the term ‘cluster.’ Since there is no target variable when clustering, the method is often used to find hidden patterns in the data. The approach is also used to provide additional context to a trend or dataset.
Let's look at it from an organizational perspective. In a perfect world, marketers would be able to analyze each customer separately and give them the best-personalized service, but let's face it, with a large customer base, it is timely impossible to do that. That's where clustering comes in. By grouping customers into clusters based on demographics, purchasing behaviors, monetary value, or any other factor that might be relevant for your company, you will be able to immediately optimize your efforts and give your customers the best experience based on their needs.
2. Cohort analysis
This type of data analysis approach uses historical data to examine and compare a determined segment of users' behavior, which can then be grouped with others with similar characteristics. By using this methodology, it's possible to gain a wealth of insight into consumer needs or a firm understanding of a broader target group.
Cohort analysis can be really useful for performing analysis in marketing as it will allow you to understand the impact of your campaigns on specific groups of customers. To exemplify, imagine you send an email campaign encouraging customers to sign up for your site. For this, you create two versions of the campaign with different designs, CTAs, and ad content. Later on, you can use cohort analysis to track the performance of the campaign for a longer period of time and understand which type of content is driving your customers to sign up, repurchase, or engage in other ways.
A useful tool to start performing cohort analysis method is Google Analytics. You can learn more about the benefits and limitations of using cohorts in GA in this useful guide . In the bottom image, you see an example of how you visualize a cohort in this tool. The segments (devices traffic) are divided into date cohorts (usage of devices) and then analyzed week by week to extract insights into performance.
3. Regression analysis
Regression uses historical data to understand how a dependent variable's value is affected when one (linear regression) or more independent variables (multiple regression) change or stay the same. By understanding each variable's relationship and how it developed in the past, you can anticipate possible outcomes and make better decisions in the future.
Let's bring it down with an example. Imagine you did a regression analysis of your sales in 2019 and discovered that variables like product quality, store design, customer service, marketing campaigns, and sales channels affected the overall result. Now you want to use regression to analyze which of these variables changed or if any new ones appeared during 2020. For example, you couldn’t sell as much in your physical store due to COVID lockdowns. Therefore, your sales could’ve either dropped in general or increased in your online channels. Through this, you can understand which independent variables affected the overall performance of your dependent variable, annual sales.
If you want to go deeper into this type of analysis, check out this article and learn more about how you can benefit from regression.
4. Neural networks
The neural network forms the basis for the intelligent algorithms of machine learning. It is a form of analytics that attempts, with minimal intervention, to understand how the human brain would generate insights and predict values. Neural networks learn from each and every data transaction, meaning that they evolve and advance over time.
A typical area of application for neural networks is predictive analytics. There are BI reporting tools that have this feature implemented within them, such as the Predictive Analytics Tool from datapine. This tool enables users to quickly and easily generate all kinds of predictions. All you have to do is select the data to be processed based on your KPIs, and the software automatically calculates forecasts based on historical and current data. Thanks to its user-friendly interface, anyone in your organization can manage it; there’s no need to be an advanced scientist.
Here is an example of how you can use the predictive analysis tool from datapine:
**click to enlarge**
5. Factor analysis
The factor analysis also called “dimension reduction” is a type of data analysis used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors. The aim here is to uncover independent latent variables, an ideal method for streamlining specific segments.
A good way to understand this data analysis method is a customer evaluation of a product. The initial assessment is based on different variables like color, shape, wearability, current trends, materials, comfort, the place where they bought the product, and frequency of usage. Like this, the list can be endless, depending on what you want to track. In this case, factor analysis comes into the picture by summarizing all of these variables into homogenous groups, for example, by grouping the variables color, materials, quality, and trends into a brother latent variable of design.
If you want to start analyzing data using factor analysis we recommend you take a look at this practical guide from UCLA.
6. Data mining
A method of data analysis that is the umbrella term for engineering metrics and insights for additional value, direction, and context. By using exploratory statistical evaluation, data mining aims to identify dependencies, relations, patterns, and trends to generate advanced knowledge. When considering how to analyze data, adopting a data mining mindset is essential to success - as such, it’s an area that is worth exploring in greater detail.
An excellent use case of data mining is datapine intelligent data alerts . With the help of artificial intelligence and machine learning, they provide automated signals based on particular commands or occurrences within a dataset. For example, if you’re monitoring supply chain KPIs , you could set an intelligent alarm to trigger when invalid or low-quality data appears. By doing so, you will be able to drill down deep into the issue and fix it swiftly and effectively.
In the following picture, you can see how the intelligent alarms from datapine work. By setting up ranges on daily orders, sessions, and revenues, the alarms will notify you if the goal was not completed or if it exceeded expectations.
7. Time series analysis
As its name suggests, time series analysis is used to analyze a set of data points collected over a specified period of time. Although analysts use this method to monitor the data points in a specific interval of time rather than just monitoring them intermittently, the time series analysis is not uniquely used for the purpose of collecting data over time. Instead, it allows researchers to understand if variables changed during the duration of the study, how the different variables are dependent, and how did it reach the end result.
In a business context, this method is used to understand the causes of different trends and patterns to extract valuable insights. Another way of using this method is with the help of time series forecasting. Powered by predictive technologies, businesses can analyze various data sets over a period of time and forecast different future events.
A great use case to put time series analysis into perspective is seasonality effects on sales. By using time series forecasting to analyze sales data of a specific product over time, you can understand if sales rise over a specific period of time (e.g. swimwear during summertime, or candy during Halloween). These insights allow you to predict demand and prepare production accordingly.
8. Decision Trees
The decision tree analysis aims to act as a support tool to make smart and strategic decisions. By visually displaying potential outcomes, consequences, and costs in a tree-like model, researchers and company users can easily evaluate all factors involved and choose the best course of action. Decision trees are helpful to analyze quantitative data and they allow for an improved decision-making process by helping you spot improvement opportunities, reduce costs, and enhance operational efficiency and production.
But how does a decision tree actually works? This method works like a flowchart that starts with the main decision that you need to make and branches out based on the different outcomes and consequences of each decision. Each outcome will outline its own consequences, costs, and gains and, at the end of the analysis, you can compare each of them and make the smartest decision.
Businesses can use them to understand which project is more cost-effective and will bring more earnings in the long run. For example, imagine you need to decide if you want to update your software app or build a new app entirely. Here you would compare the total costs, the time needed to be invested, potential revenue, and any other factor that might affect your decision. In the end, you would be able to see which of these two options is more realistic and attainable for your company or research.
9. Conjoint analysis
Last but not least, we have the conjoint analysis. This approach is usually used in surveys to understand how individuals value different attributes of a product or service and it is one of the most effective methods to extract consumer preferences. When it comes to purchasing, some clients might be more price-focused, others more features-focused, and others might have a sustainable focus. Whatever your customer's preferences are, you can find them with conjoint analysis. Through this, companies can define pricing strategies, packaging options, subscription packages, and more.
A great example of conjoint analysis is in marketing and sales. For instance, a cupcake brand might use conjoint analysis and find that its clients prefer gluten-free options and cupcakes with healthier toppings over super sugary ones. Thus, the cupcake brand can turn these insights into advertisements and promotions to increase sales of this particular type of product. And not just that, conjoint analysis can also help businesses segment their customers based on their interests. This allows them to send different messaging that will bring value to each of the segments.
10. Correspondence Analysis
Also known as reciprocal averaging, correspondence analysis is a method used to analyze the relationship between categorical variables presented within a contingency table. A contingency table is a table that displays two (simple correspondence analysis) or more (multiple correspondence analysis) categorical variables across rows and columns that show the distribution of the data, which is usually answers to a survey or questionnaire on a specific topic.
This method starts by calculating an “expected value” which is done by multiplying row and column averages and dividing it by the overall original value of the specific table cell. The “expected value” is then subtracted from the original value resulting in a “residual number” which is what allows you to extract conclusions about relationships and distribution. The results of this analysis are later displayed using a map that represents the relationship between the different values. The closest two values are in the map, the bigger the relationship. Let’s put it into perspective with an example.
Imagine you are carrying out a market research analysis about outdoor clothing brands and how they are perceived by the public. For this analysis, you ask a group of people to match each brand with a certain attribute which can be durability, innovation, quality materials, etc. When calculating the residual numbers, you can see that brand A has a positive residual for innovation but a negative one for durability. This means that brand A is not positioned as a durable brand in the market, something that competitors could take advantage of.
11. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS)
MDS is a method used to observe the similarities or disparities between objects which can be colors, brands, people, geographical coordinates, and more. The objects are plotted using an “MDS map” that positions similar objects together and disparate ones far apart. The (dis) similarities between objects are represented using one or more dimensions that can be observed using a numerical scale. For example, if you want to know how people feel about the COVID-19 vaccine, you can use 1 for “don’t believe in the vaccine at all” and 10 for “firmly believe in the vaccine” and a scale of 2 to 9 for in between responses. When analyzing an MDS map the only thing that matters is the distance between the objects, the orientation of the dimensions is arbitrary and has no meaning at all.
Multidimensional scaling is a valuable technique for market research, especially when it comes to evaluating product or brand positioning. For instance, if a cupcake brand wants to know how they are positioned compared to competitors, it can define 2-3 dimensions such as taste, ingredients, shopping experience, or more, and do a multidimensional scaling analysis to find improvement opportunities as well as areas in which competitors are currently leading.
Another business example is in procurement when deciding on different suppliers. Decision makers can generate an MDS map to see how the different prices, delivery times, technical services, and more of the different suppliers differ and pick the one that suits their needs the best.
A final example proposed by a research paper on "An Improved Study of Multilevel Semantic Network Visualization for Analyzing Sentiment Word of Movie Review Data". Researchers picked a two-dimensional MDS map to display the distances and relationships between different sentiments in movie reviews. They used 36 sentiment words and distributed them based on their emotional distance as we can see in the image below where the words "outraged" and "sweet" are on opposite sides of the map, marking the distance between the two emotions very clearly.
Aside from being a valuable technique to analyze dissimilarities, MDS also serves as a dimension-reduction technique for large dimensional data.
B. Qualitative Methods
Qualitative data analysis methods are defined as the observation of non-numerical data that is gathered and produced using methods of observation such as interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and more. As opposed to quantitative methods, qualitative data is more subjective and highly valuable in analyzing customer retention and product development.
12. Text analysis
Text analysis, also known in the industry as text mining, works by taking large sets of textual data and arranging them in a way that makes it easier to manage. By working through this cleansing process in stringent detail, you will be able to extract the data that is truly relevant to your organization and use it to develop actionable insights that will propel you forward.
Modern software accelerate the application of text analytics. Thanks to the combination of machine learning and intelligent algorithms, you can perform advanced analytical processes such as sentiment analysis. This technique allows you to understand the intentions and emotions of a text, for example, if it's positive, negative, or neutral, and then give it a score depending on certain factors and categories that are relevant to your brand. Sentiment analysis is often used to monitor brand and product reputation and to understand how successful your customer experience is. To learn more about the topic check out this insightful article .
By analyzing data from various word-based sources, including product reviews, articles, social media communications, and survey responses, you will gain invaluable insights into your audience, as well as their needs, preferences, and pain points. This will allow you to create campaigns, services, and communications that meet your prospects’ needs on a personal level, growing your audience while boosting customer retention. There are various other “sub-methods” that are an extension of text analysis. Each of them serves a more specific purpose and we will look at them in detail next.
13. Content Analysis
This is a straightforward and very popular method that examines the presence and frequency of certain words, concepts, and subjects in different content formats such as text, image, audio, or video. For example, the number of times the name of a celebrity is mentioned on social media or online tabloids. It does this by coding text data that is later categorized and tabulated in a way that can provide valuable insights, making it the perfect mix of quantitative and qualitative analysis.
There are two types of content analysis. The first one is the conceptual analysis which focuses on explicit data, for instance, the number of times a concept or word is mentioned in a piece of content. The second one is relational analysis, which focuses on the relationship between different concepts or words and how they are connected within a specific context.
Content analysis is often used by marketers to measure brand reputation and customer behavior. For example, by analyzing customer reviews. It can also be used to analyze customer interviews and find directions for new product development. It is also important to note, that in order to extract the maximum potential out of this analysis method, it is necessary to have a clearly defined research question.
14. Thematic Analysis
Very similar to content analysis, thematic analysis also helps in identifying and interpreting patterns in qualitative data with the main difference being that the first one can also be applied to quantitative analysis. The thematic method analyzes large pieces of text data such as focus group transcripts or interviews and groups them into themes or categories that come up frequently within the text. It is a great method when trying to figure out peoples view’s and opinions about a certain topic. For example, if you are a brand that cares about sustainability, you can do a survey of your customers to analyze their views and opinions about sustainability and how they apply it to their lives. You can also analyze customer service calls transcripts to find common issues and improve your service.
Thematic analysis is a very subjective technique that relies on the researcher’s judgment. Therefore, to avoid biases, it has 6 steps that include familiarization, coding, generating themes, reviewing themes, defining and naming themes, and writing up. It is also important to note that, because it is a flexible approach, the data can be interpreted in multiple ways and it can be hard to select what data is more important to emphasize.
15. Narrative Analysis
A bit more complex in nature than the two previous ones, narrative analysis is used to explore the meaning behind the stories that people tell and most importantly, how they tell them. By looking into the words that people use to describe a situation you can extract valuable conclusions about their perspective on a specific topic. Common sources for narrative data include autobiographies, family stories, opinion pieces, and testimonials, among others.
From a business perspective, narrative analysis can be useful to analyze customer behaviors and feelings towards a specific product, service, feature, or others. It provides unique and deep insights that can be extremely valuable. However, it has some drawbacks.
The biggest weakness of this method is that the sample sizes are usually very small due to the complexity and time-consuming nature of the collection of narrative data. Plus, the way a subject tells a story will be significantly influenced by his or her specific experiences, making it very hard to replicate in a subsequent study.
16. Discourse Analysis
Discourse analysis is used to understand the meaning behind any type of written, verbal, or symbolic discourse based on its political, social, or cultural context. It mixes the analysis of languages and situations together. This means that the way the content is constructed and the meaning behind it is significantly influenced by the culture and society it takes place in. For example, if you are analyzing political speeches you need to consider different context elements such as the politician's background, the current political context of the country, the audience to which the speech is directed, and so on.
From a business point of view, discourse analysis is a great market research tool. It allows marketers to understand how the norms and ideas of the specific market work and how their customers relate to those ideas. It can be very useful to build a brand mission or develop a unique tone of voice.
17. Grounded Theory Analysis
Traditionally, researchers decide on a method and hypothesis and start to collect the data to prove that hypothesis. The grounded theory is the only method that doesn’t require an initial research question or hypothesis as its value lies in the generation of new theories. With the grounded theory method, you can go into the analysis process with an open mind and explore the data to generate new theories through tests and revisions. In fact, it is not necessary to collect the data and then start to analyze it. Researchers usually start to find valuable insights as they are gathering the data.
All of these elements make grounded theory a very valuable method as theories are fully backed by data instead of initial assumptions. It is a great technique to analyze poorly researched topics or find the causes behind specific company outcomes. For example, product managers and marketers might use the grounded theory to find the causes of high levels of customer churn and look into customer surveys and reviews to develop new theories about the causes.
How To Analyze Data? Top 17 Data Analysis Techniques To Apply
Now that we’ve answered the questions “what is data analysis’”, why is it important, and covered the different data analysis types, it’s time to dig deeper into how to perform your analysis by working through these 17 essential techniques.
1. Collaborate your needs
Before you begin analyzing or drilling down into any techniques, it’s crucial to sit down collaboratively with all key stakeholders within your organization, decide on your primary campaign or strategic goals, and gain a fundamental understanding of the types of insights that will best benefit your progress or provide you with the level of vision you need to evolve your organization.
2. Establish your questions
Once you’ve outlined your core objectives, you should consider which questions will need answering to help you achieve your mission. This is one of the most important techniques as it will shape the very foundations of your success.
To help you ask the right things and ensure your data works for you, you have to ask the right data analysis questions .
3. Data democratization
After giving your data analytics methodology some real direction, and knowing which questions need answering to extract optimum value from the information available to your organization, you should continue with democratization.
Data democratization is an action that aims to connect data from various sources efficiently and quickly so that anyone in your organization can access it at any given moment. You can extract data in text, images, videos, numbers, or any other format. And then perform cross-database analysis to achieve more advanced insights to share with the rest of the company interactively.
Once you have decided on your most valuable sources, you need to take all of this into a structured format to start collecting your insights. For this purpose, datapine offers an easy all-in-one data connectors feature to integrate all your internal and external sources and manage them at your will. Additionally, datapine’s end-to-end solution automatically updates your data, allowing you to save time and focus on performing the right analysis to grow your company.
