How to Give a Great Group Presentation

A Little Preparation Can Go a Long Way

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Whether for an introductory course, internship, or senior seminar, group presentations are part of everyone's college experience and can be a source of very real anxiety. Next time you are assigned a group presentation, don't panic—instead, embrace the opportunity to learn and demonstrate your abilities. Read to find out what you can do to make your next group presentation memorable.

Distribute the Work Evenly

The first step to planning an A-worthy presentation is to make sure everyone carries their own weight, though this is easier said than done. This step will set your presentation up for success but can be challenging to pull off. It is likely that at least some of the people in your group will have unmatched academic abilities and work ethics, but this problem can be overcome.

Outline the work that needs to be done for the whole project and divvy up roles based on what people are comfortable doing. Make the expectations of each person clear so that there is accountability from start to finish—if something gets sloppily finished or is left entirely undone, the issue can be traced back to whatever group member is responsible and handled accordingly. If necessary, discuss problems with the professor . Don't let one person's laziness sabotage your entire group's work.

Schedule Deadlines and Rehearsals in Advance

As a college student, it can be incredibly difficult to manage your own time let alone synchronize the schedules of several different group members. Planning to get together as far in advance as possible makes it less likely that other commitments are prioritized over important group planning time.

At your first group meeting, set a timeline for when things need to be done. Schedule meetings, deadlines, and rehearsals as far into the future as the assignment allows. Never plan to cram at an all-night stress fest the night before—tired and over-extended group members will have a hard time executing even the most well-planned presentation.

Present Together

Just as you should use the strengths and weaknesses of group members to assign planning roles before the presentation, you should consider the abilities of every group member when deciding how the presentation itself should actually be delivered. Cohesion is crucial to a great presentation. People will notice if one or more group members do not speak or the presentation gets off-topic each time a new person takes over, and weak delivery does not bode well for your grade.

When you are planning how you will present, ask yourself and your group members the following questions:

  • What is the best way to deliver this material?
  • What presenting strengths does each group member have?
  • What goals must be met during the presentation?
  • How will we divide and conquer scripting the presentation?
  • What will we do if the presentation gets off-topic or a member forgets their part?

Prepare for Emergencies

Hopefully, you have put the time into creating an outstanding presentation, so don't let small hiccups derail it. Make sure that you know each other's responsibilities well enough to take over for them in times of crisis.

You never know when someone will get unexpectedly sick , face a family emergency, or be otherwise unable to show up for a presentation. Have a system in place where one group member can serve as an understudy for another group member so that your presentation does not crash and burn if someone is not there. Make the most of your preparations by planning for any scenario and remember to work as a team when things go wrong.

For a crisp presentation that leaves a strong impression on your professor and classmates, you need to rehearse. At least one run-through from beginning to end can smooth out any wrinkles, help nervous members overcome their fear, and ensure that you haven't left anything out.

Go through your parts as planned and offer each other constructive feedback immediately after. This may be uncomfortable, but helpful peer feedback can prevent negative feedback and bad grades from professors. Frame comments to members positively with a "glow and a grow": one thing they did really well and one area for improvement.

You should also discuss a dress code right before you rehearse so that all group members don the appropriate attire for the occasion. Lend each other clothes to help each other out if needed.

Stay Present During the Presentation

As long as your group is up there presenting, you need to be giving the presentation your all. This means that, even if your part is over, you should remain alert, engaged, and undistracted. This will make your presentation look and sound better while also enabling seamless emergency transitions. If you pay attention to your whole presentation, you will be much better prepared to step in for someone that needs rescuing—also, odds are that everyone else (professor included) will be more likely to pay attention if they see you paying attention.

Group presentations can be very effortful and time-consuming, so celebration is definitely in order once it's over. Reward yourself as a team for a job well done to bond after the potentially traumatizing experience you have shared.

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16 Presenting as a Group

Learning Objectives

  • List the four common types of group presentations
  • Discuss techniques for coordinating a group assignment
  • Plan speech organization for the intended audience
  • Practice effective group delivery

Imagine you have been assigned to a group for a project requiring a presentation at the end. “Now is the busiest time in my schedule and I do not have time to fit all these people into it,” the voice in your head reminds you. Then you ask the question: “Is there ever a non-busy time for assembling a group together for a presentation ?” These thoughts are a part of a group presentation assignment. The combined expertise of several individuals is becoming increasingly necessary in many vocational (related to a specific occupation) and avocational (outside a specific occupation) presentations.

