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16 Presenting as a Group

Learning Objectives

  • List the four common types of group presentations
  • Discuss techniques for coordinating a group assignment
  • Plan speech organization for the intended audience
  • Practice effective group delivery

Imagine you have been assigned to a group for a project requiring a presentation at the end. “Now is the busiest time in my schedule and I do not have time to fit all these people into it,” the voice in your head reminds you. Then you ask the question: “Is there ever a non-busy time for assembling a group together for a presentation ?” These thoughts are a part of a group presentation assignment. The combined expertise of several individuals is becoming increasingly necessary in many vocational (related to a specific occupation) and avocational (outside a specific occupation) presentations.

Group presentations in business may range from a business team exchanging sales data; research and development teams discussing business expansion ideas; to annual report presentations by boards of directors. Also, the government, private, and public sectors have many committees that participate in briefings, conference presentations, and other formal presentations. It is common for group presentations to be requested, created, and delivered to bring together the expertise of several people in one presentation. Thus, the task of deciding the most valuable information for audience members has become a coordination task involving several individuals. All group members are responsible for coordinating things such as themes, strong support/evidence, and different personalities and approaches in a specified time period. Coordination is defined in the dictionary as harmonious combination or interaction, as of functions or parts.

This chapter focuses on how the group, the speech assignment, the audience, and the presentation design play a role in the harmonious combination of planning, organization, and delivery for group presentations.

Preparing All Parts of the Assignment

In group presentations, you are working to coordinate one or two outcomes—outcomes related to the content (product outcomes) and/or outcomes related to the group skills and participation (process outcomes). Therefore, it is important to carefully review and outline the prescribed assignment of the group before you get large quantities of data, spreadsheets, interview notes, and other research materials.

Types of Group Presentations

A key component of a preparation plan is the type of group presentation. Not all group presentations require a format of standing in front of an audience and presenting. According to Sprague and Stuart (2005), there are four common types of group presentations:

  • A structured argument in which participants speak for or against a pre-announced proposition is called a debate . The proposition is worded so that one side has the burden of proof, and that same side has the benefit of speaking first and last. Speakers assume an advocacy role and attempt to persuade the audience, not each other.
  • The forum is essentially a question-and-answer session. One or more experts may be questioned by a panel of other experts, journalists, and/or the audience.
  • A panel consists of a group of experts publicly discussing a topic among themselves. Individually prepared speeches, if any, are limited to very brief opening statements.
  • Finally, the symposium is a series of short speeches, usually informative, on various aspects of the same general topic. Audience questions often follow (p. 318).

These four types of presentations, along with the traditional group presentation in front of an audience or on-the-job speaking, typically have pre-assigned parameters. Therefore, all group members must be clear about the assignment request.

A man stands at a microphone while moderating a panel discussion of four peoiple who are seated at a table

Establishing Clear Objectives

For the group to accurately summarize for themselves who is the audience, what is the situation/occasion, and what supporting materials need to be located and selected, the group should establish clear objectives about both the process and the product being assessed.

Assessment plays a central role in optimizing the quality of group interaction. Thus, it is important to be clear whether the group is being assessed on the product(s) or outcome(s) only or will the processes within the group—such as equity of contribution, individual interaction with group members, and meeting deadlines—also be assessed. Kowitz and Knutson (1980) argue that three dimensions for group evaluation include (1) informational —dealing with the group’s designated tasks; (2) procedural —referring to how the group coordinates its activities and communication; and (3) interpersonal —focusing on the relationships that exist among members while the task is being accomplished. Groups without a pre-assigned assessment rubric may use the three dimensions to effectively create a group evaluation instrument.

The group should determine if the product includes both a written document and an oral presentation. The written document and oral presentation format may have been pre-assigned with an expectation behind the requested informative and/or persuasive content. Although the two should complement each other, the audience, message, and format for each should be clearly outlined. The group may create a product assessment guide (see Table 1) . Additionally, each group member should uniformly write down the purpose of the assignment. You may think you can keep the purpose in your head without any problem. Yet the goal is for each member to consistently have the same outcome in front of them. This will bring your research, writing, and thinking back to focus after engaging in a variety of resources or conversations.

Once the assignment has been coordinated in terms of the product and process objectives, type of presentation, and logistics, it is important for the group to clearly write down the agreed outcomes. Agreed outcomes about the product include a purpose statemen t that reflects an agreement with the prescribed assignment (i.e. “at the end of our group presentation the audience will be informed or persuaded about the prescribed assignment”). It also includes the key message or thesis to be developed through a presentation outline , a full-sentence outline of virtually everything the speaker intends to say. The outline allows the speakers to test the structure, the logic, and persuasive appeals in the speech (DiSanza & Legge, 2011, p. 131).

T Sample Product Assessment Guide:

Logistics for Group Members

As a group, be very clear about the length of your presentation and its preparation. The length of the presentation refers to your time limit, and whether there is a question and answer period involved. Assignment preparation may or may not have a prescribed deadline. If the assignment does not have a deadline, then set one as a group. If there is a deadline, then the group begins by creating a schedule from the final deadline. As a group, create an action timetable explicitly listing all processes and outputs, as well as communication update points.

As a group, decide the best way to leave enough time in the end to put all the pieces together and make sure everything is complete. If there is a written document, it should be completed prior to the oral presentation rather than at the same time. As a group, realize not everyone may work off a physical calendar. Thus, do not hesitate to require each member to write down all deadlines.

Next, the group can strategically add meeting dates, times, and venues to the action timetable. A meeting is a structured conversation among a small group of people who gather to accomplish a specific task (Beebe & Mottet, 2010). For group presentations, meetings do not always include the entire group. So a schedule of who meets with whom and when is useful for planning work and agendas. In addition, all meetings do not serve the same purpose. For example, informational meetings may be called simply to update all group members; solicitation meetings are called to solicit opinions or request guidance from group members; group-building meetings are designed to promote unity and cohesiveness among group members; and problem-solving meetings result in making decisions or recommendations by the time the meeting convenes.

Once the group is unified about the assignment objectives and time frame, it is vital to predetermine the type of note-taking required of each group member (which may vary) and the variety of information exchange. The more systematic a group is in these two areas, the more unified the process and the product. The system begins with each group member writing down the message, specific purpose, and central ideas for the group presentation. If these are still to be determined, then have each group member identify the areas of background information needed and basic information gathering. Next, simply create a general format for note-taking—whether typed or handwritten and what types of details should be included especially sources. Also with the increasing use of electronic databases be very clear on when related articles should be forwarded to group members. The email inbox flooded with PDF files is not always a welcome situation.

The group should be clear on the explicit requirements for locating recent, relevant, and audience-appropriate source material for the presentation. All of this leads to the foundation of clearly defining the responsibilities of each group member. All tasks should be listed, given deadlines, and assigned people. A means for tracking the progress of each task should be outlined. The group should be clear on what are individual, joint (involving more than one group member), and entire group tasks. Throughout the entire process, all group members should be supportive and helpful but should not offer to do other people’s work.

Organizing for Your Audience

Organizing for your audience relates to how the gathered content can be best arranged for them. According to Patricia Fripp (2011), a Hall of Fame keynote speaker and executive speech coach, any presentation can be intimidating but the key is to remember “your goal is to present the most valuable information possible to the members of the audience” (p. 16). Now what you think is most valuable and what the audience thinks is most valuable must be coordinated because of differences in perception (the process by which we give meaning to our experience). Therefore, organizing for your audience is focused on content, structure, packaging, and human element—not for you, not for the assignment, but for the audience. A customized plan of organization will assist your group in creating relevant messages that satisfy others’ personal needs and goals (Keller, 1983).

Audience members are interested in your expertise that has been developed from solid research and preparation. Audience members may have expectations about what foundational literature and key sources should be contained within your presentation. Therefore as a group, you need to go beyond providing a variety of supporting material within your presentation to considering who will be present, levels of expertise, and their expectations. In general, organizing the content should be focused on usage, knowledge levels, and objectives. First, usage refers to how audience members expect to use your presentational content which will help the group transform ideas into audience-centered speech points. Second, knowledge level means the audience’s knowledge level about the topic within the audience which assists the group in developing supporting material for the entire audience. Third, the objectives are linked to how the content serves the audience’s needs and assists the group in being intentional about helping the audience see the reason for their involvement and receive value for the time they devoted to attend. Overall, the content is coordinated in a way that keeps at the forefront who the decision-makers are and what specifics they need to know, would be nice to know, and do not need to know.

Next professionally packaging a presentation for the audience deals with the structure or how you arrange points. The structure takes into consideration a strong opening, logical order, relevant key points, conciseness, and use of supplementary visual aids. In addition, the linking of points involves conversational language and the appropriate use of acronyms and technical jargon for inclusion or exclusion. The focus is geared to the perception of trustworthiness. Three strategic questions to answer include:

  • What qualities as a group will demonstrate your trustworthiness to this audience?
  • What content order needs to be achieved to give a consistent perception of fairness?
  • What content requires repeating and how should that be achieved—through comparisons, examples, illustrations, etc.?

The packaging of successful group presentations revolves around the type of relationship with the audience, the division of time, and enthusiasm. An important dynamic of group presentations is for your group to know if audience members will be required to give an internal presentation or briefing from your presentation. As a group, know if you are packaging a one-time presentation, bidding for a long-term relationship, continuing a relationship for offering expertise, or if the presentation is tied to internal pressures to performance appraisals. Such knowledge will aid your group in developing talking points which can be re-presented with accuracy.

The type of presentation will help you divide the time for your presentation. The majority of the time is always spent on the body of the speech. A typical 30-minute speech might be divided into four minutes for the introduction, ten minutes for the body, and four minutes for the conclusion. The remaining 12 minutes is for the audience to ask questions, offer objections, or simply to become part of the discussion. It is important to leave enough time for the audience to contribute to the intellectual content. Therefore, always design group presentations with the intent not to run out of time before the audience can participate. All group presentations should have enthusiasm. Group members should be enthusiastic about the audience, message, and occasion. Planned enthusiasm should play a role in creating the introduction, conclusion, and body of your presentations. The consistent use of enthusiasm can be planned throughout the speech outline.

Human Element

Now it is time to focus on compatibility. As a group, consider what will it take to get this audience to pay attention to your presentation. Answer questions such as:

  • What can your group do to develop an introduction, transitions, and conclusions in a way to connect with this audience?
  • What types of stories are common or relatable to this audience?
  • What are the attitudes, beliefs, and values of this audience?

Delivering Your Presentation as One

By completing the other levels of coordination, the group will have decided on the key message, thoroughly researched the supporting material, developed logical conclusions, and created realistic recommendations. Therefore all that stands between you and success is the actual presentation—the vehicle that carries the facts and the ideas to your audience. Here it is important to recognize that if an assignment required both a written document and an oral presentation then be sure one effectively complements the other. Although you can reference the written document during the oral presentation, the oral presentation should be planned with the thought in mind that not everyone is given the written document. Therefore, the oral presentation may be the only content they receive. Since you will not always know who receives the written document, it is best to coordinate the presentation as if no one has the full written document, which can serve as a reference tool for gaining content requiring further explanation or accessibility to detailed information. At the same time, if the entire audience is provided written material keep in mind different decision-makers may be in the audience. For example, the creative director may be only interested in your creative concepts, whereas a vice president of finance may be only interested in figures.

The presentation preparation primarily focuses on your group’s ability to develop a clear plan and execution of delivery. A delivery plan includes essential elements such as (1) purpose, (2) oral content, (3) dress, (4) room, (5) visuals, (6) delivery, and (7) rehearsal to ensure that the group presentation is both captivating and useful to your audience, as well as worth their time.

Group members should keep at the forefront of their minds the answer to the question “Was the general purpose—to inform or to persuade—achieved?” As a group, practice keeping the purpose of the presentation explicit for the audience. The purpose should never become hidden during the presentation. Each group member’s awareness of the purpose is important in maintaining the right kind of delivery. It is possible to have great content for a presentation and miss the entire purpose of the presentation. For example, say your group had been asked to do a presentation about Facebook and how it could be used in the financial industry. You could take an informative or persuasive approach. However, if the audience—banking professionals—attends a presentation where the content is focused on Facebook rather than having a focus on its use in the financial industry, then the purpose was not achieved.

The delivery plan will help you evaluate if the purpose of the presentation is clearly aimed at the primary audience. In addition, the group can determine when and how clearly they are articulating the explicit purpose of the presentation. The purpose is complemented by a clear preview, the audience members’ awareness of what decisions are at issue, and the audience’s desire to get important information first.

Oral Content

Up to this point the majority of the group’s engagement with the content has been in terms of reading and writing. It is time to orally interact with the selected content to ensure that it has been developed for this audience, properly structured, and clearly articulated. The delivery plan is a time to evaluate word choice, idioms, and antidotes. When working with this content, make sure that it is suited to the purpose, and that the key message is explicit so the audience remembers it well.

The introduction of group members, transitions, and internal summaries are all important elements of the delivery plan. A proper introduction of group members and the content will not happen automatically. Therefore, it is important to practice it to determine if introductions fit better at the beginning of the presentation, if names need to be emphasized through the wearing of name tags, or if names are better used as a part of transition content. The use of name only may not be effective in some speaking situations. Therefore, the group needs to determine what a proper group member introduction includes beyond the name. Plus, be consistent; that is, determine if everyone is using first name only or full name, do they need to know your positions, some background, or can you simply state it in a written format such as a team resume. Speech content is not useful if the audience does not accept your credibility.

As in all presentations, an awareness of your physical appearance is an important element in complementing the content of your speech. Do not hesitate to talk about and practice appropriate dress as a group. It is important to look like a group. Really consider defining a group’s speaking uniform by deciding how formal or informal the dress code is.

As a group, the overall question you want to be able to answer is: Did our dress provide an accurate first impression not distracting from the content? So what kinds of things can be distracting? The most common are colors, busy patterns, and large or clinking jewelry. As a group determine what type of dress is effective in coordinating your group’s credibility. It is important to take into consideration cultural, occupational, and regional norms. In addition, it is important to think about branding choices. Often groups want to brand themselves for the audience. It is not necessary to mimic your audience. For example, a sales presentation to cranberry association members may entice a group to wear red. However, the cranberry association may not be the only sale your group needs to make so you will be forced to ask the question: Will each sales presentation audience determine the color we accent in dress? In short, do not let the speaking occasion brand you. Simply know what is considered professional for this presentation. You have spent a lot of time on preparing the content for this audience so do not detract from it.

It is not always feasible to practice your delivery in the actual room where you will deliver your speech. However, it is extremely important that you actively plan your delivery for the room by recreating the speaking environment. If prior access to the room is not available, then you will need to do your planning by asking a series of questions of the presentation planner. Some common things to find out include the size of the room; if a projector is available and its location within the room; is there a platform and/or a stationary lectern; is there a sound system and how many microphones; where the group will be seated before being introduced; will the presentation be recorded; what is the availability of the room in advance of the presentation; and what is the number of seats and seating arrangement so the group can plan for the zone of interaction.

Three people sit on stools on a stage before an audience with a screen with a visual aid behind them

The term visuals refers to both non-technology visual aids (handouts, posters, charts, etc.) and presentation technology. Visuals should not appear as though several individuals made them but rather as uniform to the group’s presentation. All visuals should blend smoothly into the speech. All group members should be clear on what visuals or documents were pre-requested (so you do not eliminate them as unnecessary during rehearsal). Many times it is better to simply project or display visuals. At other times, visuals may need to be assembled in a presentation packet for all audience members. Bohn & Jabusch (1982) suggest that there are several researched-based reasons why visual aids enhance presentations including (a) enhanced understanding —helps audience comprehend what they hear and see; (b) enhanced memory —serves as a visual reinforcement; (c) enhanced organization—visually displays your organizational strategy; (d) enhanced attention —grabs and maintains audience interest; and (e) enhanced sequencing —shows rather than describes.

The four modes of delivery—memorized, impromptu, manuscript, and extemporaneous—are all valuable in group presentations. However, the most common mode of delivery is extemporaneous. Earlier in the chapter, developing a script was discussed. The step of transforming the script into a delivery outline —an abbreviated version of the preparation outline (DiSanza & Legge, 2011)—is a significant part of planning delivery. The ultimate goal is to figure out how the group can be confident that the entire presentation stays together and does not just exist in pieces. The delivery outline may go as far as to stipulate vocal and gesture instructions. The delivery outline is not created to be read from, therefore, the group also should determine how speaker notes will be used. The delivery outline should be provided to every group member so everyone is familiar with the entire presentation. It is important to set up contingency plans for who will present content if someone is absent on the day of the presentation—the presenter who gets stuck in morning traffic or the professional who had a flight delay.