4. Think of governance
When collecting data in a business or research context you always need to think about security and privacy. With data breaches becoming a topic of concern for businesses, the need to protect your client's or subject’s sensitive information becomes critical.
To ensure that all this is taken care of, you need to think of a data governance strategy. According to Gartner , this concept refers to “ the specification of decision rights and an accountability framework to ensure the appropriate behavior in the valuation, creation, consumption, and control of data and analytics .” In simpler words, data governance is a collection of processes, roles, and policies, that ensure the efficient use of data while still achieving the main company goals. It ensures that clear roles are in place for who can access the information and how they can access it. In time, this not only ensures that sensitive information is protected but also allows for an efficient analysis as a whole.
5. Clean your data
After harvesting from so many sources you will be left with a vast amount of information that can be overwhelming to deal with. At the same time, you can be faced with incorrect data that can be misleading to your analysis. The smartest thing you can do to avoid dealing with this in the future is to clean the data. This is fundamental before visualizing it, as it will ensure that the insights you extract from it are correct.
There are many things that you need to look for in the cleaning process. The most important one is to eliminate any duplicate observations; this usually appears when using multiple internal and external sources of information. You can also add any missing codes, fix empty fields, and eliminate incorrectly formatted data.
Another usual form of cleaning is done with text data. As we mentioned earlier, most companies today analyze customer reviews, social media comments, questionnaires, and several other text inputs. In order for algorithms to detect patterns, text data needs to be revised to avoid invalid characters or any syntax or spelling errors.
Most importantly, the aim of cleaning is to prevent you from arriving at false conclusions that can damage your company in the long run. By using clean data, you will also help BI solutions to interact better with your information and create better reports for your organization.
6. Set your KPIs
Once you’ve set your sources, cleaned your data, and established clear-cut questions you want your insights to answer, you need to set a host of key performance indicators (KPIs) that will help you track, measure, and shape your progress in a number of key areas.
KPIs are critical to both qualitative and quantitative analysis research. This is one of the primary methods of data analysis you certainly shouldn’t overlook.
To help you set the best possible KPIs for your initiatives and activities, here is an example of a relevant logistics KPI : transportation-related costs. If you want to see more go explore our collection of key performance indicator examples .
7. Omit useless data
Having bestowed your data analysis tools and techniques with true purpose and defined your mission, you should explore the raw data you’ve collected from all sources and use your KPIs as a reference for chopping out any information you deem to be useless.
Trimming the informational fat is one of the most crucial methods of analysis as it will allow you to focus your analytical efforts and squeeze every drop of value from the remaining ‘lean’ information.
Any stats, facts, figures, or metrics that don’t align with your business goals or fit with your KPI management strategies should be eliminated from the equation.
8. Build a data management roadmap
While, at this point, this particular step is optional (you will have already gained a wealth of insight and formed a fairly sound strategy by now), creating a data governance roadmap will help your data analysis methods and techniques become successful on a more sustainable basis. These roadmaps, if developed properly, are also built so they can be tweaked and scaled over time.
Invest ample time in developing a roadmap that will help you store, manage, and handle your data internally, and you will make your analysis techniques all the more fluid and functional – one of the most powerful types of data analysis methods available today.
9. Integrate technology
There are many ways to analyze data, but one of the most vital aspects of analytical success in a business context is integrating the right decision support software and technology.
Robust analysis platforms will not only allow you to pull critical data from your most valuable sources while working with dynamic KPIs that will offer you actionable insights; it will also present them in a digestible, visual, interactive format from one central, live dashboard . A data methodology you can count on.
By integrating the right technology within your data analysis methodology, you’ll avoid fragmenting your insights, saving you time and effort while allowing you to enjoy the maximum value from your business’s most valuable insights.
For a look at the power of software for the purpose of analysis and to enhance your methods of analyzing, glance over our selection of dashboard examples .
10. Answer your questions
By considering each of the above efforts, working with the right technology, and fostering a cohesive internal culture where everyone buys into the different ways to analyze data as well as the power of digital intelligence, you will swiftly start to answer your most burning business questions. Arguably, the best way to make your data concepts accessible across the organization is through data visualization.
11. Visualize your data
Online data visualization is a powerful tool as it lets you tell a story with your metrics, allowing users across the organization to extract meaningful insights that aid business evolution – and it covers all the different ways to analyze data.
The purpose of analyzing is to make your entire organization more informed and intelligent, and with the right platform or dashboard, this is simpler than you think, as demonstrated by our marketing dashboard .
This visual, dynamic, and interactive online dashboard is a data analysis example designed to give Chief Marketing Officers (CMO) an overview of relevant metrics to help them understand if they achieved their monthly goals.
In detail, this example generated with a modern dashboard creator displays interactive charts for monthly revenues, costs, net income, and net income per customer; all of them are compared with the previous month so that you can understand how the data fluctuated. In addition, it shows a detailed summary of the number of users, customers, SQLs, and MQLs per month to visualize the whole picture and extract relevant insights or trends for your marketing reports .
The CMO dashboard is perfect for c-level management as it can help them monitor the strategic outcome of their marketing efforts and make data-driven decisions that can benefit the company exponentially.
12. Be careful with the interpretation
We already dedicated an entire post to data interpretation as it is a fundamental part of the process of data analysis. It gives meaning to the analytical information and aims to drive a concise conclusion from the analysis results. Since most of the time companies are dealing with data from many different sources, the interpretation stage needs to be done carefully and properly in order to avoid misinterpretations.
To help you through the process, here we list three common practices that you need to avoid at all costs when looking at your data:
- Correlation vs. causation: The human brain is formatted to find patterns. This behavior leads to one of the most common mistakes when performing interpretation: confusing correlation with causation. Although these two aspects can exist simultaneously, it is not correct to assume that because two things happened together, one provoked the other. A piece of advice to avoid falling into this mistake is never to trust just intuition, trust the data. If there is no objective evidence of causation, then always stick to correlation.
- Confirmation bias: This phenomenon describes the tendency to select and interpret only the data necessary to prove one hypothesis, often ignoring the elements that might disprove it. Even if it's not done on purpose, confirmation bias can represent a real problem, as excluding relevant information can lead to false conclusions and, therefore, bad business decisions. To avoid it, always try to disprove your hypothesis instead of proving it, share your analysis with other team members, and avoid drawing any conclusions before the entire analytical project is finalized.
- Statistical significance: To put it in short words, statistical significance helps analysts understand if a result is actually accurate or if it happened because of a sampling error or pure chance. The level of statistical significance needed might depend on the sample size and the industry being analyzed. In any case, ignoring the significance of a result when it might influence decision-making can be a huge mistake.
13. Build a narrative
Now, we’re going to look at how you can bring all of these elements together in a way that will benefit your business - starting with a little something called data storytelling.
The human brain responds incredibly well to strong stories or narratives. Once you’ve cleansed, shaped, and visualized your most invaluable data using various BI dashboard tools , you should strive to tell a story - one with a clear-cut beginning, middle, and end.
By doing so, you will make your analytical efforts more accessible, digestible, and universal, empowering more people within your organization to use your discoveries to their actionable advantage.
14. Consider autonomous technology
Autonomous technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML), play a significant role in the advancement of understanding how to analyze data more effectively.
Gartner predicts that by the end of this year, 80% of emerging technologies will be developed with AI foundations. This is a testament to the ever-growing power and value of autonomous technologies.
At the moment, these technologies are revolutionizing the analysis industry. Some examples that we mentioned earlier are neural networks, intelligent alarms, and sentiment analysis.
15. Share the load
If you work with the right tools and dashboards, you will be able to present your metrics in a digestible, value-driven format, allowing almost everyone in the organization to connect with and use relevant data to their advantage.
Modern dashboards consolidate data from various sources, providing access to a wealth of insights in one centralized location, no matter if you need to monitor recruitment metrics or generate reports that need to be sent across numerous departments. Moreover, these cutting-edge tools offer access to dashboards from a multitude of devices, meaning that everyone within the business can connect with practical insights remotely - and share the load.
Once everyone is able to work with a data-driven mindset, you will catalyze the success of your business in ways you never thought possible. And when it comes to knowing how to analyze data, this kind of collaborative approach is essential.
16. Data analysis tools
In order to perform high-quality analysis of data, it is fundamental to use tools and software that will ensure the best results. Here we leave you a small summary of four fundamental categories of data analysis tools for your organization.