Group presentations in business may range from a business team exchanging sales data; research and development teams discussing business expansion ideas; to annual report presentations by boards of directors. Also, the government, private, and public sectors have many committees that participate in briefings, conference presentations, and other formal presentations. It is common for group presentations to be requested, created, and delivered to bring together the expertise of several people in one presentation. Thus, the task of deciding the most valuable information for audience members has become a coordination task involving several individuals. All group members are responsible for coordinating things such as themes, strong support/evidence, and different personalities and approaches in a specified time period. Coordination is defined in the dictionary as harmonious combination or interaction, as of functions or parts.

This chapter focuses on how the group, the speech assignment, the audience, and the presentation design play a role in the harmonious combination of planning, organization, and delivery for group presentations.

Preparing All Parts of the Assignment

In group presentations, you are working to coordinate one or two outcomes—outcomes related to the content (product outcomes) and/or outcomes related to the group skills and participation (process outcomes). Therefore, it is important to carefully review and outline the prescribed assignment of the group before you get large quantities of data, spreadsheets, interview notes, and other research materials.

Types of Group Presentations

A key component of a preparation plan is the type of group presentation. Not all group presentations require a format of standing in front of an audience and presenting. According to Sprague and Stuart (2005), there are four common types of group presentations:

  • A structured argument in which participants speak for or against a pre-announced proposition is called a debate . The proposition is worded so that one side has the burden of proof, and that same side has the benefit of speaking first and last. Speakers assume an advocacy role and attempt to persuade the audience, not each other.
  • The forum is essentially a question-and-answer session. One or more experts may be questioned by a panel of other experts, journalists, and/or the audience.
  • A panel consists of a group of experts publicly discussing a topic among themselves. Individually prepared speeches, if any, are limited to very brief opening statements.
  • Finally, the symposium is a series of short speeches, usually informative, on various aspects of the same general topic. Audience questions often follow (p. 318).

These four types of presentations, along with the traditional group presentation in front of an audience or on-the-job speaking, typically have pre-assigned parameters. Therefore, all group members must be clear about the assignment request.

A man stands at a microphone while moderating a panel discussion of four peoiple who are seated at a table

Establishing Clear Objectives

For the group to accurately summarize for themselves who is the audience, what is the situation/occasion, and what supporting materials need to be located and selected, the group should establish clear objectives about both the process and the product being assessed.

Assessment plays a central role in optimizing the quality of group interaction. Thus, it is important to be clear whether the group is being assessed on the product(s) or outcome(s) only or will the processes within the group—such as equity of contribution, individual interaction with group members, and meeting deadlines—also be assessed. Kowitz and Knutson (1980) argue that three dimensions for group evaluation include (1) informational —dealing with the group’s designated tasks; (2) procedural —referring to how the group coordinates its activities and communication; and (3) interpersonal —focusing on the relationships that exist among members while the task is being accomplished. Groups without a pre-assigned assessment rubric may use the three dimensions to effectively create a group evaluation instrument.

The group should determine if the product includes both a written document and an oral presentation. The written document and oral presentation format may have been pre-assigned with an expectation behind the requested informative and/or persuasive content. Although the two should complement each other, the audience, message, and format for each should be clearly outlined. The group may create a product assessment guide (see Table 1) . Additionally, each group member should uniformly write down the purpose of the assignment. You may think you can keep the purpose in your head without any problem. Yet the goal is for each member to consistently have the same outcome in front of them. This will bring your research, writing, and thinking back to focus after engaging in a variety of resources or conversations.

Once the assignment has been coordinated in terms of the product and process objectives, type of presentation, and logistics, it is important for the group to clearly write down the agreed outcomes. Agreed outcomes about the product include a purpose statemen t that reflects an agreement with the prescribed assignment (i.e. “at the end of our group presentation the audience will be informed or persuaded about the prescribed assignment”). It also includes the key message or thesis to be developed through a presentation outline , a full-sentence outline of virtually everything the speaker intends to say. The outline allows the speakers to test the structure, the logic, and persuasive appeals in the speech (DiSanza & Legge, 2011, p. 131).