The key is for all group members to remain conversational in their delivery style. This may be best achieved by utilizing effective delivery strategies such as appropriate gestures, movement, and posture; appropriate facial expressions including eye contact; and appropriate vocal delivery—articulation, dialect, pitch, pronunciation, rate, and volume. Group members should evaluate each other on audibility and fluency.

Rehearsals are for the final polishing of your presentations. It is a time to solidify logistics of how many group members are presenting, where they will stand, and the most appropriate transitions between each speaker. Group members should grow more comfortable with each other through rehearsals. A key aspect of polishing involves identifying gaps in content and gaining feedback on content (oral and visual), style, and delivery. The rehearsals are a good time to refine speaker notes and to practice the time limit. The number of scheduled rehearsals is dependent on your group and the amount of preparation time provided. The most important element for the group is to adapt their rehearsal timetable based on an honest evaluation of the speaking skills represented within the group.

The only part of a group presentation that you may not be able to rehearse is responding to the actual audience members’ questions and objections. However, you can anticipate the types of questions and practice a simple strategy of how you will respond—repeating the question, stating who from the group will respond, and answering succinctly. Four of the most common types of questions are follow-up questions; action-oriented questions focused on what would you do if; hypothetical questions focused on different scenarios; and information-seeking questions. A primary way to practice is to think of at least three questions you would like to answer, prepare the answer, and practice it during rehearsal(s).

The foundation of a group presentation is constructed from all the guidelines you use in an individual presentation coupled with additional strategies for working effectively with others. Group presentations primarily entail group communication, planning, organization, and delivery. Effective groups communicate about interaction roles, decision-making, and conflict resolution. Such communication helps the group reflect on group dynamics, customize communication for this speaking group, and establish a unified commitment and collaborative climate.

Review & Reflection Questions

  • How might a group presentation be different than presenting individually?
  • In preparing for a group presentation, what are some key questions and considerations for your group?
  • How can you ensure your group presentation is effective and appears ‘as one’?
  • Beebe, S.A. & Mottet, T.P. (2010). Business and professional communication: Principles and skills for leadership . Allyn & Bacon.
  • Bohn, E. & Jabusch, D. (1982). The effect of four methods of instruction on the use of visual aids in speeches. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 46 , 253-265.
  • DiSanza, J.R., & Legge, N. J. (2011). Business and professional communication: Plans, processes, and performance (5th ed.). Pearson.
  • Fripp. P. (2011). 9 timely tips for pre-presentation preparation. American Salesman, 56 , 13- 16.
  • Keller, J.M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories: An overview of their current status (pp. 383-434). Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Kowitz, A.C. & Knutson., T.J. (1980). Decision making in small groups: The search for alternatives . Allyn and Bacon.
  • Sprague, J. & Stuart D. (2005). The speaker’s handbook (7th ed. ) . Thomson Wadsworth.

Authors & Attribution

This content comes from the introduction, “Preparing All Parts of the Assignment” and “Delivering Your Presentation as One” written by Jennifer F. Wood, Ph.D., in Chapter 18 Group Presentations . from the Public Speaking Project . This content is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License.

harmonious combination or interaction, as of functions or parts

a structured argument in which participants speak for or against a pre-announced proposition

a presentation in which one or more experts may be questioned by a panel of other experts, journalists, and/or the audience

a presentation format that consists of a group of experts publicly discussing a topic among themselves

a presentation format that involves a series of short speeches, usually informative, on various aspects of the same general topic

a clear, agreed outcome for the presentation

a full-sentence outline of virtually everything the speaker intends to say. The outline allows the speakers to test the structure, the logic, and persuasive appeals in the speech

an abbreviated version of the preparation outline

Presenting as a Group Copyright © 2020 by Jasmine R. Linabary, Ph.D. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Frantically Speaking

How To Present With A Group: 14 Expert Tips

Hrideep barot.

  • Presentation

group work

If we consider the research and writing part of a presentation, then a group presentation doesn’t seem that different from a single-person presentation. 

If you wish to deliver a successful presentation, you still need to put in a fair deal of individual research, writing, and practice. Even for the presenting bit: when you speak, the onus of delivering a great speech, as well as the audience’s attention, is going to be on you. 

However, a group presentation is significantly different from a normal presentation. 

While you’ll still have to do your own research, the amount of research you’ll have to do will probably be decreased, as the research material will be divided amongst all the members. Practice and delivery of the speech will not be merely an individual thing: you’ll have to work and synch it with the rest of the group.

Moreover, while it might seem that the individual responsibility is going to reduce if you’re delivering a presentation with more than one person, often the case is quite the opposite. This is because if a single person messes up–or simply doesn’t wish to put in as much effort as the others–the repercussions are going to be faced by the entire group. 

However, group presentations don’t necessarily have to be a difficult thing. Think of your most favorite sports team: what makes the team the best? What makes them stand out from other teams? How are they successful?

The answer for what makes a sports team the best isn’t much different from what makes a group presentation the best: 

Advance planning and division of work, having a strong leader, fostering a sense of comariderie between group members, as well as staying vigilant and supportive on the big day are the key to delivering an awesome group presentation.  

And the goal isn’t as tough to achieve as you might think. 

Stick till the end of this article to find out! 

What Is A Group Presentation?

A group presentation is a collaborative exercise in which a team of speakers works together to create and deliver a presentation on a given topic. The number of members in a group presentation can range from anything between two to over ten! Group presentations are used in a variety of settings like school, workplace, colleges, seminars, etc. 

While the task of presenting with a group of people might feel daunting, especially if you identify as a lone wolf, group presentations can be a great learning experience and teach you how to better navigate the task of dealing with a multitude of people with a multitude of opinions and experiences. 

By keeping in mind a few things, group presentations can be delivered just as efficiently as single-speaker presentations.

Is A Group Presentation For You? 

To decide whether you should deliver a group presentation or not, you need to decide whether the pros of a group presentation outweigh the cons for you. 

Group presentations are great because they decrease workload, increase efficiency, improve the quantity and quality of ideas, and also provide you with experience to work in a group setting. 

However, there are a few fall-backs to group presentation as well. 

Sometimes, a few group members might not work as hard as the other ones, thus increasing the workload on the other members. Also, group members might have different ideas and opinions, which can cause clashes within the group. Coordinating between the group members might be a problem. And if you’re a shy person, you might find it difficult to speak out and voice your opinion in front of other group members. 

So, there is no single answer to whether you should do a group presentation or not. Weigh in the pros and cons of doing one before making your decision. 

Tips For Delivering A Group Presentation: The Preparation Stage 

working with a group

1. Decide On The Purpose Of Your Presentation

First and foremost, you must determine what is the purpose of your presentation. It might seem like a redundant step, but trust me: it’s not. You’ll be surprised by how different people perceive and understand the same topic.

So, say you’re delivering a research paper on the topic “The Effect Of The Coronavirus Pandemic On Street Animals”, sit down together and ask your group members what each individual person thinks the topic is about and the points they feel we need to include in it.

If possible, one member can jot down all the points that the other speakers make, and once all the members are done talking, you can come to a consensus about what to and what not to include in the presentation. 

2. Choose A Presentation Moderator 

In the simplest terms, the presentation moderator is the designated “leader” of a group. That is, they’re the one responsible for the effective functioning of the group, and to make sure that the group achieves their shared purpose i.e giving the presentation.

They sort out any potential conflicts in the group, help out other members when they ask for guidance, and also have the final say on important decisions that the group makes. The best and the simplest way to select the presentation moderator is by vote. This will ensure that every member has a say, and avoid any potential conflicts in the future. 

3. Divide The Work Fairly  

The next step is to divide the work. The best way to do this is to break your presentation into equal parts, and then to assign them to group members. While doing so, you can keep in mind individuals’ preferences, experience, and expertise. For example, if there are three people, you can divide your presentation into three sections: the beginning, the middle, and the end.

Then you can ask which member would feel more comfortable with a particular section, and assign the sections accordingly. In case of any overlap, the individual members can be asked to decide themselves who’s the better fit for the part. Alternatively, if the situation doesn’t seem to resolve, the presentation moderator can step in and assign parts randomly to the members; the members can do this themselves, too. 

4 . Do A Member Analysis 

To know the individual strengths and weaknesses of group members, it’s important to carry out a member analysis. Not everyone feels comfortable in front of a crowd. Or, someone could be great at building presentations, but not so good with speaking into a mic. On the contrary, a member might be an excellent orator but terrible with technology.

So, in order to efficiently divide the work and to have a seamless presentation, carry out a member analysis beforehand. 

5. Individual And Group Practice Are Equally Important 

Individual practice is important as it helps you prepare the presentation in solitude, as you would if you were the only speaker. Practicing alone is generally more comfortable, as you do not have to worry about other people watching or judging you.

It also allows you to prepare at your own convenience and time, while for group practice you’ll have to adjust to when it’s convenient for the other members to practice, as well.

Besides, the individual practice also saves the group’s time as each member can simultaneously but separately prep their own part, while group practice sessions are often longer as the other members generally have to pay attention to the speaking member instead of their own bit.

However, it’s essential to do group practice at least three to four times before delivering your presentation. This is important not just for the smooth delivery of the presentation, but also for the group members to grow comfortable with each other.

Group practice sessions also help you time out the total duration of the presentation, have smooth transitions between speakers, avoid repetitions, and also sort out any potential hiccups or fallbacks in the presentation. 

6. Perfect The Transitions 

A common fallback of group presentations is having awkward transitions between members. Not only will this be an unpleasant experience for the audience, but it might also make you waste precious time.

So, make sure you practice and perfect the transitions before the big day. It doesn’t have to be too long–even a single line will do. What matters is how well you execute it. 

7. Bond With The Group Members 

Bonding with the group is a great way to enhance the overall presentation experience; both, for yourself as well as the audience. This is because a better bond between the group members will make for the smoother functioning of the group, reduce potential conflicts, make decisions quickly and more easily, and also make the presentation fun!

The audience will also be able to sense, maybe even witness, this camaraderie between the members. They will thus have a better viewing experience.

There are many ways to improve the bonding between group members. Before the presentation, you could go out for dinner, a movie, or even meet up at one location–like somebody’s house–to get to know each other better. Group calls are another option. You could also play an ice-breaker if you’re up for some fun games!

8. Watch Other Group Presentations Together 

This is another great way of bonding with the team and also improving your presentation skills as you do so. By listening to other group presentations, you will be able to glean a better idea of how you can better strategize your own presentation. As you watch the presentation, make note of things like the time division, the way the topics are divided, the transition between speakers, etc. 

A few presentations you could watch are: 

Delivering A Successful Team Presentation 

Takeaway: This is a great video to learn how to deliver a  great group presentation. As you watch the video, make note of all the different tips that each speaker gives, and also how they incorporate  them in their own presentation, which goes on simulatenously with the tips. 

Sample Group Presentation: Non-Verbal Communication

Takeaway: This is another great video that depicts how you can deliver a presentation with a group. Notice how the topics are divided, the transition between different speakers, and also the use of visuals in the presentation. 

AthleteTranx Team Presentation- 2012 Business Plan Competition

Takeaway: Another great example of a group presentation that you can watch with your own group. In this video, keep a lookout for how the different speakers smoothly transition, their body language, and the way the presentation itself is organized to make it an amazing audience experience. 

Tips For Delivering A Group Presentation: The Presentation Stage  

presenting with people

1.Introduce All Members 

A good idea to keep in mind while delivering a group presentation is to introduce all members at the onset of the presentation. This will familiarize the audience with them, and also work to ease the member’s nerves.

Besides, an introduction will make the members feel more included, and if done correctly, can also give a more shy member a confidence boost. The simplest way of introducing members is to have the person beginning the speech do it. Alternatively, the presentation moderator could do it. 

Need some tips on how to introduce people? Check out our article on How To Introduce A Speaker In Any Setting (And Amaze Your Audience).

2. Coordinate Your Dressing 

What better way to make people believe that you’re a team than dressing up as one? 

Coordinated dressing not only makes the group stand out from the audience, but it can also make the group members feel more like one team. 

A general rule of thumb is to dress one level more formally than your audience. Don’t wear your casual clothes: remember that it’s a formal event and your clothing must reflect that. Also, keep in mind individual preferences and beliefs while choosing the clothing.

This is important as if a person is uncomfortably dressed, it can have a negative impact on their performance, which will eventually be detrimental to the group performance. 

Confused about what to wear on the presentation day? Check out our article on Guide: Colors To Wear During A Presentation.

3. Make Sure To Incorporate Visual & Audio Aids

Visual elements like photographs, videos, graphs, etc. Are a must in all presentations, group or otherwise. This is because visual aids help the audience better understand the topic, besides making the presentation a better experience overall. Same goes with audio elements, which include things like audio clips, music, background sounds etc. 

So, if you wish to have your audience’s attention, make sure to incorporate tons of visual and audio elements in your presentation. You could also divide the kind of visual elements you use between different members: for example, one person could show a short documentary to expand on their point, and the other could make use of memes and animation to add a dose of fun to their part. 

4. Pay Attention To What Others Are Saying 

Another thing to keep in mind while delivering your speech is to pay attention to what the other speakers are saying. While it might be tempting to tune out others and use the extra time to rehearse your own presentation, it’s not a good idea to do so.

Remember that the audience can see each speaker on the stage. If you don’t look interested, then why should they pay attention? Besides, your lack of attention can make the speaker feel bad: if their own team members aren’t listening to them speaking, does that mean they’re doing a bad job? So, make sure to keep your eyes and ears on your teammate as they deliver their speech.

5. Remember All Speech Parts By Heart 

This is a great way to ensure that you have a seamless presentation. One of the primary benefits of having a team to work with is knowing that you can turn to them for help if something goes wrong.

So, it’s important to not just practice and work together but to also be well-versed in what other group members are going to be saying. This will make it easier for you to cue or help someone if they forget their part. Also, if there’s an emergency or if a member is not able to make it to the speech, the other members can easily take their place.

6. Work Together For A Question And Answer Session 

Q & A sessions are a common element in most presentations. They might seem daunting to an individual speaker, however, a group setting makes the session much easier. This is because an individual speaker doesn’t have to know everything about the topic.

The presentation moderator can simply refer to the speaker who is the most well-versed about the topic or is best able to answer the question from the group, and they can answer it. 

Creative Ideas To Make Use Of Multiple Presenters! 


There are many ways by which you can use the fact that there’s not just one single presentator but many to your advantage. A few of them are: 

1. Add A Dose Of Fun With Skits! 

Adding a dose of creativity to your presentation will greatly enhance its appeal to the audience, and make it more likely that they will remember your presentation in the future! 

One way of doing this is by having a short skirt in the opening. This is another great way of introducing the members, and of warming up the audience to them.

A fun skit can not only expand on the topic you’re about to present but will also elevate the audience’s mood, which will improve their attention span as well as their opinion of you! What else could you ask for?

2. Make Them Engage With Cosplay! 

Cosplay is another great way of making your presentation stand apart! This can make the presentation more interactive for the audience, as well, and earn you that sought-after dose of chuckling.

It’s not necessary to buy the most expensive costumes or be perfect in your cosplay, either. You can pick an outfit that’s easy to drape over your other outfit, and pick props that are easy to carry as well as versatile so that you can use them in other parts of your presentation as well. 

3. Write & Sing A Song Together!

Listen, you don’t have to be a professional singer or composer to do this. You’re not trying to sell a studio album. All you need is a little dose of creativity and some brainstorming, and you can write a song that helps you explain a component of your speech better.

You could even summarize the entire topic in that song, and sing it in the end as a sort of post-credits scene (thank you, Marvel). Alternatively, the song doesn’t necessarily have to explain your speech, but can simply be a surprise element after you’re done with the main part of your speech! 

4. Record A Short Film!

If you don’t want to have a live skit, another creative way to add fun to your skit is by recording a short film beforehand and playing it during your presentation. The film doesn’t have to be very long–even a few minutes work.

What matters is the content of the film, and how well-made it is. If not all members wish to act or record themselves, the ones that are not up for it can do the editing and compilation, or even write the script! After all, it’s not just actors that make a film successful: a strong director and writer are just as important! 

5. Have A Continuous Story 

Another great way to make the presentation seem more connected and seamless is by incorporating a continuous story. You can pick a story–or even make one up–related to your topic and break it up in sections.

Then, assign a section to each speaker. This will not only make the presentation more intriguing but if done right will also hook your audience’s attention and make them anticipate what comes next. Awesome, right? 


Q. how do i begin a group presentation.

To begin a group presentation, have the moderator or any other group member introduce all other members and the topic that they’ll be speaking on. This might seem like a redundancy, however it is anything but useless.