- Business Intelligence: BI tools allow you to process significant amounts of data from several sources in any format. Through this, you can not only analyze and monitor your data to extract relevant insights but also create interactive reports and dashboards to visualize your KPIs and use them for your company's good. datapine is an amazing online BI software that is focused on delivering powerful online analysis features that are accessible to beginner and advanced users. Like this, it offers a full-service solution that includes cutting-edge analysis of data, KPIs visualization, live dashboards, reporting, and artificial intelligence technologies to predict trends and minimize risk.
- Statistical analysis: These tools are usually designed for scientists, statisticians, market researchers, and mathematicians, as they allow them to perform complex statistical analyses with methods like regression analysis, predictive analysis, and statistical modeling. A good tool to perform this type of analysis is R-Studio as it offers a powerful data modeling and hypothesis testing feature that can cover both academic and general data analysis. This tool is one of the favorite ones in the industry, due to its capability for data cleaning, data reduction, and performing advanced analysis with several statistical methods. Another relevant tool to mention is SPSS from IBM. The software offers advanced statistical analysis for users of all skill levels. Thanks to a vast library of machine learning algorithms, text analysis, and a hypothesis testing approach it can help your company find relevant insights to drive better decisions. SPSS also works as a cloud service that enables you to run it anywhere.
- SQL Consoles: SQL is a programming language often used to handle structured data in relational databases. Tools like these are popular among data scientists as they are extremely effective in unlocking these databases' value. Undoubtedly, one of the most used SQL software in the market is MySQL Workbench . This tool offers several features such as a visual tool for database modeling and monitoring, complete SQL optimization, administration tools, and visual performance dashboards to keep track of KPIs.
- Data Visualization: These tools are used to represent your data through charts, graphs, and maps that allow you to find patterns and trends in the data. datapine's already mentioned BI platform also offers a wealth of powerful online data visualization tools with several benefits. Some of them include: delivering compelling data-driven presentations to share with your entire company, the ability to see your data online with any device wherever you are, an interactive dashboard design feature that enables you to showcase your results in an interactive and understandable way, and to perform online self-service reports that can be used simultaneously with several other people to enhance team productivity.
17. Refine your process constantly
Last is a step that might seem obvious to some people, but it can be easily ignored if you think you are done. Once you have extracted the needed results, you should always take a retrospective look at your project and think about what you can improve. As you saw throughout this long list of techniques, data analysis is a complex process that requires constant refinement. For this reason, you should always go one step further and keep improving.
Quality Criteria For Data Analysis
So far we’ve covered a list of methods and techniques that should help you perform efficient data analysis. But how do you measure the quality and validity of your results? This is done with the help of some science quality criteria. Here we will go into a more theoretical area that is critical to understanding the fundamentals of statistical analysis in science. However, you should also be aware of these steps in a business context, as they will allow you to assess the quality of your results in the correct way. Let’s dig in.
- Internal validity: The results of a survey are internally valid if they measure what they are supposed to measure and thus provide credible results. In other words , internal validity measures the trustworthiness of the results and how they can be affected by factors such as the research design, operational definitions, how the variables are measured, and more. For instance, imagine you are doing an interview to ask people if they brush their teeth two times a day. While most of them will answer yes, you can still notice that their answers correspond to what is socially acceptable, which is to brush your teeth at least twice a day. In this case, you can’t be 100% sure if respondents actually brush their teeth twice a day or if they just say that they do, therefore, the internal validity of this interview is very low.
- External validity: Essentially, external validity refers to the extent to which the results of your research can be applied to a broader context. It basically aims to prove that the findings of a study can be applied in the real world. If the research can be applied to other settings, individuals, and times, then the external validity is high.
- Reliability : If your research is reliable, it means that it can be reproduced. If your measurement were repeated under the same conditions, it would produce similar results. This means that your measuring instrument consistently produces reliable results. For example, imagine a doctor building a symptoms questionnaire to detect a specific disease in a patient. Then, various other doctors use this questionnaire but end up diagnosing the same patient with a different condition. This means the questionnaire is not reliable in detecting the initial disease. Another important note here is that in order for your research to be reliable, it also needs to be objective. If the results of a study are the same, independent of who assesses them or interprets them, the study can be considered reliable. Let’s see the objectivity criteria in more detail now.
- Objectivity: In data science, objectivity means that the researcher needs to stay fully objective when it comes to its analysis. The results of a study need to be affected by objective criteria and not by the beliefs, personality, or values of the researcher. Objectivity needs to be ensured when you are gathering the data, for example, when interviewing individuals, the questions need to be asked in a way that doesn't influence the results. Paired with this, objectivity also needs to be thought of when interpreting the data. If different researchers reach the same conclusions, then the study is objective. For this last point, you can set predefined criteria to interpret the results to ensure all researchers follow the same steps.
The discussed quality criteria cover mostly potential influences in a quantitative context. Analysis in qualitative research has by default additional subjective influences that must be controlled in a different way. Therefore, there are other quality criteria for this kind of research such as credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. You can see each of them more in detail on this resource .
Data Analysis Limitations & Barriers
Analyzing data is not an easy task. As you’ve seen throughout this post, there are many steps and techniques that you need to apply in order to extract useful information from your research. While a well-performed analysis can bring various benefits to your organization it doesn't come without limitations. In this section, we will discuss some of the main barriers you might encounter when conducting an analysis. Let’s see them more in detail.
- Lack of clear goals: No matter how good your data or analysis might be if you don’t have clear goals or a hypothesis the process might be worthless. While we mentioned some methods that don’t require a predefined hypothesis, it is always better to enter the analytical process with some clear guidelines of what you are expecting to get out of it, especially in a business context in which data is utilized to support important strategic decisions.
- Objectivity: Arguably one of the biggest barriers when it comes to data analysis in research is to stay objective. When trying to prove a hypothesis, researchers might find themselves, intentionally or unintentionally, directing the results toward an outcome that they want. To avoid this, always question your assumptions and avoid confusing facts with opinions. You can also show your findings to a research partner or external person to confirm that your results are objective.
- Data representation: A fundamental part of the analytical procedure is the way you represent your data. You can use various graphs and charts to represent your findings, but not all of them will work for all purposes. Choosing the wrong visual can not only damage your analysis but can mislead your audience, therefore, it is important to understand when to use each type of data depending on your analytical goals. Our complete guide on the types of graphs and charts lists 20 different visuals with examples of when to use them.
- Flawed correlation : Misleading statistics can significantly damage your research. We’ve already pointed out a few interpretation issues previously in the post, but it is an important barrier that we can't avoid addressing here as well. Flawed correlations occur when two variables appear related to each other but they are not. Confusing correlations with causation can lead to a wrong interpretation of results which can lead to building wrong strategies and loss of resources, therefore, it is very important to identify the different interpretation mistakes and avoid them.
- Sample size: A very common barrier to a reliable and efficient analysis process is the sample size. In order for the results to be trustworthy, the sample size should be representative of what you are analyzing. For example, imagine you have a company of 1000 employees and you ask the question “do you like working here?” to 50 employees of which 49 say yes, which means 95%. Now, imagine you ask the same question to the 1000 employees and 950 say yes, which also means 95%. Saying that 95% of employees like working in the company when the sample size was only 50 is not a representative or trustworthy conclusion. The significance of the results is way more accurate when surveying a bigger sample size.
- Privacy concerns: In some cases, data collection can be subjected to privacy regulations. Businesses gather all kinds of information from their customers from purchasing behaviors to addresses and phone numbers. If this falls into the wrong hands due to a breach, it can affect the security and confidentiality of your clients. To avoid this issue, you need to collect only the data that is needed for your research and, if you are using sensitive facts, make it anonymous so customers are protected. The misuse of customer data can severely damage a business's reputation, so it is important to keep an eye on privacy.
- Lack of communication between teams : When it comes to performing data analysis on a business level, it is very likely that each department and team will have different goals and strategies. However, they are all working for the same common goal of helping the business run smoothly and keep growing. When teams are not connected and communicating with each other, it can directly affect the way general strategies are built. To avoid these issues, tools such as data dashboards enable teams to stay connected through data in a visually appealing way.
- Innumeracy : Businesses are working with data more and more every day. While there are many BI tools available to perform effective analysis, data literacy is still a constant barrier. Not all employees know how to apply analysis techniques or extract insights from them. To prevent this from happening, you can implement different training opportunities that will prepare every relevant user to deal with data.