Logistics for Group Members

As a group, be very clear about the length of your presentation and its preparation. The length of the presentation refers to your time limit, and whether there is a question and answer period involved. Assignment preparation may or may not have a prescribed deadline. If the assignment does not have a deadline, then set one as a group. If there is a deadline, then the group begins by creating a schedule from the final deadline. As a group, create an action timetable explicitly listing all processes and outputs, as well as communication update points.

As a group, decide the best way to leave enough time in the end to put all the pieces together and make sure everything is complete. If there is a written document, it should be completed prior to the oral presentation rather than at the same time. As a group, realize not everyone may work off a physical calendar. Thus, do not hesitate to require each member to write down all deadlines.

Next, the group can strategically add meeting dates, times, and venues to the action timetable. A meeting is a structured conversation among a small group of people who gather to accomplish a specific task (Beebe & Mottet, 2010). For group presentations, meetings do not always include the entire group. So a schedule of who meets with whom and when is useful for planning work and agendas. In addition, all meetings do not serve the same purpose. For example, informational meetings may be called simply to update all group members; solicitation meetings are called to solicit opinions or request guidance from group members; group-building meetings are designed to promote unity and cohesiveness among group members; and problem-solving meetings result in making decisions or recommendations by the time the meeting convenes.

Once the group is unified about the assignment objectives and time frame, it is vital to predetermine the type of note-taking required of each group member (which may vary) and the variety of information exchange. The more systematic a group is in these two areas, the more unified the process and the product. The system begins with each group member writing down the message, specific purpose, and central ideas for the group presentation. If these are still to be determined, then have each group member identify the areas of background information needed and basic information gathering. Next, simply create a general format for note-taking—whether typed or handwritten and what types of details should be included especially sources. Also with the increasing use of electronic databases be very clear on when related articles should be forwarded to group members. The email inbox flooded with PDF files is not always a welcome situation.

The group should be clear on the explicit requirements for locating recent, relevant, and audience-appropriate source material for the presentation. All of this leads to the foundation of clearly defining the responsibilities of each group member. All tasks should be listed, given deadlines, and assigned people. A means for tracking the progress of each task should be outlined. The group should be clear on what are individual, joint (involving more than one group member), and entire group tasks. Throughout the entire process, all group members should be supportive and helpful but should not offer to do other people’s work.

Organizing for Your Audience

Organizing for your audience relates to how the gathered content can be best arranged for them. According to Patricia Fripp (2011), a Hall of Fame keynote speaker and executive speech coach, any presentation can be intimidating but the key is to remember “your goal is to present the most valuable information possible to the members of the audience” (p. 16). Now what you think is most valuable and what the audience thinks is most valuable must be coordinated because of differences in perception (the process by which we give meaning to our experience). Therefore, organizing for your audience is focused on content, structure, packaging, and human element—not for you, not for the assignment, but for the audience. A customized plan of organization will assist your group in creating relevant messages that satisfy others’ personal needs and goals (Keller, 1983).

Audience members are interested in your expertise that has been developed from solid research and preparation. Audience members may have expectations about what foundational literature and key sources should be contained within your presentation. Therefore as a group, you need to go beyond providing a variety of supporting material within your presentation to considering who will be present, levels of expertise, and their expectations. In general, organizing the content should be focused on usage, knowledge levels, and objectives. First, usage refers to how audience members expect to use your presentational content which will help the group transform ideas into audience-centered speech points. Second, knowledge level means the audience’s knowledge level about the topic within the audience which assists the group in developing supporting material for the entire audience. Third, the objectives are linked to how the content serves the audience’s needs and assists the group in being intentional about helping the audience see the reason for their involvement and receive value for the time they devoted to attend. Overall, the content is coordinated in a way that keeps at the forefront who the decision-makers are and what specifics they need to know, would be nice to know, and do not need to know.