This gives the chance to the audience to become familiar with the speakers, which is necessary if you want them to grow comfortable with you. Also, prior introduction of members saves the audience’s time, as each speaker will not have to re-introduce themself before driving into their topic. 

If each member wishes to individually introduce themselves, then that can be done too. However, make sure that you’ve practiced transitioning between members smoothly, so as to avoid making the switch look awkward.

Next, share a brief summary of what you’re going to be talking about. Like the introduction, you could even split the summary among yourselves, with each speaker describing briefly what they’re going to be talking about. Tell the audience why it’s relevant, and how you’re planning to go about giving the speech. Incorporating attention-grabbing statements is another good idea.

This could be a sneak peek into what’s going to be coming in your presentation, or simply a relevant statement, fact or statistic. Make sure the introduction doesn’t last too long, as you want to keep the audience fresh and primed for the main content of your speech. 

For some awesome opening lines, check out our article on 15 Powerful Speech Opening Lines (And How To Create Your Own).


As mentioned before, having a smooth transition between speakers in the group is imperative to provide the audience with a seamless experience. The abrupt way of doing this would be to simply have the first speaker stop and for the other speaker to begin speaking.

However, a better way to transition would be by using transitional phrases. Pass the baton to the next speaker by introducing them. You could do this by saying something like, “To talk about the next topic we have…” Or something like, “Now I would like to invite…” 

After verbally introducing them, it’s also a good idea to motion towards or look towards the new speaker. Also, if you’re the next speaker, it’s always good manners to thank the previous one. 

Transitioning is one place where many presentations go wrong. Practicing the transition might seem redundant, but it’s anything but that. In fact, it’s as necessary as the practice of the other elements of your speech. Also, make sure to incorporate both, verbal and non-verbal cues while moving to the next speaker. That is, don’t just say that ‘A’ is going to be speaking now and then walk away.

Make eye contact with the speaker, motion for them towards the podium, or smile at them. That is, both speakers should acknowledge the presence of each other.

Make sure to practice this beforehand too. If you want, you could also have the moderator do the transitioning and introduce all speakers. However, make sure that your transitions are brief, as you don’t want to take up too much time from the main presentation.


For the ending of the presentation, have the moderator or any other group member step forward again. They can provide a quick summary of the presentation, before thanking the audience and asking them if they have any questions.

The moderator doesn’t have to answer all the questions by themselves: the members can pitch in to answer the question that relates to their individual part. If there’s another group presenting after you, the moderator can conclude by verbally introducing them or saying that the next group will take over now. 

During the end, you could have all the presenters on the stage together, as this will provide a united front to your audience. If you don’t wish to finish the presentation with a Q & A, you could also end it by a call to action.

Or, you could loop back and make a reference to the opening of your presentation, or the main part of your speech. If you’d set up a question at the beginning, now would be a good time to answer it. This will increase the impact of your speech.

Make sure that the closing words aren’t vague. The audience should know it’s the end of the presentation, and not like you’re keeping them hanging for something more. Make sure to thank and acknowledge your audience, and any other speakers or dignitaries present. Lastly, just like the opening and the transitioning, practice the ending before you step onto the stage!  

Want some inspiration for closing lines? Check out our article on 15 Powerful Speech Ending Lines (And Tips To Create Your Own).


There are many ways by which you can introduce the next speaker in the presentation. For starters, you could wrap up your presentation by simply summarizing what you said (make sure it’s a brief summary) and then saying the other speaker will take over from this point.

Or, you could finish with your topic and then give a brief introduction of the next speaker and what they’re going to be talking about. The introduction can be simply the name of the speaker, or you could also provide a brief description of them and their achievements if any.

To lighten the mood, you could even add a fun fact about the speaker in your introduction–this is, of course, provided that you’re both comfortable with it. You could also ask for a round of applause to welcome them onto the stage.

However you choose to approach the transition, make sure that your introduction is short, and not more than two minutes at the maximum. Remember that it’s the next speaker’s turn to speak–not yours. If you’re the incoming speaker, make sure to thank the speaker who introduced you. You could also respond to their description or fun fact about you. A smile doesn’t hurt, either!


To sum up, while group presentations might seem daunting at first, if planned and executed properly, they don’t have to be difficult at all! On the contrary, they can make the presentation a more seamless and fun experience overall. By doing thorough preparation in advance, dividing the work properly, as well as staying vigilant and supportive during the presentation, you can execute your next group presentation as easily as an individual project! 

Hrideep Barot

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How to Give a Group Presentation

Taylor Risner

Presenting with other speakers comes with inherent challenges that can be tough to navigate. In the end, the presentation is only as good as its weakest speaker, so the pressure is on to make sure that everyone participating brings their A-game to help the presentation shine. We’ve found ourselves in hundreds of group presentation settings for conference speeches, sales proposals, pitch decks, and product demos. This article shares our key learnings and provides best practices to help you deliver an excellent co-presentation.

Team Dynamics 

The best first step to take for a group presentation is identifying roles for the participants. The most important role to identify is the lead role or team captain. Whoever is leading the presentation will ultimately be responsible for a number of tasks that are critical to the success of the presentation. 

Team Lead/Captain

The team lead/captain is responsible for starting the presentation. This means they need to ensure there is an attention grab early in the presentation to captivate the audience. They’ll also be responsible for setting the context and introducing the team. The team lead should be highly personable, charismatic, and trustworthy to set the presentation off on the right foot. 

After starting the presentation, the audience will naturally understand the individual’s leadership role and it will make the most sense to them for the leader to also finish the presentation. So we recommend for the best natural flow, that the team lead also finish the presentation. This means they’ll be responsible for wrapping up the key points discussed and to ensure the audience walks away with clear takeaways. 

If the presentation allows for questions, the team lead should also be designated as the key spokesperson to field the questions and either answer them or route them to the appropriate members on the team. 

Other Roles

It’s also important to identify other roles on the team if applicable. In some presentations it may make sense to split up speakers by core topic or their area of expertise. In other cases, it may be most appropriate to have a single speaker outside of the team lead and then have a few supporting members for the Q&A session. Or perhaps you’re delivering a data-heavy presentation and it’s best to bring in an analyst to speak over the data insights. 

Another key point to remember is that the more speakers you include, typically the longer the presentation will take. So be sure to factor in the time allowed for the presentation into how you structure your team dynamics. 

The real point is that there is no exact template for who should speak when. Our simple recommendation is to always identify a team leader for every group presentation, and then from there, build a presentation team that best fits your subject matter, audience, format, and time allowed. 


The importance of preparing and practicing for the upcoming presentation cannot be understated. Preparation is critical to make sure that everyone knows their role, understands transitions, knows who is speaking before and after them, understands the flow of the narrative, and is comfortable with how they’ll handle the room layout plus technology. 

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Understand your Role

As discussed in the team dynamics section above, everyone must first understand their role so that they understand what content they will be speaking about and if they have to assume any other duties such as introductions, answering questions, opening and closing the presentation, speaking about data, etc. 

Align on the Narrative

Once everyone is clear about their roles, the next step in preparation is understanding the flow of the narrative. Each team member may have a different idea in mind on what message they want to deliver with the presentation. Needless to say, if you have four speakers all communicating a different message, the presentation will flop and the key points will be mute. Co-presenters should discuss the narrative end-to-end and align on how their speaking points tie into that core message. Getting everyone on the same page can help to deliver a seamless and powerful narrative. 

Practice Transitions

Once you have roles defined and a consistent narrative established, co-speakers should work on their transitions. Speakers cannot simply rehearse their own material and forget about the handoffs. This is a sure-fire way to lose the audience’s trust and attention. There are many ways to prepare for transitions, but we have two favorite best practices. 

The first is the review preview method. This approach means the speaker takes 1-2 sentences to recap what they just discussed and then another 1-2 sentences to preview the material that the next speaker will cover. As a team, presenters should run through this method together to make sure that their speaking points flow together and team members do their best to set the next speaker up for success. 

The second best practice to prepare for transitions is to use speaker notes . Speaker notes can be an effective tool to include directions for the presentation directly on the slides. You can prepare by leaving clues for yourself on how to transition between slides, what is coming next, and who you are handing off the speaking floor to. 

Prepare for Room Layout + Technology

The last step to preparing for a joint presentation is making sure everyone understands how the room layout and technology will affect the presentation. For example, if a large screen is centered behind the stage, it will make the most sense to group speakers together on both sides based on who is speaking in what sequence. Also, if there is only going to be one handheld microphone that will need to be planned for vs. everyone having their own clip on microphone. Almost every setting we’ve presented in has had a different room and technology layout, so this one is difficult to prepare for. Our recommendation is to at least reach out and ask for specific details so that your team can do their best to prepare accordingly. 

Live During the Presentation 

After you’ve aligned on team dynamics and prepared thoroughly, it’s time to execute. We’ve learned a few lessons that are important to keep in mind. 

Connect With the Other Speakers

When you present with other speakers, the audience will want to understand how you connect with each other. They’ll be wondering how you know each other, what your current relationship is, if you get along, how your personalities differ, and more. To engage the audience, don’t be afraid to put your relationships on display and use storytelling to help them better understand how all the speakers are connected. This will help the audience to better emphasize with your presentation. 

Stay Focused While Others Present

This tip should go without saying, but it’s harder to follow than you’d think. You may start thinking ahead about what you’re going to say and end up looking like you’re dozing off and uninterested in what your co-presenters have to say. The audience will pick up on these visual cues. If you don’t appear to be interested, then why should they be? So remember to focus when others are speaking and look interested in what they have to say. Head nods, laughs, verbal reinforcement… you get the gist. 

Establish Your Own Voice but Don’t Hog the Mic

Co-presentations really thrive when each speaker shows off their skills and knowledge in their own way. So it’s important that every speaker is confident in their speaking abilities and establishes their own voice. However, this combined with passion about the presentation topic can lead an individual to hog the microphone. There’s nothing worse than having to rush through your section in two minutes because the speaker before you went 15 minutes over their allotted time. So be considerate of your co-speakers and let your voice shine within the time that you’re allowed. 

In Conclusion

As you and your co-speakers gear up for your next big speech or proposal, remember these simple guidelines. Establish team dynamics, practice the speech end-to-end as if it were live, and be conscious of your effect on the presentation both when you’re speaking and listening. Best of luck! 

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Mastering Group Presentations: A Comprehensive Guide

  • Public Speaking

I n certain academic and business situations, delivering a group presentation can be more valuable than a solo one. Not only does it help alleviate the pressure on individuals, but it also promotes collaboration and the production of cohesive work. However, preparing for a group presentation requires careful organization and understanding of the audience . In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the key steps to master group presentations, from preparation to delivery, and provide practical tips for success.

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Preparing for the Group Presentation

Like any presentation, a group presentation requires significant preparation. The key to success lies in organizing the group effectively, considering multiple personalities and ensuring a cohesive final product.

Choosing a Presentation Moderator

To facilitate organization, the group should appoint a presentation moderator, essentially the “leader” of the group. The presentation moderator has the final say in decision-making and can allocate speakers for specific questions during the Q&A session.

Understanding the Audience

To make a presentation engaging, it is crucial to consider the audience and tailor the content to their needs. Assessing the audience’s prior knowledge and expectations of the topic helps determine the appropriate level of technicality and detail. For example, presenting the topic of bridge building to civil engineers allows for the use of technical language, while presenting to secondary school students requires simpler explanations.

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Defining the Presentation’s Purpose

Before diving into the content, the group must agree on the purpose of the presentation. Defining a clear message ensures that all subtopics contribute to the overall aim. For example, if the presentation aims to explore the effectiveness of different treatments for social anxiety, the group can build key points around this central theme.

Dividing the Presentation

A well-structured presentation should have a clear beginning, middle, and end. Divide the content into main sections, carefully considering the order of subtopics. The typical presentation structure includes:

  • Introduction: The first minute of the presentation should capture the audience’s interest and provide an overview of the presentation’s structure. Clearly state the aims and objectives, such as exploring the effectiveness of different treatments for social anxiety.
  • Middle Sections: These sections address the main points of the presentation, providing information that supports the overall aim. Depending on the topic, there can be one or more middle sections.
  • Conclusion : Summarize the key points and present a clear conclusion that ties everything together. Assign this section to the best speaker who can effectively synthesize the information presented.

Establishing a time sequence and setting deadlines for each task within the presentation ensures smooth progress and timely completion.

Sharing Responsibility

Unequal participation within a group can lead to disharmony and reduced cohesion in the presentation. Avoid this by assigning each speaker a specific section to work on based on their interests and expertise. Clear expectations and time management guidelines should be communicated to all group members.

Building the Presentation Together

To ensure a cohesive and seamless presentation, it is crucial to build it together as a group. This collaborative approach offers several benefits:

Avoiding Duplication of Content

By working together, the group can avoid duplicating content and ensure that each speaker’s section seamlessly connects with the others. This prevents confusion and maintains a coherent flow throughout the presentation.

Creating Consistency in Slides

While each speaker can work on their own slides, one individual should be responsible for merging them to ensure consistency in design and formatting. Collaboration enables feedback and edits to be made collectively, resulting in a polished final product.

Receiving Feedback

Meeting up to build the presentation allows for valuable feedback on speeches before presenting to an audience. The group can collectively review and refine each speaker’s content, ensuring clarity and relevance.

Establishing a Unified Conclusion

Building the presentation together enables the group to agree on the concluding section. This ensures that all key points are summarized effectively and the presentation concludes with a strong and cohesive ending.

Maintaining Balanced Speaking Time

By working together, the group can ensure that each speaker talks for a similar amount of time and covers a similar amount of information. This balance enhances the overall flow of the presentation and keeps the audience engaged .

Crafting a Compelling Opening

To captivate the audience from the start, consider opening the presentation with a relevant and engaging story. For example, when discussing the benefits of pets on physical and psychological health, share a story or study about someone whose quality of life significantly improved after getting a pet. Incorporating stories into presentations helps make them more memorable and relatable.

Knowing Each Speaker’s Content

To avoid repetition and promote seamless transitions, each speaker should be aware of what the other group members will say. This knowledge allows for cross-referencing between sections, enhancing the coherence and flow of the presentation. Additionally, if a team member is unable to attend, it becomes easier to find a replacement within the group.

Writing and Practicing Transitions

Smooth transitions between speakers contribute to a well-structured and engaging presentation. When transitioning, briefly recap the previous section, introduce the next speaker and their topic, and gesture towards them to signal the handover. Practice these transitions to ensure a seamless flow and keep the audience engaged throughout the presentation.

Rehearsing the Presentation

Rehearsing the presentation multiple times as a group is essential for success. This practice allows the group to evaluate the structure, timing, and content of the presentation. It also increases familiarity with the material, boosting confidence and improving responses to questions. Regular rehearsal sessions help the group identify any necessary edits and ensure a polished delivery.

Handling Nerves Before the Presentation

Nervousness before a presentation is natural, regardless of the audience size. Here are some tips to manage pre-presentation nerves:

Remind Yourself of the Audience’s Expectations

Remember that the audience is there to listen and wants you to succeed. They are likely to empathize with your nerves, as they may also have their own presentations to deliver. Recognizing this shared experience can help alleviate anxiety.

Practice and Familiarize Yourself with the Material

Practicing with your group and rehearsing your section at home builds familiarity and confidence. It allows you to become comfortable with the content and delivery, reducing anxiety.

Focus on Controlled Breathing

Nervousness can lead to rapid breathing, increasing anxiety levels. Practicing controlled breathing techniques can help regulate your breathing and reduce anxiety. Before the presentation, sit upright and take deep breaths in through your nose, filling your abdomen. Hold the breath for a few seconds, then exhale through your nose for a longer duration. Repeat this cycle to calm your nerves .

Avoid Filler Words

When nervous, people tend to use filler words like “um” and “uh” to fill gaps in their speech. Practice pausing instead of using filler words. Embrace the silence and speak deliberately, allowing your words to convey your message effectively.

During the Group Presentation

Once the presentation begins, there are several key considerations to ensure a confident and engaging delivery.

Introduce the Team

The presentation should start with the presentation moderator introducing the team, rather than each individual introducing themselves. This approach creates a smoother transition into the content and enhances the overall cohesion of the presentation.

Pay Attention to the Presentation

While waiting for your turn to speak, actively listen to your colleagues’ presentations. Display interest and engagement in their content, even if you have heard it before. This non-verbal support contributes to a positive group dynamic and keeps the audience engaged.

Utilize Body Language and Eye Contact

Body language is a powerful tool for engaging the audience. When it’s your turn to speak, stand slightly in the foreground of the group, smile at the audience, and make eye contact. Keep your arms uncrossed and avoid looking down at your notes or slides. Instead, face the audience and maintain eye contact as you speak.