Key Data Analysis Skills
As you've learned throughout this lengthy guide, analyzing data is a complex task that requires a lot of knowledge and skills. That said, thanks to the rise of self-service tools the process is way more accessible and agile than it once was. Regardless, there are still some key skills that are valuable to have when working with data, we list the most important ones below.
- Critical and statistical thinking: To successfully analyze data you need to be creative and think out of the box. Yes, that might sound like a weird statement considering that data is often tight to facts. However, a great level of critical thinking is required to uncover connections, come up with a valuable hypothesis, and extract conclusions that go a step further from the surface. This, of course, needs to be complemented by statistical thinking and an understanding of numbers.
- Data cleaning: Anyone who has ever worked with data before will tell you that the cleaning and preparation process accounts for 80% of a data analyst's work, therefore, the skill is fundamental. But not just that, not cleaning the data adequately can also significantly damage the analysis which can lead to poor decision-making in a business scenario. While there are multiple tools that automate the cleaning process and eliminate the possibility of human error, it is still a valuable skill to dominate.
- Data visualization: Visuals make the information easier to understand and analyze, not only for professional users but especially for non-technical ones. Having the necessary skills to not only choose the right chart type but know when to apply it correctly is key. This also means being able to design visually compelling charts that make the data exploration process more efficient.
- SQL: The Structured Query Language or SQL is a programming language used to communicate with databases. It is fundamental knowledge as it enables you to update, manipulate, and organize data from relational databases which are the most common databases used by companies. It is fairly easy to learn and one of the most valuable skills when it comes to data analysis.
- Communication skills: This is a skill that is especially valuable in a business environment. Being able to clearly communicate analytical outcomes to colleagues is incredibly important, especially when the information you are trying to convey is complex for non-technical people. This applies to in-person communication as well as written format, for example, when generating a dashboard or report. While this might be considered a “soft” skill compared to the other ones we mentioned, it should not be ignored as you most likely will need to share analytical findings with others no matter the context.
Data Analysis In The Big Data Environment
Big data is invaluable to today’s businesses, and by using different methods for data analysis, it’s possible to view your data in a way that can help you turn insight into positive action.
To inspire your efforts and put the importance of big data into context, here are some insights that you should know:
- By 2026 the industry of big data is expected to be worth approximately $273.4 billion.
- 94% of enterprises say that analyzing data is important for their growth and digital transformation.
- Companies that exploit the full potential of their data can increase their operating margins by 60% .
- We already told you the benefits of Artificial Intelligence through this article. This industry's financial impact is expected to grow up to $40 billion by 2025.
Data analysis concepts may come in many forms, but fundamentally, any solid methodology will help to make your business more streamlined, cohesive, insightful, and successful than ever before.
Key Takeaways From Data Analysis
As we reach the end of our data analysis journey, we leave a small summary of the main methods and techniques to perform excellent analysis and grow your business.
17 Essential Types of Data Analysis Methods:
- Cluster analysis
- Cohort analysis
- Regression analysis
- Factor analysis
- Neural Networks
- Data Mining
- Text analysis
- Time series analysis
- Decision trees
- Conjoint analysis
- Correspondence Analysis
- Multidimensional Scaling
- Content analysis
- Thematic analysis
- Narrative analysis
- Grounded theory analysis
- Discourse analysis
Top 17 Data Analysis Techniques:
- Collaborate your needs
- Establish your questions
- Data democratization
- Think of data governance
- Clean your data
- Set your KPIs
- Omit useless data
- Build a data management roadmap
- Integrate technology
- Answer your questions
- Visualize your data
- Interpretation of data
- Consider autonomous technology
- Build a narrative
- Share the load
- Data Analysis tools
- Refine your process constantly
We’ve pondered the data analysis definition and drilled down into the practical applications of data-centric analytics, and one thing is clear: by taking measures to arrange your data and making your metrics work for you, it’s possible to transform raw information into action - the kind of that will push your business to the next level.
Yes, good data analytics techniques result in enhanced business intelligence (BI). To help you understand this notion in more detail, read our exploration of business intelligence reporting .
And, if you’re ready to perform your own analysis, drill down into your facts and figures while interacting with your data on astonishing visuals, you can try our software for a free, 14-day trial .
Got any suggestions?
We want to hear from you! Send us a message and help improve Slidesgo
dia de los muertos
day of the dead
What are you going to use your presentation for?
I'm not sure
Free vectors, photos and PSD
Free customizable icons
Free online template editor
Free editable illustrations
Free videos and motion graphics
New! New! Make quick presentations with AI
Data Presentation templates
Data are representations by means of a symbol that are used as a method of information processing. thus, data indicate events, empirical facts, and entities. and now you can help yourself with this selection of google slides themes and powerpoint templates with data as the central theme for your scientific and computer science presentations..
Do you need different sorts of charts to present your data? If you are a researcher, entrepreneur, marketeer, student, teacher or physician, these data infographics will help you a lot!
Unlock this template and gain unlimited access
Maths for Elementary 2nd Grade - Measurement and Data
Make your elementary students have fun learning math operations, measurements and hours thanks to this interactive template. It has cute animal illustrations and a white background with a pastel purple frame. Did you notice the typography of the titles? It has a jovial touch that mimics the handwriting of a...
Big Data Infographics
Explore and analyse large amounts of information thanks to these Big Data infographics. Create new commercial services, use them for marketing purposes or for research, no matter the topic. We have added charts, reports, gears, pie charts, text blocks, circle and cycle diagrams, pyramids and banners in different styles, such...
Data Analytics Strategy Toolkit
Business, a fast-paced world where yesterday is simply a lot of time ago. Harnessing the power of data has become a game-changer. From analyzing customer behavior to making informed decisions, data analytics has emerged as a crucial strategy for organizations across industries. But fear not, because we have a toolkit...
Data Analysis for Business
What helps employees of a company know how the business is performing and recognize current problems that are to be solved? Data analysis laid out in a presentation, for example. Since we all want to do our best in our jobs, this template can come in handy for you. Its...
Data Analysis Meeting
Choose your best outfit, bring a notebook with your notes, and don't forget a bottle of water to clear your voice. That's right, the data analysis meeting begins! Apart from everything we've mentioned, there's one thing missing to make the meeting a success. And what could it be? Well, a...
Measurement and Data - Mathematics - 1st Grade
How much water is in this bottle? What are the measurements of this notebook? For the little ones at school, answering these questions can be difficult—that's because they don't yet know the units of measurement! Like a superhero to save the day, you'll come up with this template to get...
Math Subject for High School - 9th Grade: Data Analysis
Analyzing data is very helpful for middle schoolers! They will get it at the very first lesson if you use this template in your maths class. Visual representations of data, like graphs, are very helpful to understand statistics, deviation, trends… and, since math has many variables, so does our design:...
Simple Data Visualization MK Plan
Have your marketing plan ready, because we've released a new template where you can add that information so that everyone can visualize it easily. Its design is organic, focusing on wavy shapes, illustrations by Storyset and some doodles on the backgrounds. Start adding the details and focus on things like...
Data Science Consulting
Do you want a high-impact representation of your data science consulting company? Don’t hit the panic button yet! Try using this futuristic presentation to promote your company and attract new clients.
Data Migration Project Proposal
Operating a new server? Changing applications? Whether it's moving from an outdated legacy system to a new cloud-based platform or transferring data between different software applications, data migration is essential for keeping business operations running smoothly. The process is a bit tiresome, but necessary! We're sure you can easily explain...
Data Center Business Plan
We could say that data centers keep the brain of the companies, since they are facilities in charge of keeping the computers, networks, and, in short, the data of a company. The security and maintenance of this type of center is vital, as it could mean the end of a...
Data Analysis Consulting
Data analysis consulting is an essential service for businesses looking to improve their decision-making. With this professional template, you can showcase your consulting services in a modern, eye-catching way. The simple design features a gradient that creates an atmosphere of reliability and trustworthiness. Our template contains slides that will help...
Data Storytelling for Business
At Slidesgo, we also want to be the number one resource for companies. For this reason, we try to create templates that can meet and respond to the needs of any organization. One of these needs is usually the clear and concise representation of data, mostly numerical. You can help...
Privacy & Big Data Infographics
If you know what big data is you might want to also inform yourself about privacy. Some companies collect data from you and you don’t even realize it. Usually it’s just general content, and it’s only used to create trends and profiles that give you fitted advertising, but it’s always...