Next professionally packaging a presentation for the audience deals with the structure or how you arrange points. The structure takes into consideration a strong opening, logical order, relevant key points, conciseness, and use of supplementary visual aids. In addition, the linking of points involves conversational language and the appropriate use of acronyms and technical jargon for inclusion or exclusion. The focus is geared to the perception of trustworthiness. Three strategic questions to answer include:

  • What qualities as a group will demonstrate your trustworthiness to this audience?
  • What content order needs to be achieved to give a consistent perception of fairness?
  • What content requires repeating and how should that be achieved—through comparisons, examples, illustrations, etc.?

The packaging of successful group presentations revolves around the type of relationship with the audience, the division of time, and enthusiasm. An important dynamic of group presentations is for your group to know if audience members will be required to give an internal presentation or briefing from your presentation. As a group, know if you are packaging a one-time presentation, bidding for a long-term relationship, continuing a relationship for offering expertise, or if the presentation is tied to internal pressures to performance appraisals. Such knowledge will aid your group in developing talking points which can be re-presented with accuracy.

The type of presentation will help you divide the time for your presentation. The majority of the time is always spent on the body of the speech. A typical 30-minute speech might be divided into four minutes for the introduction, ten minutes for the body, and four minutes for the conclusion. The remaining 12 minutes is for the audience to ask questions, offer objections, or simply to become part of the discussion. It is important to leave enough time for the audience to contribute to the intellectual content. Therefore, always design group presentations with the intent not to run out of time before the audience can participate. All group presentations should have enthusiasm. Group members should be enthusiastic about the audience, message, and occasion. Planned enthusiasm should play a role in creating the introduction, conclusion, and body of your presentations. The consistent use of enthusiasm can be planned throughout the speech outline.

Human Element

Now it is time to focus on compatibility. As a group, consider what will it take to get this audience to pay attention to your presentation. Answer questions such as:

  • What can your group do to develop an introduction, transitions, and conclusions in a way to connect with this audience?
  • What types of stories are common or relatable to this audience?
  • What are the attitudes, beliefs, and values of this audience?

Delivering Your Presentation as One

By completing the other levels of coordination, the group will have decided on the key message, thoroughly researched the supporting material, developed logical conclusions, and created realistic recommendations. Therefore all that stands between you and success is the actual presentation—the vehicle that carries the facts and the ideas to your audience. Here it is important to recognize that if an assignment required both a written document and an oral presentation then be sure one effectively complements the other. Although you can reference the written document during the oral presentation, the oral presentation should be planned with the thought in mind that not everyone is given the written document. Therefore, the oral presentation may be the only content they receive. Since you will not always know who receives the written document, it is best to coordinate the presentation as if no one has the full written document, which can serve as a reference tool for gaining content requiring further explanation or accessibility to detailed information. At the same time, if the entire audience is provided written material keep in mind different decision-makers may be in the audience. For example, the creative director may be only interested in your creative concepts, whereas a vice president of finance may be only interested in figures.

The presentation preparation primarily focuses on your group’s ability to develop a clear plan and execution of delivery. A delivery plan includes essential elements such as (1) purpose, (2) oral content, (3) dress, (4) room, (5) visuals, (6) delivery, and (7) rehearsal to ensure that the group presentation is both captivating and useful to your audience, as well as worth their time.

Group members should keep at the forefront of their minds the answer to the question “Was the general purpose—to inform or to persuade—achieved?” As a group, practice keeping the purpose of the presentation explicit for the audience. The purpose should never become hidden during the presentation. Each group member’s awareness of the purpose is important in maintaining the right kind of delivery. It is possible to have great content for a presentation and miss the entire purpose of the presentation. For example, say your group had been asked to do a presentation about Facebook and how it could be used in the financial industry. You could take an informative or persuasive approach. However, if the audience—banking professionals—attends a presentation where the content is focused on Facebook rather than having a focus on its use in the financial industry, then the purpose was not achieved.

The delivery plan will help you evaluate if the purpose of the presentation is clearly aimed at the primary audience. In addition, the group can determine when and how clearly they are articulating the explicit purpose of the presentation. The purpose is complemented by a clear preview, the audience members’ awareness of what decisions are at issue, and the audience’s desire to get important information first.