Vocal Variety

How you deliver your speech is just as important as the content itself. Adapt your voice to emphasize important points, raise or lower your voice for intensity, and avoid speaking in a monotone manner. Sound enthusiastic and confident, as your tone can significantly impact audience engagement. Speak loudly and clearly, ensuring that everyone can hear you. If you notice yourself speaking too quickly, pause and slow down to maintain clarity.

Warm Up Your Voice

Before starting the presentation, warm up your voice by taking short pauses and breathing deeply. This exercise helps you achieve vocal variety and ensures that your voice remains clear and strong throughout the presentation.

Managing Nervous Behaviors

It’s natural to feel nervous during a presentation, but it’s important to manage nervous behaviors. Avoid shifting your weight or fidgeting, as these actions can distract the audience. Remember that the audience is unlikely to perceive your anxiety as strongly as you feel it.

Delivering a Strong Conclusion

The conclusion is a critical part of the presentation, as it is the last section the audience will remember. Summarize the key points and lead into a clear concluding statement that reinforces the main message. For example, when discussing the impact of social media on self-esteem, list the main points covered and conclude with a definitive statement based on the evidence presented.

Handling Questions and Answer Sessions

The Q&A session after the main presentation can be challenging, as the questions asked may be unpredictable. However, working as a group allows for a distributed knowledge base and ensures that each question is addressed by the most knowledgeable speaker. When answering questions:

  • Pause before responding to gather your thoughts.
  • Focus on directly answering the question without providing unnecessary information.
  • If you don’t understand a question, ask for clarification to avoid providing irrelevant answers.
  • It’s okay not to have all the answers. If you’re unsure, acknowledge it and offer to follow up with additional research.

Ending the Presentation

A strong ending is crucial to leave a lasting impression. The presentation moderator should thank the audience and, if applicable, smoothly transition to the next group or topic. This final gesture provides closure and ensures a professional conclusion to the presentation.

Mastering group presentations requires effective organization, collaboration, and preparation. By following the steps outlined in this comprehensive guide, you can confidently navigate the process from start to finish. Remember to choose a presentation moderator, understand your audience , divide the presentation into sections, share responsibilities, build the presentation together, utilize stories to engage the audience , practice transitions, manage nerves, and deliver a strong conclusion. With practice and a collaborative mindset, you can excel in group presentations and effectively communicate your message to diverse audiences . So, embrace the opportunity to work as a team, learn from one another, and grow your public speaking skills through group presentations .

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Key Takeaways

I. Introduction A. Importance of group presentations in academic and business contexts B. Benefits of group presentations, including pressure alleviation, collaboration, and cohesive work C. Overview of the comprehensive guide

II. Preparing for the Group Presentation A. Choosing a Presentation Moderator B. Understanding the Audience C. Defining the Presentation’s Purpose D. Dividing the Presentation E. Sharing Responsibility F. Building the Presentation Together G. Crafting a Compelling Opening H. Knowing Each Speaker’s Content I. Writing and Practicing Transitions J. Rehearsing the Presentation K. Handling Nerves Before the Presentation

III. During the Group Presentation A. Introduce the Team B. Pay Attention to the Presentation C. Utilize Body Language and Eye Contact D. Vocal Variety and Warm-Up Exercises E. Managing Nervous Behaviors F. Delivering a Strong Conclusion G. Handling Questions and Answer Sessions H. Ending the Presentation

IV. Conclusion A. Recap of key points in mastering group presentations B. Encouragement to embrace teamwork and collaborative learning C. Call to action: Build career skills online with public speaking classes and executive coaching

V. Call to Action A. Invitation to start a free trial for online public speaking classes and courses B. Information on how to access executive coaching and business coaching services

This comprehensive guide provides a step-by-step approach to mastering group presentations, emphasizing the importance of organization, collaboration, and preparation. By following the outlined strategies, individuals can confidently deliver engaging and impactful presentations, enhancing their public speaking skills and professional development.

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How to Give a Great Group Presentation

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Whether for an introductory course, internship, or senior seminar, group presentations are part of everyone's college experience and can be a source of very real anxiety. Next time you are assigned a group presentation, don't panic—instead, embrace the opportunity to learn and demonstrate your abilities. Read to find out what you can do to make your next group presentation memorable.

Distribute the Work Evenly

The first step to planning an A-worthy presentation is to make sure everyone carries their own weight, though this is easier said than done. This step will set your presentation up for success but can be challenging to pull off. It is likely that at least some of the people in your group will have unmatched academic abilities and work ethics, but this problem can be overcome.

Outline the work that needs to be done for the whole project and divvy up roles based on what people are comfortable doing. Make the expectations of each person clear so that there is accountability from start to finish—if something gets sloppily finished or is left entirely undone, the issue can be traced back to whatever group member is responsible and handled accordingly. If necessary, discuss problems with the professor . Don't let one person's laziness sabotage your entire group's work.

Schedule Deadlines and Rehearsals in Advance

As a college student, it can be incredibly difficult to manage your own time let alone synchronize the schedules of several different group members. Planning to get together as far in advance as possible makes it less likely that other commitments are prioritized over important group planning time.

At your first group meeting, set a timeline for when things need to be done. Schedule meetings, deadlines, and rehearsals as far into the future as the assignment allows. Never plan to cram at an all-night stress fest the night before—tired and over-extended group members will have a hard time executing even the most well-planned presentation.

Present Together

Just as you should use the strengths and weaknesses of group members to assign planning roles before the presentation, you should consider the abilities of every group member when deciding how the presentation itself should actually be delivered. Cohesion is crucial to a great presentation. People will notice if one or more group members do not speak or the presentation gets off-topic each time a new person takes over, and weak delivery does not bode well for your grade.

When you are planning how you will present, ask yourself and your group members the following questions:

  • What is the best way to deliver this material?
  • What presenting strengths does each group member have?
  • What goals must be met during the presentation?
  • How will we divide and conquer scripting the presentation?
  • What will we do if the presentation gets off-topic or a member forgets their part?

Prepare for Emergencies

Hopefully, you have put the time into creating an outstanding presentation, so don't let small hiccups derail it. Make sure that you know each other's responsibilities well enough to take over for them in times of crisis.

You never know when someone will get unexpectedly sick , face a family emergency, or be otherwise unable to show up for a presentation. Have a system in place where one group member can serve as an understudy for another group member so that your presentation does not crash and burn if someone is not there. Make the most of your preparations by planning for any scenario and remember to work as a team when things go wrong.

For a crisp presentation that leaves a strong impression on your professor and classmates, you need to rehearse. At least one run-through from beginning to end can smooth out any wrinkles, help nervous members overcome their fear, and ensure that you haven't left anything out.

Go through your parts as planned and offer each other constructive feedback immediately after. This may be uncomfortable, but helpful peer feedback can prevent negative feedback and bad grades from professors. Frame comments to members positively with a "glow and a grow": one thing they did really well and one area for improvement.

You should also discuss a dress code right before you rehearse so that all group members don the appropriate attire for the occasion. Lend each other clothes to help each other out if needed.

Stay Present During the Presentation

As long as your group is up there presenting, you need to be giving the presentation your all. This means that, even if your part is over, you should remain alert, engaged, and undistracted. This will make your presentation look and sound better while also enabling seamless emergency transitions. If you pay attention to your whole presentation, you will be much better prepared to step in for someone that needs rescuing—also, odds are that everyone else (professor included) will be more likely to pay attention if they see you paying attention.

Group presentations can be very effortful and time-consuming, so celebration is definitely in order once it's over. Reward yourself as a team for a job well done to bond after the potentially traumatizing experience you have shared.

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How to Deliver Group Presentations: The Unified Team Approach

When you’re asked to present as part of a panel of experts or a team making a sales pitch, you might think that there is safety in numbers and that you need to prepare less than if you were speaking on your own.

The truth is that, for your audience, a group presentation is only as strong as its weakest presenter. Here’s how to help your team create a strong and unified group presentation .

3 Ingredients of Great Group Presentations

The three ingredients to develop and deliver a unified group presentation are clarity, control, and commitment.

Clarity of Purpose

Clarity of roles, clarity of message, control introductions, control transitions, control time and space, commit to a schedule, commit to rehearsing.

  • Commit to Answering Your Audience’s Questions

Incorporating these elements will give your audience a “seamless” message.

Ingredient #1: Clarity

Just as your presentation will have a clear purpose, expressed in a thesis statement, your group should create a Charter Statement that explicitly captures the group’s desired outcome.

The charter is different from a thesis statement. The thesis specifically frames the presentation message whereas the charter frames your group’s purpose. This Charter Statement becomes the test of everything that will go into the presentation and help guide the efforts of the team. The charter and the thesis may overlap, but even your thesis statement must be tested against the group’s Charter.

For example, if your group agrees that your general purpose is to sell your product, and, more specifically, you know that the key decision maker in the audience is leery about cutting checks to companies like yours, build that into your Charter Statement.

The purpose of our presentation is to sell our Product to ABC Company by overcoming the objections of the company’s Purchasing Officer through clear examples of how our Product provides a fast return on investment.

The Charter Statement will come in handy when you have a team member who may want to go “off track” to tell personal anecdotes that don’t pass the test of the group’s charter.

Personalities come into play when groups meet to develop presentations. Jockeying for position and ego struggles can quickly deplete the group’s momentum, resulting in hurt feelings and, potentially, a weaker presentation. Providing clarity to group roles helps to establish expectations and keep the entire group moving towards a common objective: a great group presentation.

“ Developing clarity within your group will help you develop a clear message for your audience. ”

Identify the roles your group needs during message development. For example, to ensure that team members are meeting assignments, select a Project Manager . This person isn’t the “boss of the presentation”, but rather will focus on schedule and assignments.

Other roles could include a Gap Analyst who is responsible for identifying “gaps” in content and support materials (handouts, graphics, etc.), which in turn could work closely with other roles within the group like the Chief Researcher .

Capitalize on the unique personalities within your group to develop roles that work well for all, but be sure to discuss the roles openly so they are clear to everyone.

Instead of writing “speeches” for each individual speaker , try creating one master presentation , a unified narrative, and then decide who speaks to which points, and when.

This is a shift from the traditional segmented method of group presentations where often group members are directed to “give five minutes of talking” and then are left to develop content independently.

In a master presentation, each speaker may weave in and out at various points during the presentation. When done well, this fluid dynamic can hold an audience’s attention better by offering a regular change in speakers’ voices and presence.

By using a master presentation, your group will ensure that each of the presenters will stay “on script” and use cohesive language, smooth transitions, and (when using visuals) consistent graphics.

Ingredient #2: Control

Your audience notices how your group introduces itself, so plan those introductions with your presentation.

Your presentation may be part of a larger event that includes an emcee who will introduce the team. If so, be sure that you provide pertinent information to the emcee that will allow her/him to generate interest in your presentation even before you begin speaking.

If your group is responsible for making its own introductions, however, you will need to decide if you will introduce your group members in the beginning, or when they first speak. Your group also will need to decide if each member introduces her/himself, or if one member will introduce everyone.

There is no one right way to do introductions, but your group must decide how to do them before the day of the presentation.

Decide how you are going to “hand off” from one speaker to the next. In the “master presentation” approach, you may want to consider simply have speakers pick up a narrative right where the previous speaker left off.

“ Your audience notices how your group introduces itself, so plan those introductions with your presentation. ”

If you use the more traditional segmented approach, each speaker may cue the subsequent speakers by identifying them and their subject matter. For example:

“…and speaking of quality control, no one is more qualified the Bob Johnson. Bob is going to tell us about how this team will deliver a quality project for you.”

Another option is to assign a group emcee who will handle transitions between presentation sections. Your group will need to determine which option makes the most sense based on your presentation style and audience expectations.

Multiple speakers translate to occupying more physical space, and the potential to gobble up more time with introductions and transitions.

If you will be presenting in a small room, consider where each speaker needs to be positioned to quickly reach the speaking area, and whether they will sit or stand when not speaking.

Your presentation must fit within your allotted time, so you will need to time your group’s presentation, including equipment set up, introductions, and transitions.

Ingredient #3: Commitment

Once you know the date of your presentation, create a schedule that includes specific milestones, such as “presentation draft due” and “final rehearsal”. Having a specific schedule allows members either to agree to the group’s expectations or to offer dates that better fit their personal schedules.

Additionally, you can assign specific responsibilities to the scheduled milestones; for example, who is responsible for bringing the handouts, projector, and laptop to the presentation?

“ If you find group members who lack the commitment to rehearse, consider finding group members who will commit. ”

Rehearsing is one of the most important steps for presentation success. Have your team members agree from day one that they will make themselves available to practice with the group.

If you find group members who lack the commitment to rehearse, consider finding group members who will commit. Practice makes perfect, and no rehearsal means your group doesn’t know what will happen to the content, timing, or quality of the presentation. Do those sound like things your group would like to leave to chance?

Commit to Answering Your Audience’s Questions

Once your formal presentation is over, you may see some raised hands in the audience, ready to pepper your group with questions. Your presentation is not over yet. How you handle those questions is as important as the presentation itself. A well-done presentation means nothing if presenters fumble questions so badly that they appear incompetent.

Have each member develop a list of potential questions and then, as a group, review the list. Discuss who will be responsible for handling which types of questions. Are there any questions important enough to build into the presentation?

From a Rag-Tag Group of Speakers to a Dynamic Presenting Team

By incorporating these three ingredients into your next group presentation process, you will find that you not only develop a presentation that your audience loves, but your group will transform from a rag-tag group of speakers into a dynamic presenting team.

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Great article — what I have found over the years with group presentations (2 or more people) is that the transitions are critical for success. Done well, with good chemistry, and a group presentation is fun to watch. Done badly, with awkward moments, and a group presentation becomes a group debacle.

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How to Deliver Group Presentations: The Unified Team Approach http://bit.ly/3xVq3Z II nice read — Harish Nair Nov 4th, 2009
How to Deliver Group Presentations: The Unified Team Approach via @6minutes #eventprofs http://ow.ly/EHEP — Jeff Hurt Nov 23rd, 2009
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5 Powerful Group Presentation Examples + Guide to Nail Your Next Talk

Leah Nguyen • 04 April, 2024 • 6 min read

A group presentation is a chance to combine your superpowers, brainstorm like mad geniuses, and deliver a presentation that'll have your audience begging for an encore.

That's the gist of it.

It can also be a disaster if it's not done right. Fortunately, we have awesome group presentation examples to help you get the hang of it💪.

Table of Contents

What is a good group presentation, #1. delivering a successful team presentation, #2. athletetrax team presentation, #3. bumble - 1st place - 2017 national business plan competition, #4. 2019 final round yonsei university, #5. 1st place | macy's case competition, bottom line, frequently asked questions, tips for audience engagement.

  • Manager your timing in presentation better
  • Learn to introduce team member now

Alternative Text

Start in seconds.

Get free templates for your next interactive presentation. Sign up for free and take what you want from the template library!

What is a good group presentation?Clear communication, convincing arguments, careful preparation, and the ability to adapt.
What are the benefits of group presentations?Collaborative effort, shared resources, and fresh concepts.

Group presentation example

Here are some key aspects of a good group presentation:

• Organisation - The presentation should follow a logical flow, with a clear introduction, body, and conclusion. An outline or roadmap shown upfront helps guide the audience.

• Visual aids – Use slides, videos, diagrams, etc. to enhance the presentation and keep it engaging. But avoid overly packed slides with too much text. For the sake of convenience of quickly sharing the content, you can attach a QR code directly in your presentation using slides QR code generator for this goal.

• Speaking skills - Speak clearly, at an appropriate pace and volume. Make eye contact with the audience. Limit filler words and verbal tics.

• Participation - All group members should contribute to the presentation in an active and balanced way. They should speak in an integrated, conversational manner. You can also gather attention from your audience by using different interactive features, including spinner wheel live word clouds , live Q&A , online quiz creator and survey tool , to maximize engagement.

🎉 Choose the best Q&A tool with AhaSlides

• Content - The material should be relevant, informative, and at an appropriate level for the audience. Good research and preparation ensure accuracy.

• Interaction - Involve the audience through questions, demonstrations, polls , or activities. This helps keep their attention and facilitates learning.

• Time management - Stay within the allotted time through careful planning and time checks. Have someone in the group monitor the clock.

• Audience focus - Consider the audience's needs and perspective. Frame the material in a way that is relevant and valuable to them.

• Conclusion - Provide a strong summary of the main points and takeaways. Leave the audience with key messages they'll remember from your presentation.

🎊 Tips: Icebreaker games | The secret weapon for connecting a new group

Present in powerful and creative visual

Engage your audience in real-time. Let them imprint your presentation in their head with revolutionising interactive slides!