Big Data and Predictive Analytics in Healthcare Breakthrough
Have you heard about big data? This analysis system uses huge amount of data in order to discover new tendencies, perspectives and solutions to problems. It has a lot of uses in the medical field, such as prescriptive analysis, clinical risk intervention, variability reduction, standardized medical terms… Use this template...
Data Science Project Proposal
Having lots of data means nothing if you don't know how to understand them or how to extract useful knowledge from them. Data science revolves around this, despite being a relatively new field of science. Try to achieve success with a new project on data science. The first step? Presenting...
Data Migration Process Infographics
Data migration is the process to transfer data from one system to another while changing the storage system where the data is located, or while making the necessary changes to the database or the application that manages it. It sounds like a complex process, but we are sure that your...
- Previous page
New! Make quick presentations with AI
Slidesgo AI Presentation Maker puts the power of design and creativity in your hands, so you can effortlessly craft stunning slideshows in minutes.
Exploring New Card Visual in Power BI Desktop for Better Data Presentation
By: Harris Amjad | Updated: 2023-10-31 | Comments (1) | Related: > Power BI Formatting
Microsoft Power BI Desktop provides a wide variety of visuals. In the June 2023 update, Microsoft introduced the new card visual for Power BI. This new card offers several novel capabilities; you can now display many cards in a container while maintaining complete control over each card's component. This visual also improves the performance of reports since, in the older version, users had to use multiple elements to achieve a specific output, which is now made possible with a single visual. This tip will highlight the features and usage of the new card.
When your organization leverages business intelligence to transform raw data into actionable information to deploy data-driven decision-making, it immediately becomes vital for every professional involved in the decision-making pipeline to understand this data. Even without technical expertise, these decision-makers should be able to interpret the insights and patterns from their data, which ultimately reflects on their company's standing, financially or otherwise. A lack of explainability of this data-based infrastructure will lead to a lack of trust, contributing to an under-utilization of business data analysis techniques and a shift to an experience-based decision-making framework that will likely cause a business to lag behind its competitors. Therefore, data visualization is one such technique that incorporates graphical elements to share quantitative data in a more digestible and user-friendly manner. Various mediums like infographics, dashboards, charts, and graphs can be used to aid decision-makers in interpreting important data patterns.
As shown above, a dashboard is one such method of presenting real-time data that summarizes related datasets by consolidating information from various data sources related to business metrics and key performance indicators (KPIs) in a simple, concise format. A key characteristic of the dashboard is its different visualizations that help users quickly grasp trends, patterns, and insights regarding their organization.
Sometimes, a solitary number is all you need rather than monitoring trends across time or different categories. Consider gross revenue, net profit, and important financial metrics like market value, liquidity, leverage, efficiency, and profitability ratios. These numbers alone can convey a more comprehensive story about how well your company has performed financially over a certain period, how desirable it is to shareholders, and how you are holding up to your competitors. In this tip, we will review how the card visualization in Power BI is optimal for viewing such numbers in your dashboard.
In Power BI, the characteristics of a card visual include:
- Title: As shown in the illustration above, there must be context that describes what the numerical value represents. For instance, in one of the card visuals above, we can quickly interpret that $60M represents total revenue.
- Numeric Value: This is the main element of the tile that is prominently displayed, as it represents the measurement of a metric we are interested in.
- Trend Indicator: Using Power BI, we can insert an image into our card visual, such as an indicator symbol, which can quickly aid users in deciding whether the value is improving, worsening, or remaining stable.
The importance of this visual is:
- A card visual is data visualization in its simplest form. This visual is very intuitive even for those who may not be experts in data because a title, a single numerical value, and a trend indicator leave limited room for doubt and alternative interpretations.
- This visual can also be used to highlight priorities. For instance, instead of showing your manager the company's past annual sales trend, it is also a good practice to include a card visual that conveys the maximum and average sales value through that year.
Creating a Schema in SQL Server
Now that we understand the fundamentals and importance of a card visual, it is time for a more practical demonstration. We will create a schema using SQL Server, which can later be exported to Power BI to explore the functionality of a card visual. For demonstration purposes, we will create a dataset that reflects the annual financial standing of a hypothetical company.
To get started, we will first create our database and then access it using the following commands:
Then, we will create a table that stores data related to the organization's revenue and cost structure. To do so, we will run the following query:
We can now populate this table with hypothetical values as shown below:
We can view this income table by running the following query:
Creating Visualizations in Power BI
Now that we have an appropriate data model, we can import this dataset on Power BI from the SQL Server and perform the required visualization techniques. To get started, we will be going through the following series of steps:
Step 1: Importing the Dataset
In the main interface of Power BI, click on the "SQL Server" icon in the "Data" section of the "Home" ribbon, as shown below.
The "SQL Server database" window will open. Enter the relevant server and database credentials, then click "OK."
If Power BI has successfully established a connection with your database, the "Navigator" window will open, as shown below. Select your table by checking the checkbox below the "Display Options" button, then click "Load." We can also see that Power BI allows us to preview the tables we selected. If users want to manipulate the data to deal with missing and erroneous data points, they can click on the "Transform Data" option, which opens up the Power Query Editor. However, since our dataset is complete and clean, we do not need to go through this step.
Step 2: Creating Measures
Now that our data is successfully loaded in Power BI, we need to calculate the total revenue, total cost, taxes paid, and gross and net profit margin ratios of the business over the previous year. Again, our goal is to create a minimal dashboard that clearly represents the above financial metrics. As for the tools we will be using, Power BI allows us to create measures that are calculated values from your dataset. These calculations include counting, summation, taking averages, etc., using in-built DAX or custom user-defined functions.
Let's start with calculating the total cost. Abstracting away from the tools, we know that to calculate this metric, we need to sum the columns of cost of goods sold, taxes, interest, and administrative costs. "SUMX()" is a DAX function that allows us to achieve exactly this. Let's see how.
In the "Data" section, right-click on the table name, then select the "New Measure" option, as shown below.
This will cause a formula box to open.
Enter the following formula and then click the tick mark:
In our formula above, the function "SUMX()" takes two arguments–the name of the table and an expression that evaluates the sum of the four cost columns. If our formula has no syntactic errors, we can observe a new "Total Cost" measure in the "Data" section, as shown below.
We will now repeat the above process to calculate several other measures. Again, click on the "New Measures" option and use the following formula to calculate the total revenue:
We again use the "SUMX()" function to calculate the total revenue by summing the sales, dividend, and rent revenue columns.
We can now directly calculate the total profit by subtracting the "Total Revenue" and "Total Cost" measures, using the following formula in a new measure:
When we need to sum a single column from a dataset, we can use the "SUM()" DAX function. For instance, I can use this function while calculating a new measure for total taxes paid using the following formula:
Finally, we will be calculating the gross and net profit margins. The formula for gross profit margin is:
We can implement this measure using the following formula:
Similarly, the formula for net profit margin is:
Since we already have the measures for total cost and total revenue calculated, we can directly calculate this new measure using the following formula:
Additionally, for the above two ratios, we can change the "Format" of our ratios to a percentage, as shown in the "Formatting" tab of the "Measure tools" ribbon below.
We can now observe all the measures we created in the "Data" section. As we can see below, they are denoted by a calculator symbol.
Step 3: Using the Old Card Visual
To fully appreciate the new card visual, let's briefly overview the limitations of its older version.
To create a card visual, click on its symbol from the "Visualization" panel, as shown below.
For example, we have populated this visual with our "Total Taxes" measure, as shown below.
Below is the formatted version of the card visual we have just created.
Observations about this card include:
- It is immediately apparent that we can only create one card at a time. This is disadvantageous when one has several measures, making aligning the cards' formatting difficult.
- In terms of formatting, the older card visual only allowed a limited variety of borders, which is not the case with the newer version, as we will see soon.
- Users often overlapped visual elements like icons, images, and texts in their cards to make them catchier. However, this process was usually time-consuming and slowed down the performance of the reports.
- This visual also displayed "BLANK" when no value was provided for a visual. The newer version instead provides functionality to implement a default value for a particular measure in a card.
Step 4: Using the New Card Visual
Considering the above limitations, let's see how the newer card visual succeeds its predecessor. In the "Visualizations" panel, click on the new card visual icon shown below.
As we can see below, in the "Data" field, we have now populated all our measures into a single visual, which was previously not possible.
Below is a simplistic, non-formatted version of our new card visual, representing various financial measures.