Oral Content

Up to this point the majority of the group’s engagement with the content has been in terms of reading and writing. It is time to orally interact with the selected content to ensure that it has been developed for this audience, properly structured, and clearly articulated. The delivery plan is a time to evaluate word choice, idioms, and antidotes. When working with this content, make sure that it is suited to the purpose, and that the key message is explicit so the audience remembers it well.

The introduction of group members, transitions, and internal summaries are all important elements of the delivery plan. A proper introduction of group members and the content will not happen automatically. Therefore, it is important to practice it to determine if introductions fit better at the beginning of the presentation, if names need to be emphasized through the wearing of name tags, or if names are better used as a part of transition content. The use of name only may not be effective in some speaking situations. Therefore, the group needs to determine what a proper group member introduction includes beyond the name. Plus, be consistent; that is, determine if everyone is using first name only or full name, do they need to know your positions, some background, or can you simply state it in a written format such as a team resume. Speech content is not useful if the audience does not accept your credibility.

As in all presentations, an awareness of your physical appearance is an important element in complementing the content of your speech. Do not hesitate to talk about and practice appropriate dress as a group. It is important to look like a group. Really consider defining a group’s speaking uniform by deciding how formal or informal the dress code is.

As a group, the overall question you want to be able to answer is: Did our dress provide an accurate first impression not distracting from the content? So what kinds of things can be distracting? The most common are colors, busy patterns, and large or clinking jewelry. As a group determine what type of dress is effective in coordinating your group’s credibility. It is important to take into consideration cultural, occupational, and regional norms. In addition, it is important to think about branding choices. Often groups want to brand themselves for the audience. It is not necessary to mimic your audience. For example, a sales presentation to cranberry association members may entice a group to wear red. However, the cranberry association may not be the only sale your group needs to make so you will be forced to ask the question: Will each sales presentation audience determine the color we accent in dress? In short, do not let the speaking occasion brand you. Simply know what is considered professional for this presentation. You have spent a lot of time on preparing the content for this audience so do not detract from it.

It is not always feasible to practice your delivery in the actual room where you will deliver your speech. However, it is extremely important that you actively plan your delivery for the room by recreating the speaking environment. If prior access to the room is not available, then you will need to do your planning by asking a series of questions of the presentation planner. Some common things to find out include the size of the room; if a projector is available and its location within the room; is there a platform and/or a stationary lectern; is there a sound system and how many microphones; where the group will be seated before being introduced; will the presentation be recorded; what is the availability of the room in advance of the presentation; and what is the number of seats and seating arrangement so the group can plan for the zone of interaction.

Three people sit on stools on a stage before an audience with a screen with a visual aid behind them

The term visuals refers to both non-technology visual aids (handouts, posters, charts, etc.) and presentation technology. Visuals should not appear as though several individuals made them but rather as uniform to the group’s presentation. All visuals should blend smoothly into the speech. All group members should be clear on what visuals or documents were pre-requested (so you do not eliminate them as unnecessary during rehearsal). Many times it is better to simply project or display visuals. At other times, visuals may need to be assembled in a presentation packet for all audience members. Bohn & Jabusch (1982) suggest that there are several researched-based reasons why visual aids enhance presentations including (a) enhanced understanding —helps audience comprehend what they hear and see; (b) enhanced memory —serves as a visual reinforcement; (c) enhanced organization—visually displays your organizational strategy; (d) enhanced attention —grabs and maintains audience interest; and (e) enhanced sequencing —shows rather than describes.

The four modes of delivery—memorized, impromptu, manuscript, and extemporaneous—are all valuable in group presentations. However, the most common mode of delivery is extemporaneous. Earlier in the chapter, developing a script was discussed. The step of transforming the script into a delivery outline —an abbreviated version of the preparation outline (DiSanza & Legge, 2011)—is a significant part of planning delivery. The ultimate goal is to figure out how the group can be confident that the entire presentation stays together and does not just exist in pieces. The delivery outline may go as far as to stipulate vocal and gesture instructions. The delivery outline is not created to be read from, therefore, the group also should determine how speaker notes will be used. The delivery outline should be provided to every group member so everyone is familiar with the entire presentation. It is important to set up contingency plans for who will present content if someone is absent on the day of the presentation—the presenter who gets stuck in morning traffic or the professional who had a flight delay.