Best Group Presentation Examples

To give you a good idea of what a good group presentation is, here are some specific examples for you to learn from.

The video provides helpful examples and recommendations to illustrate each of these tips for improving team presentations.

The speaker recommends preparing thoroughly as a team, assigning clear roles to each member, and rehearsing multiple times to deliver an effective team presentation that engages the audience.

They speak loudly and clearly, make eye contact with the audience, and avoid reading slides word for word.

The visuals are done properly, with limited text on slides, and relevant images and graphics are used to support key points.

The presentation follows a logical structure, covering the company overview, the problem they are solving, the proposed solution, business model, competition, marketing strategy, finances, and next steps. This makes it easy to follow.

The presenters speak clearly and confidently, make good eye contact with the audience, and avoid simply reading the slides. Their professional demeanor creates a good impression.

They provide a cogent and concise answer to the one question they receive at the end, demonstrating a good understanding of their business plan.

This group nails it with a positive attitude throughout the presentation . Smiles show warmness in opposition to blank stares.

The team cites relevant usage statistics and financial metrics to demonstrate Bumble's growth potential. This lends credibility to their pitch.

All points are elaborated well, and they switch between members harmoniously.

This group presentation shows that a little stutter initially doesn't mean it's the end of the world. They keep going with confidence and carry out the plan flawlessly, which impresses the judging panel.

The team provides clear, supported responses that demonstrate their knowledge and thoughtfulness.

When answering the questions from the judge, they exchange frequent eye contact with them, showing confident manners.

🎉 Tips: Divide your team into smaller groups for them to practice presenting better!

In this video , we can see instantly that each member of the group takes control of the stage they present naturally. They move around, exuding an aura of confidence in what they're saying.

For an intricate topic like diversity and inclusion, they made their points well-put by backing them up with figures and data.

🎊 Tips: Rate your presentation by effective rating scale tool , to make sure that everyone's satisfied with your presentation!

We hope these group presentation examples will help you and your team members achieve clear communication, organisation, and preparation, along with the ability to deliver the message in an engaging and compelling manner. These factors all contribute to a good group presentation that wow the audience.

More to read:

  • 💡 10 Interactive Presentation Techniques for Engagement
  • 💡 220++ Easy Topics for Presentation of all Ages
  • 💡 Complete Guide to Interactive Presentations

What is a group presentation?

A group presentation is a presentation given by multiple people, typically two or more, to an audience. Group presentations are common in academic, business, and organisational settings.

How do you make a group presentation?

To make an effective group presentation, clearly define the objective, assign roles among group members for researching, creating slides, and rehearsing, create an outline with an introduction, 3-5 key points, and a conclusion, and gather relevant facts and examples to support each point, include meaningful visual aids on slides while limiting text, practice your full presentation together and provide each other with feedback, conclude strongly by summarising key takeaways.

Leah Nguyen

Leah Nguyen

Words that convert, stories that stick. I turn complex ideas into engaging narratives - helping audiences learn, remember, and take action.

Tips to Engage with Polls & Trivia

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From Qualitative to Quantitative | Online Guide to Combining Q&A with Other Research Methods Article

presenting group meaning

How to present with a group

by Allison Shapira | Nov 10, 2015 | Speaking Tips | 0 comments

I recently judged a case competition at Georgetown University’s McDonough School of Business, where I’m an adjunct professor. The competition was part of the residency program of the school’s  Online Master of Science in Finance , a fantastic program that gives finance professionals the skills they need to become industry leaders.

Watching 15 different groups present the exact same case was a great study in effective group presentations. And the timing was perfect; my colleague Christine Clapp of Spoken with Authority had just written an article for The Toastmaster magazine on the same topic – read that article for more information on developing (as well as presenting) your group presentation.

Here are some of my takeaways which are just as relevant in the corporate boardroom as they are in the classroom.

1. Open with energy: You dictate the energy in the room within the first 10 seconds, so make sure that the first person to open the presentation has high energy and connects with the audience. This same person should close the presentation with that same energy, creating a well-rounded presentation and setting up the stage for next steps.

2. Practice your transitions:  When you’re presenting as a group, how you transition from one person to the next is really important. The best presenters introduced their colleagues by saying, “And now Steve is going to talk about our recommendations.” Then, Steve would say “Thanks, Jennifer. So Jennifer walked us through the points to keep in mind. Now I will…” which gave a nice flow to the presentation and kept up momentum from one speaker to the next.

3. Always be on: Even when you’re not presenting, you are still “on stage” so to speak . If you’re standing off to the side, be attentive and stay focused on the person speaking or on the audience – not on your phone or tablet. Make sure you’re also not standing in the light of the projector. Every moment in the room, you are representing the group.

4. Avoid group fillers : I’ve noticed that people in the same office tend to use the same filler words, such as: sort of ,  kind of, right?  – passing around filler words in what one colleague calls “linguistic contagion.” Avoid picking up those words from your colleagues and remember to pause and breathe instead.

5. Speak to the audience, not to the slides : When presenting material developed by a group, we tend to defer to the slides over the audience. Sometimes it’s because only one person on the team developed the slides at the last minute. Whatever the reason, make sure that your focus is squarely on the audience. You can have a printout of the slides in front of you or a confidence monitor – but remember that you need to make a compelling case to the people in front of you, not to the slides behind you.

6. Don’t just show the numbers, talk about what they mean : At one of my workshops in New York, a participant from a major bank mentioned the importance of interpreting the numbers, not just listing them. She said, “I don’t just show the numbers, I tell the client why those numbers are important and what they mean for the client.” Make your presentation personal to the audience by talking about the WHAT and also the WHY.

7. Speak in a conversational tone: When presenting with a team, I’ve noticed people have a tendency to either speak too formally (full of jargon) or too casually (“ Hey guys” ). Find a natural tone that sounds both professional to the audience and natural to you. Use clear words and real-world examples, especially if you can include a personal example, such as, “If you’re from California like me, then you’ll know…”

8. Leave time for Q+A: We all know that speeches with slides take longer than speeches without, especially in a group. Remember to give yourself plenty of time to prepare and always run through the full presentation as a group with slides to time yourself. The best presentations keep to time and leave time for substantive Q+A.

9. Have a clear ask: The best presenters have a clear call to action, request, or recommendation for the audience. You can either state it up front or use it as your conclusion (ideally both) but always make sure it’s clear and clearly supported by your substance. The more specific you are in your “ask,” the easier you make it for the audience to say “yes.”

So the next time you have to present with a group, keep these ideas in mind. If you implement them successfully, you will give a powerful and momentum-building presentation that spurs your audience to take action.

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Module 14: Small Group Communication

Presenting as a group, learning objectives.

Describe different formats for presenting as or for a small group.

Five people presenting as a group

Small groups are often a problem-solving group that researches a situation or problem that presents their conclusions and recommendations. This presentation might take different forms including an individual reporting, a group presentation, or a panel discussion. [1]

Regardless of the particular method of delivery, all the elements of outstanding public speaking apply. These elements include a logical structure; an engaging introduction and strong conclusion; well-supported main points; and clear, descriptive language. In terms of delivery, having excellent eye contact, vocal variety, an open posture, and animated features all combine to effectively convey the group’s message.

Let’s look at three presentation formats in more detail:

Individual Report

Although the entire small group has participated in researching and discussing a particular project or objective, oftentimes one person will be designated to present the findings or recommendations. This person might be a group leader or a member who enjoys or has experience presenting. Ideally, the entire group would assist in putting together the presentation so that it is balanced, easy to follow, and well supported. Both the main presenter and the group members might be called upon to answer questions both before and after the presentation. Depending on the tone and setup of the presentation, group members might chime in to clarify any points, so long as they don’t take over the presentation.

“A symposium is a public presentation in which several people present prepared speeches on different aspects of the same topic” (Lucas, 2020, p. 387). If your small group presents a symposium, you need to decide in advance who will present which aspect of your findings or project and practice in advance. Sometimes, the group leader will act as a moderator to introduce the group and segue between each speaker. Other times, each speaker will conclude their remarks by introducing the next speaker: “now that I’ve talked about the risks of adopting our proposal, I’ll turn the time over to Raj to discuss how we hope to address those risks.” In a symposium, each speaker needs to plan their time carefully so they don’t take over other presenters’ allotted time.

Panel Discussion

Like a symposium, a panel discussion draws on some or all members of a small group to present. Unlike a symposium, a panel discussion tends to be more informal and conversational, with a moderator introducing each panelist, asking questions and facilitating the discussion. Like all public speakers, panelists should be well prepared with their content and confer with other panelists in advance, possibly bringing along notes to refer to. However, the tone should still be more spontaneous and discussion oriented with some back-and-forth among panelists and with the moderator. A panel discussion often involves a question-and-answer period with the audience. When asked questions, panelists should listen carefully to each question, keep their responses relatively brief, and be sure they’ve clearly understood and responded to any questions.

Practice Question

  • Lucas, Stephen.  The Art of Public Speaking . United States, McGraw-Hill Education, 2020. ↵
  • Panel discussion. Authored by : Quinn Dombrowski. Located at : https://flic.kr/p/rJeT8H . License : CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike
  • Presenting as a Group. Authored by : Susan Bagley-Koyle with Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution

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Blog Beginner Guides How To Make a Good Presentation [A Complete Guide]

How To Make a Good Presentation [A Complete Guide]

Written by: Krystle Wong Jul 20, 2023

How to make a good presentation

A top-notch presentation possesses the power to drive action. From winning stakeholders over and conveying a powerful message to securing funding — your secret weapon lies within the realm of creating an effective presentation .  

Being an excellent presenter isn’t confined to the boardroom. Whether you’re delivering a presentation at work, pursuing an academic career, involved in a non-profit organization or even a student, nailing the presentation game is a game-changer.

In this article, I’ll cover the top qualities of compelling presentations and walk you through a step-by-step guide on how to give a good presentation. Here’s a little tip to kick things off: for a headstart, check out Venngage’s collection of free presentation templates . They are fully customizable, and the best part is you don’t need professional design skills to make them shine!

These valuable presentation tips cater to individuals from diverse professional backgrounds, encompassing business professionals, sales and marketing teams, educators, trainers, students, researchers, non-profit organizations, public speakers and presenters. 

No matter your field or role, these tips for presenting will equip you with the skills to deliver effective presentations that leave a lasting impression on any audience.

Click to jump ahead:

What are the 10 qualities of a good presentation?

Step-by-step guide on how to prepare an effective presentation, 9 effective techniques to deliver a memorable presentation, faqs on making a good presentation, how to create a presentation with venngage in 5 steps.

When it comes to giving an engaging presentation that leaves a lasting impression, it’s not just about the content — it’s also about how you deliver it. Wondering what makes a good presentation? Well, the best presentations I’ve seen consistently exhibit these 10 qualities:

1. Clear structure

No one likes to get lost in a maze of information. Organize your thoughts into a logical flow, complete with an introduction, main points and a solid conclusion. A structured presentation helps your audience follow along effortlessly, leaving them with a sense of satisfaction at the end.

Regardless of your presentation style , a quality presentation starts with a clear roadmap. Browse through Venngage’s template library and select a presentation template that aligns with your content and presentation goals. Here’s a good presentation example template with a logical layout that includes sections for the introduction, main points, supporting information and a conclusion: 

presenting group meaning

2. Engaging opening

Hook your audience right from the start with an attention-grabbing statement, a fascinating question or maybe even a captivating anecdote. Set the stage for a killer presentation!

The opening moments of your presentation hold immense power – check out these 15 ways to start a presentation to set the stage and captivate your audience.

3. Relevant content

Make sure your content aligns with their interests and needs. Your audience is there for a reason, and that’s to get valuable insights. Avoid fluff and get straight to the point, your audience will be genuinely excited.

4. Effective visual aids

Picture this: a slide with walls of text and tiny charts, yawn! Visual aids should be just that—aiding your presentation. Opt for clear and visually appealing slides, engaging images and informative charts that add value and help reinforce your message.

With Venngage, visualizing data takes no effort at all. You can import data from CSV or Google Sheets seamlessly and create stunning charts, graphs and icon stories effortlessly to showcase your data in a captivating and impactful way.

presenting group meaning

5. Clear and concise communication

Keep your language simple, and avoid jargon or complicated terms. Communicate your ideas clearly, so your audience can easily grasp and retain the information being conveyed. This can prevent confusion and enhance the overall effectiveness of the message. 

6. Engaging delivery

Spice up your presentation with a sprinkle of enthusiasm! Maintain eye contact, use expressive gestures and vary your tone of voice to keep your audience glued to the edge of their seats. A touch of charisma goes a long way!

7. Interaction and audience engagement

Turn your presentation into an interactive experience — encourage questions, foster discussions and maybe even throw in a fun activity. Engaged audiences are more likely to remember and embrace your message.

Transform your slides into an interactive presentation with Venngage’s dynamic features like pop-ups, clickable icons and animated elements. Engage your audience with interactive content that lets them explore and interact with your presentation for a truly immersive experience.

presenting group meaning

8. Effective storytelling

Who doesn’t love a good story? Weaving relevant anecdotes, case studies or even a personal story into your presentation can captivate your audience and create a lasting impact. Stories build connections and make your message memorable.

A great presentation background is also essential as it sets the tone, creates visual interest and reinforces your message. Enhance the overall aesthetics of your presentation with these 15 presentation background examples and captivate your audience’s attention.

9. Well-timed pacing

Pace your presentation thoughtfully with well-designed presentation slides, neither rushing through nor dragging it out. Respect your audience’s time and ensure you cover all the essential points without losing their interest.

10. Strong conclusion

Last impressions linger! Summarize your main points and leave your audience with a clear takeaway. End your presentation with a bang , a call to action or an inspiring thought that resonates long after the conclusion.

In-person presentations aside, acing a virtual presentation is of paramount importance in today’s digital world. Check out this guide to learn how you can adapt your in-person presentations into virtual presentations . 

Peloton Pitch Deck - Conclusion

Preparing an effective presentation starts with laying a strong foundation that goes beyond just creating slides and notes. One of the quickest and best ways to make a presentation would be with the help of a good presentation software . 

Otherwise, let me walk you to how to prepare for a presentation step by step and unlock the secrets of crafting a professional presentation that sets you apart.

1. Understand the audience and their needs

Before you dive into preparing your masterpiece, take a moment to get to know your target audience. Tailor your presentation to meet their needs and expectations , and you’ll have them hooked from the start!

2. Conduct thorough research on the topic

Time to hit the books (or the internet)! Don’t skimp on the research with your presentation materials — dive deep into the subject matter and gather valuable insights . The more you know, the more confident you’ll feel in delivering your presentation.

3. Organize the content with a clear structure

No one wants to stumble through a chaotic mess of information. Outline your presentation with a clear and logical flow. Start with a captivating introduction, follow up with main points that build on each other and wrap it up with a powerful conclusion that leaves a lasting impression.

Delivering an effective business presentation hinges on captivating your audience, and Venngage’s professionally designed business presentation templates are tailor-made for this purpose. With thoughtfully structured layouts, these templates enhance your message’s clarity and coherence, ensuring a memorable and engaging experience for your audience members.

Don’t want to build your presentation layout from scratch? pick from these 5 foolproof presentation layout ideas that won’t go wrong. 

presenting group meaning

4. Develop visually appealing and supportive visual aids

Spice up your presentation with eye-catching visuals! Create slides that complement your message, not overshadow it. Remember, a picture is worth a thousand words, but that doesn’t mean you need to overload your slides with text.

Well-chosen designs create a cohesive and professional look, capturing your audience’s attention and enhancing the overall effectiveness of your message. Here’s a list of carefully curated PowerPoint presentation templates and great background graphics that will significantly influence the visual appeal and engagement of your presentation.

5. Practice, practice and practice

Practice makes perfect — rehearse your presentation and arrive early to your presentation to help overcome stage fright. Familiarity with your material will boost your presentation skills and help you handle curveballs with ease.

6. Seek feedback and make necessary adjustments

Don’t be afraid to ask for help and seek feedback from friends and colleagues. Constructive criticism can help you identify blind spots and fine-tune your presentation to perfection.

With Venngage’s real-time collaboration feature , receiving feedback and editing your presentation is a seamless process. Group members can access and work on the presentation simultaneously and edit content side by side in real-time. Changes will be reflected immediately to the entire team, promoting seamless teamwork.

Venngage Real Time Collaboration

7. Prepare for potential technical or logistical issues

Prepare for the unexpected by checking your equipment, internet connection and any other potential hiccups. If you’re worried that you’ll miss out on any important points, you could always have note cards prepared. Remember to remain focused and rehearse potential answers to anticipated questions.