But wait, we are not done yet. We can format our visual to make it more appealing and less plain. To this end, Power BI enables formatting in two different streams. We will review some options in the two editing streams.
This formatting stream deals with the editing options specific to a visual.
Shape. This enables users to edit the outline of the card visual. Various options are featured below.
Callout. Here, we can edit the formatting of the numerical values and the text labels, including their font type, size, and color. We can also apply the changes individually to each card or all of them.
Layout. This allows us to alter the alignment of the numerical value and the text label of our card visual.
Cards. Here, we can change the appearance of our visual, including creating a border, appending shadow and glow on its outline, adding images, etc. Again, the formatting can be applied individually or over all the cards.
The general formatting stream edits the components of a visual that is generalized throughout different visuals.
Properties. This option allows users to be more precise with the positioning and size of the visual.
Title. We can also add a title to our visual using this option.
Effects. Here, we can alter the background color and append another primary outline around our visual.
After incorporating various formatting elements, as we can now see, our visual is much more appealing and interesting to observe. We have also color-coded different measures to convey their status implicitly.
Now that we have a finalized version of our card visual, it is time to use it to interpret the insights from our data model. At a glance, this hypothetical business is performing quite well, as its total revenues exceed its total costs by a large margin, creating an annual profit of 7 million. The gross profit margin of 61.7% and net profit margin of 43.9% are also considerably high. Overall, this company's financial standing is quite strong. To make a more concrete judgment, we can also compare the profit levels and the profit margin ratios with other business industry players and the overall averages of this specific industry.
In this tip, we have explored the new card visual in Power BI. We extensively discussed the rationale behind this visual. Through a practical demonstration, we have shown how this visual can represent important, stand-alone, numerical values in Power BI using a custom dataset created in SQL Server.
- To explore this visual further, users can look into how to include images and icons in the cards.
- Furthermore, one can experiment with custom Power BI visualizations like the Advance Card and see how they compare to the default card visual.
- On the other hand, users should also be aware that the shadow and glow effect in the visual formatting stream of the new card visual is buggy and alters the size of all the tiles in the card unexpectedly.
- To explore other charts in Power BI .
About the author
Comments For This Article
Help | Advanced Search
Computer Science > Artificial Intelligence
Title: format5: abstention and examples for conditional table formatting with natural language.
Abstract: Formatting is an important property in tables for visualization, presentation, and analysis. Spreadsheet software allows users to automatically format their tables by writing data-dependent conditional formatting (CF) rules. Writing such rules is often challenging for users as it requires them to understand and implement the underlying logic. We present FormaT5, a transformer-based model that can generate a CF rule given the target table and a natural language description of the desired formatting logic. We find that user descriptions for these tasks are often under-specified or ambiguous, making it harder for code generation systems to accurately learn the desired rule in a single step. To tackle this problem of under-specification and minimise argument errors, FormaT5 learns to predict placeholders though an abstention objective. These placeholders can then be filled by a second model or, when examples of rows that should be formatted are available, by a programming-by-example system. To evaluate FormaT5 on diverse and real scenarios, we create an extensive benchmark of 1053 CF tasks, containing real-world descriptions collected from four different sources. We release our benchmarks to encourage research in this area. Abstention and filling allow FormaT5 to outperform 8 different neural approaches on our benchmarks, both with and without examples. Our results illustrate the value of building domain-specific learning systems.
- Download PDF
- Other Formats
References & Citations
- Google Scholar
- Semantic Scholar
BibTeX formatted citation
Bibliographic and Citation Tools
Code, data and media associated with this article, recommenders and search tools.
arXivLabs: experimental projects with community collaborators
arXivLabs is a framework that allows collaborators to develop and share new arXiv features directly on our website.
Both individuals and organizations that work with arXivLabs have embraced and accepted our values of openness, community, excellence, and user data privacy. arXiv is committed to these values and only works with partners that adhere to them.
Have an idea for a project that will add value for arXiv's community? Learn more about arXivLabs .
Create an account
Create a free IEA account to download our reports or subcribe to a paid service.
World Energy Outlook 2023
About this report
The World Energy Outlook 2023 provides in-depth analysis and strategic insights into every aspect of the global energy system. Against a backdrop of geopolitical tensions and fragile energy markets, this year’s report explores how structural shifts in economies and in energy use are shifting the way that the world meets rising demand for energy.
This Outlook assesses the evolving nature of energy security fifty years after the foundation of the IEA. It also examines what needs to happen at the COP28 climate conference in Dubai to keep the door open for the 1.5 °C goal. And, as it does every year, the Outlook examines the implications of today's energy trends in key areas including investment, trade flows, electrification and energy access.
This flagship publication of the International Energy Agency is the energy world’s most authoritative source of analysis and projections. Published each year since 1998, its objective data and dispassionate analysis provide critical insights into global energy supply and demand in different scenarios and the implications for energy security, climate change goals and economic development.
Online table of contents
1.0 executive summary.
2.0 Overview and key findings
3.0 context and scenario design, 4.0 pathways for the energy mix, 5.0 secure and people-centred energy transitions, 6.0 regional insights, weo special reports.
The Global Energy and Climate (GEC) Model key input dataset includes selected key input data for all three modelled scenarios (STEPS, APS, NZE). This contains macro drivers such as population, economic developments and prices as well as techno-economic inputs such as fossil fuel resources or technology costs.
- Explore the methodology circle-arrow
- English Download "English"
- Foreword Download "Foreword"
- Table of contents Download "Table of contents"
- Acknowledgements Download "Acknowledgements"
- Launch presentation Download "Launch presentation"
Previous editions, cite report.
IEA (2023), World Energy Outlook 2023 , IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/world-energy-outlook-2023, License: CC BY 4.0 (report); CC BY NC SA 4.0 (Annex A)
Share this report
- Share on Twitter Twitter
- Share on Facebook Facebook
- Share on LinkedIn LinkedIn
- Share on Email Email
- Share on Print Print
Thank you for subscribing. You can unsubscribe at any time by clicking the link at the bottom of any IEA newsletter.
An official website of the United States government
- The BEA Wire | BEA's Official Blog
Measures of Economic Well-Being Updated With Complementary Open-Source Notebook
The Bureau of Economic Analysis updated its prototype measures of economic well-being and growth today and for the first time released open-source code that allows users to tailor the charts and tables to meet their needs.
The prototype measures package some of BEA’s headline statistics with data from other statistical agencies to spotlight trends in well-being and the drivers of economic growth.
Publishing the open-source notebook and related documentation on BEA’s GitHub repository allows users to update the charts and tables on the fly and customize the presentation. Publishing the code also increases transparency, allowing the public to explore the underlying methods and data more closely or to replicate the information.
BEA launched these prototype measures in 2020, as part of its broader GDP and Beyond initiative . Since then, the bureau has provided periodic updates. Moving forward, BEA will explore setting a regular schedule of updates, engage with the developer community to identify possible improvements, and look for other opportunities to release open-source content.
- Autolus Therapeutics-stock
- News for Autolus Therapeutics Autolus Therapeutics
Autolus Therapeutics to Present Clinical Data Updates at the American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting 2023 in Two Oral Presentations and Two Poster Presentations
- obe-cel: oral presentation – pooled analysis of the ongoing FELIX Phase Ib/II study
- AUTO8: oral presentation of MCARTY Phase I Study
- obe-cel: poster presentation - pooled analysis from ALLCAR19 and FELIX Phase Ib studies and ALLCAR19 extension
- obe-cel: poster presentation - CMC demonstrating the robustness of obe-cel manufacturing
LONDON, Nov. 02, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Autolus Therapeutics plc (Nasdaq: AUTL), a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing next-generation programmed T cell therapies, today announces the online publication of four abstracts submitted to the American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting, to be held December 9 to 12, 2023.
“We look forward to presenting data from a number of our clinical trials at ASH this year, with obe-cel continuing to show a potentially best-in-class profile across several indications,” said Dr. Christian Itin, Chief Executive Officer of Autolus. “Importantly, ahead of our expected BLA filing later this year, we will be presenting safety, efficacy and longer follow up data of obe-cel in relapsed/refractory B-ALL from the FELIX phase Ib and the pivotal phase II study, a pooled analysis from the ALLCAR19 and FELIX Phase Ib studies and the ALLCAR19 extension study, as well as data demonstrating the robustness of obe-cel’s manufacturing process. Additionally, we will be presenting the first AUTO8 clinical data from the MCARTY Phase I study in multiple myeloma.”
- Title: Obecabtagene Autoleucel (obe-cel, AUTO1) for Relapsed/Refractory Adult B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (R/R B-ALL): Pooled Analysis of the Ongoing FELIX Phase Ib/II Study Session Title: 704. Cellular Immunotherapies: Early Phase and Investigational Therapies: Expanding Disease Targets for CAR-T Cell Therapies Session date and time: Saturday, December 9, 2023, 3:15 PM PT Session room: San Diego Convention Center, Room 6B Publication Number: 222 Presenting Author: Dr. Claire Roddie, MD, PhD, FRCPath, Associate Professor Haematology and Honorary Consultant Haematologist, Cancer Institute, University College London (UCL) Summary: Obe-cel is an autologous chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell product with a novel CD19 binding domain conferring a fast antigen off-rate designed for an improved benefit risk ratio. In this session, pooled analysis of data from all patients treated to date in the FELIX study will be presented, with an extended follow up. Data continued to demonstrate high rates of CR/CRi and a favorable safety profile. Additionally, subgroup analysis data suggests better outcomes in patients with low leukemia burden at screening/lymphodepletion, with higher rates of deep MRD negative complete remission and no Gr ≥3 CRS and one Gr ≥3 ICANS.
- Title: Development of a Phase I Study Evaluating the Activity of Modular CAR T for Multiple Myeloma (MCARTY) Targeting BCMA and CD19 for Improved Persistence Session Title: 703. Cellular Immunotherapies: Basic and Translational: Cellular Immunotherapy: Preclinical and Translational Insights Date and time: Saturday, December 9, 2023, 4:15 PM PT Session room: San Diego Convention Center, Room 6A Publication Number: 350 Presenting Author: Dr. Lydia Lee, Consultant Haematologist & Senior Clinical Research Fellow, University College London, Research Department of Haematology (UCLH) Summary: AUTO8 is a dual targeting autologous CAR T therapy targeting BCMA and CD19 using two independently expressed CARs for multiple myeloma. In the MCARTY study, we demonstrate dual CD19/BCMA targeting, alongside feasibility of clinical grade manufacture by double-transduction. Clinical responses were seen in 6 of 6 evaluable patients.
- Title: Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Obecabtagene Autoleucel (obe-cel) in Adult Patients (pts) with Relapsed/Refractory B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia ([R/R B-ALL]; Pooled Analysis from ALLCAR19 and FELIX Phase Ib Studies) or Other B-cell Malignancies (ALLCAR19 Extension Study) Session Title: 704. Cellular Immunotherapies: Early Phase and Investigational Therapies: Poster I Session date and time: Saturday, December 9, 2023, 5:30 PM - 7:30 PM PT Session room: San Diego Convention Center, Halls G-H Publication Number: 2114 Presenting Author: Dr. Claire Roddie, MD, PhD, FRCPath, Associate Professor Haematology and Honorary Consultant Haematologist, Cancer Institute, University College London (UCL) Summary: The clinical activity of obe-cel has been explored in adults with R/R B-ALL in a Phase I study (ALLCAR19), and a Phase Ib/II study (FELIX). Additionally, obe-cel has been tested in patients with R/R B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and R/R B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Data from the pooled analysis of r/r ALL patients treated with obe-cel in the ALLCAR19 and FELIX Ib studies demonstrate that after a median follow up of >3 years approximately 30% of patients remain in remission without subsequent transplant. In the CLL and NHL cohorts of the ALLCAR19 study and with >2 years follow up, the studies show durable responses and a low incidence of serious infections. In summary, obe-cel shows durable remissions in a range of B-cell malignancies with an excellent and consistent safety profile.
- Title: Delivery of Obecabtagene Autoleucel (obe-cel, AUTO1) for the FELIX Pivotal Study Demonstrating Robust Cell Processing, Robust Release Testing, and Reliable Logistics, Together with Readiness for Sustainable Patient (pt) Care Session Title: 711. Cell Collection and Processing: Poster III Session date and time: Monday, December 11, 2023, 6:00 PM - 8:00 PM PT Session room: San Diego Convention Center, Halls G-H Publication Number: 4892 Presenting Author: Michael Merges VP, Process Development, Autolus Summary: The FELIX study successfully demonstrated the robust operability of obe-cel manufacturing, QC and logistics processes, meeting target V2C (time from leukapheresis to quality release) and V2D (time from leukapheresis to delivery of product to the hospital). All apheresis starting material was successfully processed despite the multitude of constraints posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Further optimization and improvements made during the study increased reliability, consistency and precision of the manufacturing process, and supported the development of a new obe-cel manufacturing facility with greater production capacity that aims to achieve a ≥95% manufacturing success rate with ≤15-day V2C times.
Abstracts can be viewed via the ASH abstract portal
About Autolus Therapeutics plc Autolus is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing next-generation, programmed T cell therapies for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease. Using a broad suite of proprietary and modular T cell programming technologies, the Company is engineering precisely targeted, controlled and highly active T cell therapies that are designed to better recognize target cells, break down their defense mechanisms and eliminate these cells. Autolus has a pipeline of product candidates in development for the treatment of hematological malignancies, solid tumors and autoimmune diseases. For more information, please visit www.autolus.com.
About obe-cel (AUTO1) Obe-cel is a CD19 CAR T cell investigational therapy designed to overcome the limitations in clinical activity and safety compared to current CD19 CAR T cell therapies. Obe-cel is designed with a fast target binding off-rate to minimize excessive activation of the programmed T cells. Clinical trials of obe-cel have demonstrated that this “fast off-rate” profile reduces toxicity and T cell exhaustion, resulting in improved persistence and leading to high levels of durable remissions in r/r Adult ALL patients. The results of the FELIX trial, a pivotal trial for adult ALL, are being prepared for regulatory submissions with the FDA and EMA. In collaboration with Autolus’ academic partner, UCL, obe-cel is currently being evaluated in a Phase I clinical trials for B-NHL.
About obe-cel FELIX clinical trial Autolus’ Phase Ib/2 clinical trial of obe-cel enrolled adult patients with relapsed / refractory B-precursor ALL. The trial had a Phase Ib component prior to proceeding to the single arm, Phase 2 clinical trial. The primary endpoint is overall response rate, and the secondary endpoints include duration of response, MRD negative CR rate and safety. The trial enrolled over 100 patients across 30 of the leading academic and non-academic centers in the United States, United Kingdom and Europe. [NCT04404660]
About AUTO8 AUTO8 is our next-generation product candidate for multiple myeloma which comprises two independent CARs for the multiple myeloma targets, BCMA and CD19. We have developed an optimized BCMA CAR which is designed for improved killing of target cell that express BCMA at low levels. This has been combined with fast off rate CD19 CAR from obe-cel. We believe that the design of AUTO8 has the potential to induce deep and durable responses and extend the durability of effect over other BCMA CARs currently in development.
Forward-Looking Statements This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the "safe harbor" provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are statements that are not historical facts, and in some cases can be identified by terms such as "may," "will," "could," "expects," "plans," "anticipates," and "believes." These statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding the development of Autolus’ product candidates, the status of clinical trials (including, without limitation, expectations regarding the data that is being presented, the expected timing of data releases and development, as well as completion of clinical trials) and development timelines for the Company’s product candidates. Any forward-looking statements are based on management's current views and assumptions and involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, performance, or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied in such statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the risks that Autolus’ preclinical or clinical programs do not advance or result in approved products on a timely or cost effective basis or at all; the results of early clinical trials are not always being predictive of future results; the cost, timing, and results of clinical trials; that many product candidates do not become approved drugs on a timely or cost effective basis or at all; the ability to enroll patients in clinical trials; possible safety and efficacy concerns; and the impact of COVID-19 on Autolus’ business. For a discussion of other risks and uncertainties, and other important factors, any of which could cause Autolus’ actual results to differ from those contained in the forward-looking statements, see the section titled "Risk Factors" in Autolus' Annual Report on Form 20-F filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 7, 2023, as well as discussions of potential risks, uncertainties, and other important factors in Autolus' subsequent filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. All information in this press release is as of the date of the release, and Autolus undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise, except as required by law.
Julia Wilson +44 (0) 7818 430877 [email protected]
Susan A. Noonan S.A. Noonan Communications +1-917-513-5303 [email protected]
Lauren Williams Investase +44 23 9438 7760 [email protected]
Autolus Therapeutics News MORE