8. Fine-tune and polish your presentation

As the big day approaches, give your presentation one last shine. Review your talking points, practice how to present a presentation and make any final tweaks. Deep breaths — you’re on the brink of delivering a successful presentation!

In competitive environments, persuasive presentations set individuals and organizations apart. To brush up on your presentation skills, read these guides on how to make a persuasive presentation and tips to presenting effectively . 

presenting group meaning

Whether you’re an experienced presenter or a novice, the right techniques will let your presentation skills soar to new heights!

From public speaking hacks to interactive elements and storytelling prowess, these 9 effective presentation techniques will empower you to leave a lasting impression on your audience and make your presentations unforgettable.

1. Confidence and positive body language

Positive body language instantly captivates your audience, making them believe in your message as much as you do. Strengthen your stage presence and own that stage like it’s your second home! Stand tall, shoulders back and exude confidence. 

2. Eye contact with the audience

Break down that invisible barrier and connect with your audience through their eyes. Maintaining eye contact when giving a presentation builds trust and shows that you’re present and engaged with them.

3. Effective use of hand gestures and movement

A little movement goes a long way! Emphasize key points with purposeful gestures and don’t be afraid to walk around the stage. Your energy will be contagious!

4. Utilize storytelling techniques

Weave the magic of storytelling into your presentation. Share relatable anecdotes, inspiring success stories or even personal experiences that tug at the heartstrings of your audience. Adjust your pitch, pace and volume to match the emotions and intensity of the story. Varying your speaking voice adds depth and enhances your stage presence.

presenting group meaning

5. Incorporate multimedia elements

Spice up your presentation with a dash of visual pizzazz! Use slides, images and video clips to add depth and clarity to your message. Just remember, less is more—don’t overwhelm them with information overload. 

Turn your presentations into an interactive party! Involve your audience with questions, polls or group activities. When they actively participate, they become invested in your presentation’s success. Bring your design to life with animated elements. Venngage allows you to apply animations to icons, images and text to create dynamic and engaging visual content.

6. Utilize humor strategically

Laughter is the best medicine—and a fantastic presentation enhancer! A well-placed joke or lighthearted moment can break the ice and create a warm atmosphere , making your audience more receptive to your message.

7. Practice active listening and respond to feedback

Be attentive to your audience’s reactions and feedback. If they have questions or concerns, address them with genuine interest and respect. Your responsiveness builds rapport and shows that you genuinely care about their experience.

presenting group meaning

8. Apply the 10-20-30 rule

Apply the 10-20-30 presentation rule and keep it short, sweet and impactful! Stick to ten slides, deliver your presentation within 20 minutes and use a 30-point font to ensure clarity and focus. Less is more, and your audience will thank you for it!

9. Implement the 5-5-5 rule

Simplicity is key. Limit each slide to five bullet points, with only five words per bullet point and allow each slide to remain visible for about five seconds. This rule keeps your presentation concise and prevents information overload.

Simple presentations are more engaging because they are easier to follow. Summarize your presentations and keep them simple with Venngage’s gallery of simple presentation templates and ensure that your message is delivered effectively across your audience.

presenting group meaning

1. How to start a presentation?

To kick off your presentation effectively, begin with an attention-grabbing statement or a powerful quote. Introduce yourself, establish credibility and clearly state the purpose and relevance of your presentation.

2. How to end a presentation?

For a strong conclusion, summarize your talking points and key takeaways. End with a compelling call to action or a thought-provoking question and remember to thank your audience and invite any final questions or interactions.

3. How to make a presentation interactive?

To make your presentation interactive, encourage questions and discussion throughout your talk. Utilize multimedia elements like videos or images and consider including polls, quizzes or group activities to actively involve your audience.

In need of inspiration for your next presentation? I’ve got your back! Pick from these 120+ presentation ideas, topics and examples to get started. 

Creating a stunning presentation with Venngage is a breeze with our user-friendly drag-and-drop editor and professionally designed templates for all your communication needs. 

Here’s how to make a presentation in just 5 simple steps with the help of Venngage:

Step 1: Sign up for Venngage for free using your email, Gmail or Facebook account or simply log in to access your account. 

Step 2: Pick a design from our selection of free presentation templates (they’re all created by our expert in-house designers).

Step 3: Make the template your own by customizing it to fit your content and branding. With Venngage’s intuitive drag-and-drop editor, you can easily modify text, change colors and adjust the layout to create a unique and eye-catching design.

Step 4: Elevate your presentation by incorporating captivating visuals. You can upload your images or choose from Venngage’s vast library of high-quality photos, icons and illustrations. 

Step 5: Upgrade to a premium or business account to export your presentation in PDF and print it for in-person presentations or share it digitally for free!

By following these five simple steps, you’ll have a professionally designed and visually engaging presentation ready in no time. With Venngage’s user-friendly platform, your presentation is sure to make a lasting impression. So, let your creativity flow and get ready to shine in your next presentation!

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Microsoft 365 Life Hacks > Presentations > How to work on a group presentation

How to work on a group presentation

Working in a group can be a great way to tackle complicated tasks or share unique knowledge. When it comes to illustrating your team’s results to an audience, it can be tricky to navigate how to pace your presentation and who gets to speak, among other factors. Check out these tips for how to start a presentation speech, how to conclude a group presentation, and everything in between.

A group of women working on computers at a table

How to do a group presentation

Some people thrive working in groups , while others prefer to tackle projects by themselves. Balancing all these differing personalities is one of the key skills to ensuring that your presentation goes smoothly:

Tell your story with captivating presentations Banner

Tell your story with captivating presentations

Powerpoint empowers you to develop well-designed content across all your devices

Designate roles and presenting order to team strengths

The clearest way to do set presentation roles, and the order of these roles, is to set them early in the process and based upon the strengths of your group members. Designate roles based on certain skillsets and to keep from duplicating efforts. For example, having one or two people work exclusively on designing your PowerPoint presentation can streamline the process. Depending on how long your presentation is, you can assign everyone on your team three to five slides to discuss.

The importance of practicing

In addition, it helps to rehearse your presentation multiple times to iron out any kinks and build confidence. Practice your presentation together as a group so everyone can be prepared in front of your audience. Here, communication is key, scheduling regular meetings and clearly delegating tasks ensure everyone is on the same page.

How to start a group presentation speech

Just like the rest of your presentation, it helps to have just one person speak at a time. Assign the role of introducer to someone on your team. You can also choose to designate someone as the narrator who can both start the presentation, introduce team members, and finish in the conclusion.

Ensure that they clearly state the purpose of your presentation and provide an overview of what you’ll cover. You can also start with a compelling hook or an intriguing question to grab the audience’s attention. Introduce each member of your group and their roles and expertise to establish credibility and cohesion.

How to conclude a group presentation

At the end of your presentation, it helps to summarize the key points of your presentation and reiterate your main message so that your audience can retain as much information as possible. End with a strong closing statement or call to action to leave a lasting impression on your audience. Thank them for their time and invite further discussion or questions.

Mastering the art of group presentations requires effective collaboration, enough time for preparation, and a confident delivery. Play to your group’s strengths, give everyone plenty of time to speak, and value everyone’s contributions equally. Check out more tips for how to create an effective presentation , how to make group projects go smoother , or how to connect with virtual audiences .

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How to Structure your Presentation, with Examples

August 3, 2018 - Dom Barnard

For many people the thought of delivering a presentation is a daunting task and brings about a  great deal of nerves . However, if you take some time to understand how effective presentations are structured and then apply this structure to your own presentation, you’ll appear much more confident and relaxed.

Here is our complete guide for structuring your presentation, with examples at the end of the article to demonstrate these points.

Why is structuring a presentation so important?

If you’ve ever sat through a great presentation, you’ll have left feeling either inspired or informed on a given topic. This isn’t because the speaker was the most knowledgeable or motivating person in the world. Instead, it’s because they know how to structure presentations – they have crafted their message in a logical and simple way that has allowed the audience can keep up with them and take away key messages.

Research has supported this, with studies showing that audiences retain structured information  40% more accurately  than unstructured information.

In fact, not only is structuring a presentation important for the benefit of the audience’s understanding, it’s also important for you as the speaker. A good structure helps you remain calm, stay on topic, and avoid any awkward silences.

What will affect your presentation structure?

Generally speaking, there is a natural flow that any decent presentation will follow which we will go into shortly. However, you should be aware that all presentation structures will be different in their own unique way and this will be due to a number of factors, including:

  • Whether you need to deliver any demonstrations
  • How  knowledgeable the audience  already is on the given subject
  • How much interaction you want from the audience
  • Any time constraints there are for your talk
  • What setting you are in
  • Your ability to use any kinds of visual assistance

Before choosing the presentation’s structure answer these questions first:

  • What is your presentation’s aim?
  • Who are the audience?
  • What are the main points your audience should remember afterwards?

When reading the points below, think critically about what things may cause your presentation structure to be slightly different. You can add in certain elements and add more focus to certain moments if that works better for your speech.

Good presentation structure is important for a presentation

What is the typical presentation structure?

This is the usual flow of a presentation, which covers all the vital sections and is a good starting point for yours. It allows your audience to easily follow along and sets out a solid structure you can add your content to.

1. Greet the audience and introduce yourself

Before you start delivering your talk, introduce yourself to the audience and clarify who you are and your relevant expertise. This does not need to be long or incredibly detailed, but will help build an immediate relationship between you and the audience. It gives you the chance to briefly clarify your expertise and why you are worth listening to. This will help establish your ethos so the audience will trust you more and think you’re credible.

Read our tips on  How to Start a Presentation Effectively

2. Introduction

In the introduction you need to explain the subject and purpose of your presentation whilst gaining the audience’s interest and confidence. It’s sometimes helpful to think of your introduction as funnel-shaped to help filter down your topic:

  • Introduce your general topic
  • Explain your topic area
  • State the issues/challenges in this area you will be exploring
  • State your presentation’s purpose – this is the basis of your presentation so ensure that you provide a statement explaining how the topic will be treated, for example, “I will argue that…” or maybe you will “compare”, “analyse”, “evaluate”, “describe” etc.
  • Provide a statement of what you’re hoping the outcome of the presentation will be, for example, “I’m hoping this will be provide you with…”
  • Show a preview of the organisation of your presentation

In this section also explain:

  • The length of the talk.
  • Signal whether you want audience interaction – some presenters prefer the audience to ask questions throughout whereas others allocate a specific section for this.
  • If it applies, inform the audience whether to take notes or whether you will be providing handouts.

The way you structure your introduction can depend on the amount of time you have been given to present: a  sales pitch  may consist of a quick presentation so you may begin with your conclusion and then provide the evidence. Conversely, a speaker presenting their idea for change in the world would be better suited to start with the evidence and then conclude what this means for the audience.

Keep in mind that the main aim of the introduction is to grab the audience’s attention and connect with them.

3. The main body of your talk

The main body of your talk needs to meet the promises you made in the introduction. Depending on the nature of your presentation, clearly segment the different topics you will be discussing, and then work your way through them one at a time – it’s important for everything to be organised logically for the audience to fully understand. There are many different ways to organise your main points, such as, by priority, theme, chronologically etc.

  • Main points should be addressed one by one with supporting evidence and examples.
  • Before moving on to the next point you should provide a mini-summary.
  • Links should be clearly stated between ideas and you must make it clear when you’re moving onto the next point.
  • Allow time for people to take relevant notes and stick to the topics you have prepared beforehand rather than straying too far off topic.

When planning your presentation write a list of main points you want to make and ask yourself “What I am telling the audience? What should they understand from this?” refining your answers this way will help you produce clear messages.

4. Conclusion

In presentations the conclusion is frequently underdeveloped and lacks purpose which is a shame as it’s the best place to reinforce your messages. Typically, your presentation has a specific goal – that could be to convert a number of the audience members into customers, lead to a certain number of enquiries to make people knowledgeable on specific key points, or to motivate them towards a shared goal.

Regardless of what that goal is, be sure to summarise your main points and their implications. This clarifies the overall purpose of your talk and reinforces your reason for being there.

Follow these steps:

  • Signal that it’s nearly the end of your presentation, for example, “As we wrap up/as we wind down the talk…”
  • Restate the topic and purpose of your presentation – “In this speech I wanted to compare…”
  • Summarise the main points, including their implications and conclusions
  • Indicate what is next/a call to action/a thought-provoking takeaway
  • Move on to the last section

5. Thank the audience and invite questions

Conclude your talk by thanking the audience for their time and invite them to  ask any questions  they may have. As mentioned earlier, personal circumstances will affect the structure of your presentation.

Many presenters prefer to make the Q&A session the key part of their talk and try to speed through the main body of the presentation. This is totally fine, but it is still best to focus on delivering some sort of initial presentation to set the tone and topics for discussion in the Q&A.

Questions being asked after a presentation

Other common presentation structures

The above was a description of a basic presentation, here are some more specific presentation layouts:


Use the demonstration structure when you have something useful to show. This is usually used when you want to show how a product works. Steve Jobs frequently used this technique in his presentations.

  • Explain why the product is valuable.
  • Describe why the product is necessary.
  • Explain what problems it can solve for the audience.
  • Demonstrate the product  to support what you’ve been saying.
  • Make suggestions of other things it can do to make the audience curious.


This structure is particularly useful in persuading the audience.

  • Briefly frame the issue.
  • Go into the issue in detail showing why it ‘s such a problem. Use logos and pathos for this – the logical and emotional appeals.
  • Provide the solution and explain why this would also help the audience.
  • Call to action – something you want the audience to do which is straightforward and pertinent to the solution.


As well as incorporating  stories in your presentation , you can organise your whole presentation as a story. There are lots of different type of story structures you can use – a popular choice is the monomyth – the hero’s journey. In a monomyth, a hero goes on a difficult journey or takes on a challenge – they move from the familiar into the unknown. After facing obstacles and ultimately succeeding the hero returns home, transformed and with newfound wisdom.

Storytelling for Business Success  webinar , where well-know storyteller Javier Bernad shares strategies for crafting compelling narratives.

Another popular choice for using a story to structure your presentation is in media ras (in the middle of thing). In this type of story you launch right into the action by providing a snippet/teaser of what’s happening and then you start explaining the events that led to that event. This is engaging because you’re starting your story at the most exciting part which will make the audience curious – they’ll want to know how you got there.

  • Great storytelling: Examples from Alibaba Founder, Jack Ma

Remaining method

The remaining method structure is good for situations where you’re presenting your perspective on a controversial topic which has split people’s opinions.

  • Go into the issue in detail showing why it’s such a problem – use logos and pathos.
  • Rebut your opponents’ solutions  – explain why their solutions could be useful because the audience will see this as fair and will therefore think you’re trustworthy, and then explain why you think these solutions are not valid.
  • After you’ve presented all the alternatives provide your solution, the remaining solution. This is very persuasive because it looks like the winning idea, especially with the audience believing that you’re fair and trustworthy.


When delivering presentations it’s important for your words and ideas to flow so your audience can understand how everything links together and why it’s all relevant. This can be done  using speech transitions  which are words and phrases that allow you to smoothly move from one point to another so that your speech flows and your presentation is unified.

Transitions can be one word, a phrase or a full sentence – there are many different forms, here are some examples:

Moving from the introduction to the first point

Signify to the audience that you will now begin discussing the first main point:

  • Now that you’re aware of the overview, let’s begin with…
  • First, let’s begin with…
  • I will first cover…
  • My first point covers…
  • To get started, let’s look at…

Shifting between similar points

Move from one point to a similar one:

  • In the same way…
  • Likewise…
  • Equally…
  • This is similar to…
  • Similarly…

Internal summaries

Internal summarising consists of summarising before moving on to the next point. You must inform the audience:

  • What part of the presentation you covered – “In the first part of this speech we’ve covered…”
  • What the key points were – “Precisely how…”
  • How this links in with the overall presentation – “So that’s the context…”
  • What you’re moving on to – “Now I’d like to move on to the second part of presentation which looks at…”

Physical movement

You can move your body and your standing location when you transition to another point. The audience find it easier to follow your presentation and movement will increase their interest.

A common technique for incorporating movement into your presentation is to:

  • Start your introduction by standing in the centre of the stage.
  • For your first point you stand on the left side of the stage.
  • You discuss your second point from the centre again.
  • You stand on the right side of the stage for your third point.
  • The conclusion occurs in the centre.

Key slides for your presentation

Slides are a useful tool for most presentations: they can greatly assist in the delivery of your message and help the audience follow along with what you are saying. Key slides include:

  • An intro slide outlining your ideas
  • A  summary slide  with core points to remember
  • High quality image slides to supplement what you are saying

There are some presenters who choose not to use slides at all, though this is more of a rarity. Slides can be a powerful tool if used properly, but the problem is that many fail to do just that. Here are some golden rules to follow when using slides in a presentation:

  • Don’t over fill them  – your slides are there to assist your speech, rather than be the focal point. They should have as little information as possible, to avoid distracting people from your talk.
  • A picture says a thousand words  – instead of filling a slide with text, instead, focus on one or two images or diagrams to help support and explain the point you are discussing at that time.
  • Make them readable  – depending on the size of your audience, some may not be able to see small text or images, so make everything large enough to fill the space.
  • Don’t rush through slides  – give the audience enough time to digest each slide.

Guy Kawasaki, an entrepreneur and author, suggests that slideshows should follow a  10-20-30 rule :

  • There should be a maximum of 10 slides – people rarely remember more than one concept afterwards so there’s no point overwhelming them with unnecessary information.
  • The presentation should last no longer than 20 minutes as this will leave time for questions and discussion.
  • The font size should be a minimum of 30pt because the audience reads faster than you talk so less information on the slides means that there is less chance of the audience being distracted.

Here are some additional resources for slide design:

  • 7 design tips for effective, beautiful PowerPoint presentations
  • 11 design tips for beautiful presentations
  • 10 tips on how to make slides that communicate your idea

Group Presentations

Group presentations are structured in the same way as presentations with one speaker but usually require more rehearsal and practices.  Clean transitioning between speakers  is very important in producing a presentation that flows well. One way of doing this consists of:

  • Briefly recap on what you covered in your section: “So that was a brief introduction on what health anxiety is and how it can affect somebody”
  • Introduce the next speaker in the team and explain what they will discuss: “Now Elnaz will talk about the prevalence of health anxiety.”
  • Then end by looking at the next speaker, gesturing towards them and saying their name: “Elnaz”.
  • The next speaker should acknowledge this with a quick: “Thank you Joe.”

From this example you can see how the different sections of the presentations link which makes it easier for the audience to follow and remain engaged.

Example of great presentation structure and delivery

Having examples of great presentations will help inspire your own structures, here are a few such examples, each unique and inspiring in their own way.

How Google Works – by Eric Schmidt

This presentation by ex-Google CEO  Eric Schmidt  demonstrates some of the most important lessons he and his team have learnt with regards to working with some of the most talented individuals they hired. The simplistic yet cohesive style of all of the slides is something to be appreciated. They are relatively straightforward, yet add power and clarity to the narrative of the presentation.

Start with why – by Simon Sinek

Since being released in 2009, this presentation has been viewed almost four million times all around the world. The message itself is very powerful, however, it’s not an idea that hasn’t been heard before. What makes this presentation so powerful is the simple message he is getting across, and the straightforward and understandable manner in which he delivers it. Also note that he doesn’t use any slides, just a whiteboard where he creates a simple diagram of his opinion.

The Wisdom of a Third Grade Dropout – by Rick Rigsby

Here’s an example of a presentation given by a relatively unknown individual looking to inspire the next generation of graduates. Rick’s presentation is unique in many ways compared to the two above. Notably, he uses no visual prompts and includes a great deal of humour.

However, what is similar is the structure he uses. He first introduces his message that the wisest man he knew was a third-grade dropout. He then proceeds to deliver his main body of argument, and in the end, concludes with his message. This powerful speech keeps the viewer engaged throughout, through a mixture of heart-warming sentiment, powerful life advice and engaging humour.

As you can see from the examples above, and as it has been expressed throughout, a great presentation structure means analysing the core message of your presentation. Decide on a key message you want to impart the audience with, and then craft an engaging way of delivering it.

By preparing a solid structure, and  practising your talk  beforehand, you can walk into the presentation with confidence and deliver a meaningful message to an interested audience.

It’s important for a presentation to be well-structured so it can have the most impact on your audience. An unstructured presentation can be difficult to follow and even frustrating to listen to. The heart of your speech are your main points supported by evidence and your transitions should assist the movement between points and clarify how everything is linked.

Research suggests that the audience remember the first and last things you say so your introduction and conclusion are vital for reinforcing your points. Essentially, ensure you spend the time structuring your presentation and addressing all of the sections.

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Planning for and Giving a Group Presentation

Students working on group projects are often asked to give an oral presentation summarizing the results of their research. Professors assign group presentations because they combine the cooperative learning benefits of working in groups with the active learning benefits of speaking in front of an audience. However, similar to participating in a group project , giving a group presentation requires making decisions together , negotiating shared responsibilities, and collaborating on developing a set of solutions to a research problem . Below are issues to consider when planning and while giving a group presentation.

Before the Presentation

When to Begin

Planning the logistics around giving a presentation should take place as the group project progresses and, most critically, coalesce immediately after results of your study are known and clear recommendations can be made. Keep in mind that completing the basic tasks of giving a presentation [e.g., designating a moderator, designing the slide templates, working on the introduction, etc.] can save you time and allow your group to focus just before giving the presentation on how to effectively highlight the most important aspects of the research study.

Sharing the Responsibility

Everyone in the group should have an equal role in preparing the presentation and covering a similar amount of information during the presentation. However, a moderator should be elected to lead the presentation. The group should then determine what each member will speak about. This can be based on either the member's interests or what they worked on during the group project. This means that each member should be responsible for developing an outline of what they will talk about and drafting the content of their section of the slides or other forms of visual aids.

NOTE: If , for whatever reason, a group member is  particularly anxious about speaking in front of an audience or perhaps they are uncomfortable because English is not their first language, consider giving them a role that can be easily articulated, such as, introducing the purpose of the study and its importance. Everyone must participate in speaking, but be cognizant of the need to support that person by discussing what would work best for them while still being an active contributor to the presentation.

Organizing the Content

The content of the presentation should parallel the organization of the research study. In general, it should include a brief introduction, a description of the study, along with its purpose and significance, a review of prior research and its relevance to your group's project, an analysis of the results, with an emphasis on significance findings or recommended courses of action, and a brief statement about any limitations and how the group managed them. The conclusion of the presentation should briefly summarize the study's key findings and implications and, if time has been allotted, ask for questions from the audience. The conclusion can also be used to highlight areas of study the require further investigation. Note that the group's time should be spent primarily discussing the results of the study and their implications in furthering knowledge about the research problem .

Developing the Content

The narrative around each section must flow together smoothly t o ensure that the audience remains engaged. An initial meeting to discuss each section of the presentation should include the following: 1) deciding on the sequence of speakers and which group member presents on which section; 2) determining who will oversee the use of any technology [and who steps up when it's that person's turn to speak]; 3) determining how much time should be allocated for each section in relation to the overall time limit; 4) discussing the use and content of slides or other visual aids; and, 5) developing a general outline of the presentation. Once everyone's roles and responsibilities have been negotiated, the group should establish a schedule of deadlines for when the work should to be completed.

Creating Transitions

Building the narrative of an oral presentation means more than imparting information; it also requires the group to work together developing moments of transition from one section to the next. Transitional statements ensures coordination among members about what is to be covered and helps your audience follow along and remain engaged. The transition from one section to the next should include both verbal cues [e.g., a recap what you just discussed and an introduction of the next speaker] and non-verbal gestures [e.g., stepping away from the podium or front of class to make room for the next speaker]. An example of this transition could be something like this:

Speaker 1: " ...so to summarize, the literature suggested that allegations of election fraud often created the conditions for massive street protests in democratized societies. Next Mike will discuss how we analyzed recent events in Mexico and determined why this assumption may not apply under certain conditions. "

Speaker 2: " Thank you, Jordan. Next slide. In our study, we coded and analyzed the content of twitter accounts to explore the rise of dissension among.... "

NOTE:   Each member of the group should learn the entire presentation and not just their section. This ensures that members can help out if the speaker becomes nervous and loses track of what to say or if they forget something. If each member knows the entire presentation, then there is always someone who can step up and support the speaker by maintaining the narrative and not losing the audience's attention.

Practicing the Presentation

The most critical thing to do before giving a group presentation is to practice as a group. Rehearse what will be said and how it will be said so you know that the overall structure works, that the time is allotted correctly, and that any changes can be made, if needed. Also, rehearsing the presentation should include practicing use of the technology and choreographing where people will stand. An effective strategy is to rehearse the entire presentation at least twice. Practice with each member taking turns speaking in front of the other members pretending that they are the audience. This way the group members can take turns offering suggestions about improving the presentation and the speaker gets more comfortable speaking in front of people. Practice a second time presenting as a group. This way, everyone can rehearse where to stand and coordinate transitions. If possible, practice in the room where your presentation will take place; standing in the front of a classroom feels very different from sitting there as a student.

During the Presentation

Before the Presentations Begin

If groups are presenting from a shared computer, ask your professor if you could pre-load your slides or other visual aids before the class begins . This will ensure that you're not taking time away from your presentation downloading and setting everything up. In addition, if there is a problem, it can be resolved beforehand rather than it being a distraction when you start the presentation.


Begin by having the moderator introduce the group by giving each member's name and a brief description of what they will be presenting on. And, yes, this seems like a pointless formality because it's likely that everyone knows everyone else. However, this is expected because it reflects giving oral presentations in most professional and work settings. In addition, your group has a limited amount of time to present and introducing everyone before the presentation begins saves more time than having each individual introduce themselves before they speak.

When Not Speaking

Assuming your group has practiced at least twice [and preferably more], you have heard and seen the entire presentation multiple times. Keep in mind, however, that your audience has not and they can observe everyone in the group. Be engaged. Do not look bored or distracted while others are speaking. Pay attention to each other by watching what the presenter is doing. Respond positively to the presenter and use nonverbal cues [e.g., nodding your head] as a way to help emphasize keys points of the presentation; audiences notice when those not speaking react to something the speaker is saying.

Coordinate Moving from One Speaker to the Next

The person presenting should take a position in the foreground of where you are delivering the information. Group members not speaking should step back and take a spot behind or off to the side of the speaker. When the person speaking is done, the next person steps forward. This pre-planned choreography may seem trivial, but it emphasizes to your audience who the next speaker will be and demonstrates a smooth, coordinated delivery throughout the presentation.

Visual Aids

Plan ahead how to use slides or other visual aids. The person currently presenting should not be distracted by having to constantly move to the next slide, backup and show an earlier slide, or exit a slide to show a video or external web page . Coordinate who in the group is responsible for taking the cue to change slides or otherwise manipulate the technology. When it's time for that person to speak, have a plan in place for passing this responsibility to someone else in the group. Fumbling around with who does what when, distracts the audience. Note however that the role of moving from one slide to the next does not count as being a presenter!

The presentation should conclude with the moderator stepping forward and thanking the audience and asking if there are any questions. If a question relates to a specific part of the presentation, the group member who spoke during that part should answer the question; it should not be the moderator's responsibility to answer for everyone. If another group follows your presentation from a shared computer, be courteous and close out all of your slides or other visual aids before stepping away.

Aguilera, Anna, Jesse Schreier, and Cassandra Saitow. "Using Iterative Group Presentations in an Introductory Biology Course to Enhance Student Engagement and Critical Thinking." The American Biology Teacher 79 (August 2017): 450-454; Barnard, Sam. "Guide for Giving a Group Presentation." VirtualSpeech Ltd., 2019; Eisen, Arri. "Small-Group Presentations: Teaching Science Thinking and Context in a Large Biology Class." BioScience 48 (January 1998): 53-58; Group Presentations. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University ; Kågesten, Owe, and Johann Engelbrecht. "Student Group Presentations: A Learning Instrument in Undergraduate Mathematics for Engineering Students." European Journal of Engineering Education 32 (2007): 303-314; Lucas, Stephen. The Art of Public Speaking . [Chapter 19]. 12th edition. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2015; McArthur, John A. “10 Tips for Improving Group Presentations.” [blog]. Department of Communication Studies, Furman University, November 1, 2011; Melosevic, Sara. “Simple Group Presentation Tips for Maximum Teamwork Magic.” PresentBetter, November 13, 2018; St. John, Ron. Group Project Guidelines. Department of Speech, University of Hawai'i Maui Community College, January 16, 2002.

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3 Group Presentation Pitfalls — and How to Avoid Them

  • Allison Shapira

presenting group meaning

Strategies for a polished, unified final product.

Putting together an effective group presentation takes teamwork and coordination so it doesn’t look like a patchwork quilt. And yet, many of us never budget the time to fully prepare. The author outlines some of the common mistakes people make in group presentations and offers best practices to keep you on track. 

Many of us have experienced poor group presentations. If you’re giving one, it’s the last-minute scramble the night before to decide who is presenting which part of the presentation. If you’re observing one, it’s the chaos of hearing multiple people talking over one another or, even worse, simply reading their slides word-for-word and ignoring their audience. 

presenting group meaning

  • Allison Shapira teaches “The Arts of Communication” at the Harvard Kennedy School and is the Founder/CEO of Global Public Speaking, a training firm that helps emerging and established leaders to speak clearly, concisely, and confidently. She is the author of the new book, Speak with Impact: How to Command the Room and Influence Others (HarperCollins Leadership).

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Presenting to Large Groups and Conferences

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Much of our section on Presentation Skills applies to both large and small groups, but there are a number of issues that are particularly important when presenting to large groups.

Developing an understanding of these issues will help you to get your message across more effectively.

This page explains more about these issues, and how you can overcome any problems to present effectively even to very large groups or at major events.

The Structure of a Large Event

In this context, ‘large’ is taken to mean an event involving more than 100 people. It will usually be a conference or similar event. There will be a number of invited speakers, a formal programme of presentations, and the conference will probably last at least a day.

There may be both large and small presentations going on at the same time. The larger presentations are usually called ‘plenaries’ and involve all participants. The smaller ones are called ‘breakouts’ or ‘workshops’, and will be of interest to a limited number of people only.

Usually, the first or most important plenary presentation is called the keynote speech.

The seats will almost invariably be laid out ‘theatre’ style , which means rows of seats.

Occasionally, they may be in ‘café’ style , with large round tables holding 10 or 12 people. Here the seats will be placed so that people can see the screen and speaker without having to turn around. The 'cafe' style layout is used more commonly for ‘away-days’ and interactive events, rather than formal conferences.

Implications for Presenters

There are various key areas that presenters at large events, such as conferences should consider.

These include:

  • Positioning
  • Managing your Nerves

1. Positioning

A large, formal event will almost always have a podium or stage where you will be expected to stand and give your presentation.

There may be a lectern, although that will often depend on the type of event as many events have moved away from this kind of system now. It sounds obvious, but you will also be in a very large room, holding a lot of people.

You will therefore be physically separated from your audience, both by distance and height.

2. Equipment

You will almost always have professional sound and audio-visual equipment at a large event.

You will be expected to send your presentation in advance, and it will be loaded up for you, ready to present. You will probably, in a modern conference centre, have a wireless control for your slides, as well as a wireless microphone.

A more old-fashioned venue might have wired systems that will tether you to one spot.

Really large venues may even have cameras projecting you onto screens above the stage so that those at the back can see you more clearly.

These systems allow you to reach out to your audience and engage with them better, because everyone will be able to see and hear you clearly.

3. Lighting

The main hall in most conference venues has no natural light.

It may have stage-type lighting, and the lights in the room will be dimmed during the presentations, with a spotlight on the presenter.

This makes it nearly impossible to see your audience, or make personal eye contact with any of them.

4. Managing your Nerves

Some people find presenting to large numbers of people much more nerve-wracking.

This is partly an issue about not knowing the members of the audience, and partly the potential for embarrassment if you do something wrong. And of course, when you’re nervous and tense, you are by definition less relaxed.

What all of this means is that it is much, much harder to build rapport with your audience.

Tips for Building Rapport at a Large Event

Because you are physically separated from the audience, you need to work much harder to build rapport at a large event.

Some helpful tips include:

Use more variation in your tone of voice than you would normally. Just as when you are speaking on the telephone, and people have fewer visual cues, you can use your voice in a presentation to emphasise your feelings.

Concentrate particularly on projecting warmth and pleasure at being there, especially at the beginning.

Remember that even if you can’t see the audience, they can still see you , especially if you are being projected onto a big screen. Look around the room, just as you would in any other presentation, and smile as you do so. It will appear to your audience that you are engaging with them personally. This sounds cynical, but it is actually very effective.

Make your content more engaging. This is easy to say, but harder to do, of course. Consider using jokes and humour, especially early on, and also starting with one or more very bold or unusual statements, or perhaps a short piece of very effective video, to make people sit up and take notice.

Make sure that you are very familiar with your presentation , as this is likely to make you more relaxed about it. Have a look at our page Coping with Presentation Nerves for some other useful tips that will help you to relax more.

If you struggle to cope with the idea of talking to large numbers of people, which many introverts do, one very good way to manage is to focus on just two or three people in the room, preferably spread throughout the audience.

Make eye contact with them, and smile, and talk to them personally. The rest of the audience will not know that you are not smiling at them all, and you will sound much more relaxed and friendly.

Ultimately, however large the event or audience, a presentation is still about getting your message across.

You might have to work a bit harder to engage your audience in a larger room, mostly because you are further away and/or more distanced by technology. But you also have a much larger potential impact. Focus on that, and the extra effort will seem worthwhile.

Continue to: Dealing with Presentation Questions Preparing for a Presentation

See also: Writing Your Presentation Self-Presentation for Presentations Building Rapport

More From Forbes

How to make your presentation sound more like a conversation.

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The main difference between strong, confident speakers and speakers who seem nervous in front of the room is in how relaxed and conversational they appear. Here are some basic pointers that will help you create a conversational tone when speaking, regardless of the size of your audience.

1. Avoid using the word, “presentation.” Every time you say, “I’m here to give you a presentation on X,” or, “In this presentation, you’ll see…,” you are emphasizing the formal, structured, sometimes artificial nature of the interaction. No one wants to be “presented” to. Instead, use language that emphasizes a natural, conversational exchange. “We’re here today to talk about X,” or “Today I’ll be sharing some ideas regarding Y.” You can even go so far as to say, “I’m glad we have time together today to discuss Z.” Even if your talk is not going to truly be a dialogue, you can use language that suggests engagement with the audience.

2. If you are using PowerPoint, avoid using the word “slide.” Instead of talking about the medium, talk about the concepts. Swap out, “This slide shows you…,” for, “Here we see….” Instead of saying, “On that slide I showed you a moment ago,” say, “A moment ago we were discussing X. Here’s how that issue will impact Y and Z.” Casual conversations don’t usually involve slide decks. Just because your complicated presentation on tax exposure, supply chain issues, or new health care regulations requires you to use slides, doesn’t mean you have to draw attention to that fact that the setting is formal and structured.

3. For many large-group events, speakers are provided with what’s called a “confidence monitor,” a computer screen that sits on the floor at the speaker’s feet showing the slide that appears on the large screen above the speaker’s head. Avoid using confidence monitors. Our natural inclination when using a confidence monitor is to gesture at the bullet point we’re discussing at the moment. However, we are pointing to a bullet point on the screen at our feet, which the audience can’t see, so it creates a disconnect between us and the audience. Instead, stand to the side of the large screen and gesture at the bullet point you’re talking about so that the audience knows which point you are discussing at the moment.

4. Don’t tell your audience, “I want this to be interactive.” It’s your job to make it interactive. If you are delivering the type of presentation where your audience size allows you to create true engagement with your listeners, create that connecting in stages to “warm up” the audience. Stage One engagement is to ask the audience a question relevant to your topic that you know most of the audience members can respond to affirmatively. “Who here has ever bought a new car?” or, “How many of you have ever waited more than 5 minutes on hold on a customer service line?” Raise your hand as you ask the question to indicate to the audience how to respond. Whoever has raised their hand has now participated in the discussion. They have indicated a willingness to engage. Stage Two engagement is calling on one of the people who raised their hand and asking a specific, perfunctory question. Again, it needs to be a question they can answer easily. If your first questions is, “Who here has bought a new car?” you can then call on someone and ask, “How long ago,” or “What kind of car did you buy most recently?” If your first question was, “Have you ever waited on hold for more than 5 minutes,” you can’t ask, “What company were you calling at the time?” The people who raised their hands weren’t thinking of a specific instance; they were just thinking broadly about that type of experience. You could, however, call on someone and ask, “Do you prefer when they play music or ads for the company’s products?” Anyone can answer that question. At that point, you are in an actual dialogue with that person. Stage Three engagement is asking them a question where they need to reveal something more personal. “How does that make you feel when you hear those ads?” You’ve warmed up your audience and drawn them in with baby steps. Now you have actual, meaningful audience participation.

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5. Use gestures. When we’re speaking in an informal setting, we all use hand gestures; some people use more than others, but we all use them. When we try to rein in our gestures, two things happen that diminish our speaking style. First, we look stiff and unnatural. We look like we are presenting a guarded or cautious version of ourselves; we look less genuine. Second, hand gestures burn up the nervous energy we all have when speaking in front of a large group. That’s good. When we try to minimize our hand gestures, we tie up that nervous energy and it starts to leak out on odd ways, where we start to tap our foot, fidget with our notes or microphone, or tilt our head side to side to emphasize key points. Just let the gestures fly. It’s unlikely they will be too large or distracting. I have coached people on their presentation skills for 26 years. In that time, I have met three people who gestured too much. Everyone else would benefit from using their gestures more freely.

The impact we have as communicators is based on the cumulative effect of many different elements of our delivery. These suggestions alone won’t make you a terrific presenter. They will, however, add to the overall package your present of yourself when speaking to large audiences.

Jay Sullivan

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Corruption Law Allows Gifts to State and Local Officials, Supreme Court Rules

The court, which has limited the sweep of several anti-corruption laws, distinguished after-the-fact rewards from before-the-fact bribes.

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The Supreme Court building in Washington with several birds flying above it.

By Abbie VanSickle and Adam Liptak

Reporting from Washington

The Supreme Court limited the sweep of a federal law on Wednesday aimed at public corruption, ruling that it did not apply to gifts and payments meant to reward actions taken by state and local officials.

The 6-to-3 ruling , which split along ideological lines, was the latest in a series of decisions cutting back federal anti-corruption laws.

Justice Brett M. Kavanaugh, writing for a conservative majority, said that the question in the case was whether federal law makes it a crime for state and local officials to accept such gratuities after the fact. He wrote, “The answer is no.”

Federal prosecutors’ interpretation of the law created traps for public officials, leaving them to guess what gifts were allowed, he added. If they guessed wrong, the opinion continued, the officials could face up to a decade in prison.

The decision reflected a sharp divide on the court, with Justice Ketanji Brown Jackson, joined by Justices Elena Kagan and Sonia Sotomayor, dissenting. While the conservative wing asserted that the ruling gave discretion to state and local governments and protected officials from having to guess whether their behavior had crossed a criminal line, the liberals said the decision represented more chipping away of a statute aimed at protecting against graft.

“Officials who use their public positions for private gain threaten the integrity of our most important institutions,” Justice Jackson wrote. “Greed makes governments — at every level — less responsive, less efficient and less trustworthy from the perspective of the communities they serve.”

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Here’s why it would be tough for Democrats to replace Joe Biden on the presidential ticket

University of Michigan Presidential Debate Expert Aaron Kall calls President Joe Biden’s uneven debate performance on Thursday night “probably the worst performance of a candidate, certainly an incumbent candidate, ever.”


President Joe Biden speaks at a presidential debate watch party, Thursday, June 27, 2024, in Atlanta. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

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President Joe Biden visits a presidential debate watch party, Thursday, June 27, 2024, in Atlanta. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

President Joe Biden speaks during a presidential debate with Republican presidential candidate former President Donald Trump, Thursday, June 27, 2024, in Atlanta. (AP Photo/Gerald Herbert)

President Joe Biden, left, and first lady Jill Biden speak at a presidential debate watch party, Thursday, June 27, 2024, in Atlanta. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)

President Joe Biden greets supporters at a Waffle House in Marietta, Ga., Friday, June 28, 2024, following a presidential debate in Atlanta. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)


WASHINGTON (AP) — President Joe Biden’s halting debate performance has led some in his own party to begin questioning whether he should be replaced on the ballot before November.

The latest on the Biden-Trump debate

  • The debate was a critical moment in Joe Biden and Donald Trump’s presidential rematch to make their cases before a national television audience.
  • Take a look at the facts around false and misleading claims frequently made by the two candidates.
  • Both candidates wasted no time sparring over policy during their 90-minute faceoff. These are the takeaways .

There is no evidence Biden is willing to end his campaign. And it would be nearly impossible for Democrats to replace him unless he chooses to step aside.

Here’s why:

Delegates Biden won in the primaries are pledged to support him

Every state has already held its presidential primary. Democratic rules say that the delegates Biden won should support him at the party’s upcoming national convention unless he tells them he’s leaving the race.

The president indicated that he had no plans to do that, telling supporters in Atlanta shortly after he left the debate stage, “Let’s keep going.” Biden campaign spokesperson Lauren Hitt was even clearer, saying Friday: “Of course he’s not dropping out.”

The conventions and their rules are controlled by the political parties. The Democratic National Committee could convene before the convention opens on Aug. 19 and change how things will work, but that isn’t likely as long as Biden wants to continue seeking reelection.

The current rules read: “Delegates elected to the national convention pledged to a presidential candidate shall in all good conscience reflect the sentiments of those who elected them.”


VP Kamala Harris couldn’t automatically replace Biden

The vice president is Biden’s running mate, but that doesn’t mean she can swap in for him at the top of the ticket by default. Biden also can’t decree that she replace him should he suddenly decide to leave the race.

The Democratic National Convention is being held in Chicago, but the party has announced that it will hold a virtual roll call to formally nominate Biden before in-person proceedings begin. The exact date for the roll call has not yet been set.

If Biden opts to abandon his reelection campaign, Harris would likely join other top Democratic candidates looking to replace him. But that would probably create a scenario where she and others end up lobbying individual state delegations at the convention for their support.

That hasn’t happened for Democrats since 1960, when John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson jockeyed for votes during that year’s Democratic convention in Los Angeles.

Other potential Democratic candidates would also face challenges

In addition to the vice president, others that had endorsed Biden in 2024 while harboring their own presidential aspirations for future cycles include California Gov. Gavin Newsom, Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer, Pennsylvania Gov. Josh Shapiro, Illinois Gov. J. B. Pritzker and California Rep. Ro Khanna.

Still others who Biden bested during the party’s 2020 presidential primary could also try again, including Sens. Bernie Sanders of Vermont, Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts and Amy Klobuchar of Minnesota, as well as Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg.

If Biden were to abruptly leave the race, conservative groups have suggested they will file lawsuits around the country, potentially questioning the legality of the Democratic candidate’s name on the ballot.

But Elaine Kamarck, a senior fellow in governance studies at the Brookings Institution in Washington, who wrote a book about the presidential nominating process and is also a member of the Democratic National Committee’s rulemaking arm, said that courts have consistently stayed out of political primaries as long as parties running them weren’t doing anything that would contradict other constitutional rights, such as voter suppression based on race.

What to know about the 2024 Election

  • Democracy: American democracy has overcome big stress tests since 2020. More challenges lie ahead in 2024.
  • AP’s Role: The Associated Press is the most trusted source of information on election night, with a history of accuracy dating to 1848. Learn more.
  • Read the latest: Follow AP’s complete coverage of this year’s election.

“This is very clear constitutionally that this is in the party’s purview,” Kamarck said in an interview before the debate. “The business of nominating someone to represent a political party is the business of the political party.”


  • Nation & World
  • Nate Monroe

presenting group meaning

From fiddlers to stones, hermits and blues, the St. Johns River is home to crusty crabs

The St. Johns River is a crabby kind of place, meaning that there are a number of crab species other than the popular and personal favorite, the blue crab , present in the river. Most of them are small and often overlooked. Some, like the larger stone crabs are in the river but not in sufficient quantities to make them a commercially viable fishery. While some stone crabs are harvested locally, they are a relatively small quantity when compared to the Florida Gulf Coast and South Florida landings.

Stone crabs have limited suitable habitat in the river. They require higher salinity typically found only north and east of the Napoleon Bonaparte Broward Bridge, otherwise known as the Dames Point Bridge. Decades of dredging and modification of the surrounding salt marsh has taken its toll. There have been a few annual spikes in stone crab claws harvested as a result of drought years that had caused the salinity in the river to increase further upstream. Stone crabs are unusual in that only the claw is removed, and the crab is released alive. They will often grow a new claw when they molt.

The most numerous crabs in the St Johns River are fiddler crabs. These popular fishing baits are found in a wide range of salinities and temperature ranges. So, while they look similar, there are several different species of fiddler crabs depending on the location and habitat.

Biologically, a species is defined as a group of organisms that can reproduce with each other and produce fertile offspring. Species are the most basic unit of classification in the scientific taxonomic system, which organizes living things into categories based on their biological characteristics. In fact, species is the only real way to identify creatures. All other levels of taxonomy are created by scientists and subject to change. The genus name for fiddler crab is Uca, which came from the native American word for the fiddler crab.

Fiddler crabs get their common name because the males have one claw that is much larger than the other. Females have two smaller, equal sized claws. The males use their claws for defense and to attract females. Fiddler crabs can be left-handed or right-handed and in most species the difference is 50/50. But there are some species that are almost always either left- or right-handed.

Fidder crabs are extremely important to salt march ecology. Each crab digs a tubular burrow in the intertidal zone. The burrows are an important way to get oxygen and nutrients into the sediment. These holes can be simple or multi-chambered, or they can be shallow or extend down almost 2 feet. The crabs will enter their burrow as the tide rises and wait until the tide falls to exit. Males will stand near their burrow and wave their claw to attract a female mate. Each species has its own distinctive waving pattern, and the pace will quicken as a female approaches. Scientists refer to these intertidal mud flats as the Parade Grounds when there are hundreds of male fiddler crabs waving as the females approach.

Sometimes, especially during hurricanes or other high tide events, fiddlers will leave the confines of the intertidal zone and move into the salt marsh or higher ground. This is not an issue unless you happen to have a home with a garage or pool in the vicinity. Then you get invaded. If that happens, the best thing to do is gently sweep them out and try to limit their access to return. They are harmless and eat detritus or decaying plant material. So, no need to be afraid of them.

Other species of crabs include the dime-sized mud crabs that look like miniature stone crabs and live within oyster beds. Also found in oysters are the tiny, soft and pale pea crabs that live inside the oyster and are considered a delicacy to be eaten and enjoyed along with the oyster.

Another species is the square-backed crab that occupies the salt marsh at a slightly higher elevation than fiddler crab. They look similar to fiddler crabs but as the name implies have a square carapace. Their claws are small and the same size. They too can invade nearby neighborhoods.

Last, but not least, are hermit crabs that live just below the water level and move up and down with the tide. Hermit crabs have an incredibly soft and fragile abdomen that they protect by carrying around an old snail shell. The shell must be a good match in size and weight for each hermit. The crabs change shells frequently, always looking for the perfect fit.

Those are just some of the crabs that live in the St. Johns River. After all, it is a very crabby place. But we love it.

SME definition

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent 99% of all businesses in the EU. The definition of an SME is important for access to finance and EU support programmes targeted specifically at these enterprises.

What is an SME?

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are defined in the EU recommendation 2003/361 .

The main factors determining whether an enterprise is an SME are

  • staff headcount
  • either turnover or balance sheet total



< 250

≤ € 50 m

≤ € 43 m


< 50

≤ € 10 m

≤ € 10 m


< 10

≤ € 2 m

≤ € 2 m

These ceilings apply to the figures for individual firms only. A firm that is part of a larger group may need to include staff headcount/turnover/balance sheet data from that group too.

Further details include

  • The revised user guide to the SME definition (2020) (2 MB, available in all EU languages)
  • Declaring your enterprise to be an SME (the form is available in all languages as an annex in the revised user guide)
  • The SME self-assessment tool which you can use to determine whether your organisation qualifies as a small and medium-sized enterprise

What help can SMEs get?

There are 2 broad types of potential benefit for an enterprise if it meets the criteria

  • eligibility for support under many EU business-support programmes targeted specifically at SMEs: research funding, competitiveness and innovation funding and similar national support programmes that could otherwise be banned as unfair government support ('state aid' – see block exemption regulation )
  • fewer requirements or reduced fees for EU administrative compliance

Monitoring of the implementation of the SME definition

The Commission monitors the implementation of the SME definition and reviews it in irregular intervals. Pursuant to the latest evaluation, the Commission concluded that there is no need for a revision.

On 25 October 2021, we informed stakeholders by holding a webinar with presentations on the SME evaluation's results and next steps.

Supporting documents

  • Study to map, measure and portray the EU mid-cap landscape (2022)
  • Staff working document on the evaluation of the SME definition  (2021)
  • Executive summary on the evaluation of the SME definition  (2021)
  • Q&A on the evaluation of the SME definition  (2021)
  • Final report on evaluation of the SME definition  (2018) (10 MB)
  • Final report on evaluation of the SME definition (2012)  (1.8 MB)
  • Executive summary on evaluation of the SME definition (2012)  (345 kB)
  • Implementing the SME definition (2009)  (50 kB)
  • Implementing the SME definition (2006)  (40 kB)

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