The key is for all group members to remain conversational in their delivery style. This may be best achieved by utilizing effective delivery strategies such as appropriate gestures, movement, and posture; appropriate facial expressions including eye contact; and appropriate vocal delivery—articulation, dialect, pitch, pronunciation, rate, and volume. Group members should evaluate each other on audibility and fluency.

Rehearsals are for the final polishing of your presentations. It is a time to solidify logistics of how many group members are presenting, where they will stand, and the most appropriate transitions between each speaker. Group members should grow more comfortable with each other through rehearsals. A key aspect of polishing involves identifying gaps in content and gaining feedback on content (oral and visual), style, and delivery. The rehearsals are a good time to refine speaker notes and to practice the time limit. The number of scheduled rehearsals is dependent on your group and the amount of preparation time provided. The most important element for the group is to adapt their rehearsal timetable based on an honest evaluation of the speaking skills represented within the group.

The only part of a group presentation that you may not be able to rehearse is responding to the actual audience members’ questions and objections. However, you can anticipate the types of questions and practice a simple strategy of how you will respond—repeating the question, stating who from the group will respond, and answering succinctly. Four of the most common types of questions are follow-up questions; action-oriented questions focused on what would you do if; hypothetical questions focused on different scenarios; and information-seeking questions. A primary way to practice is to think of at least three questions you would like to answer, prepare the answer, and practice it during rehearsal(s).

The foundation of a group presentation is constructed from all the guidelines you use in an individual presentation coupled with additional strategies for working effectively with others. Group presentations primarily entail group communication, planning, organization, and delivery. Effective groups communicate about interaction roles, decision-making, and conflict resolution. Such communication helps the group reflect on group dynamics, customize communication for this speaking group, and establish a unified commitment and collaborative climate.

Review & Reflection Questions

  • How might a group presentation be different than presenting individually?
  • In preparing for a group presentation, what are some key questions and considerations for your group?
  • How can you ensure your group presentation is effective and appears ‘as one’?
  • Beebe, S.A. & Mottet, T.P. (2010). Business and professional communication: Principles and skills for leadership . Allyn & Bacon.
  • Bohn, E. & Jabusch, D. (1982). The effect of four methods of instruction on the use of visual aids in speeches. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 46 , 253-265.
  • DiSanza, J.R., & Legge, N. J. (2011). Business and professional communication: Plans, processes, and performance (5th ed.). Pearson.
  • Fripp. P. (2011). 9 timely tips for pre-presentation preparation. American Salesman, 56 , 13- 16.
  • Keller, J.M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories: An overview of their current status (pp. 383-434). Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Kowitz, A.C. & Knutson., T.J. (1980). Decision making in small groups: The search for alternatives . Allyn and Bacon.
  • Sprague, J. & Stuart D. (2005). The speaker’s handbook (7th ed. ) . Thomson Wadsworth.

Authors & Attribution

This content comes from the introduction, “Preparing All Parts of the Assignment” and “Delivering Your Presentation as One” written by Jennifer F. Wood, Ph.D., in Chapter 18 Group Presentations . from the Public Speaking Project . This content is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License.

harmonious combination or interaction, as of functions or parts

a structured argument in which participants speak for or against a pre-announced proposition

a presentation in which one or more experts may be questioned by a panel of other experts, journalists, and/or the audience

a presentation format that consists of a group of experts publicly discussing a topic among themselves

a presentation format that involves a series of short speeches, usually informative, on various aspects of the same general topic

a clear, agreed outcome for the presentation

a full-sentence outline of virtually everything the speaker intends to say. The outline allows the speakers to test the structure, the logic, and persuasive appeals in the speech

an abbreviated version of the preparation outline

Presenting as a Group Copyright © 2020 by Jasmine R. Linabary, Ph.D. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Module 14: Small Group Communication

Presenting as a group, learning objectives.

Describe different formats for presenting as or for a small group.

Five people presenting as a group

Small groups are often a problem-solving group that researches a situation or problem that presents their conclusions and recommendations. This presentation might take different forms including an individual reporting, a group presentation, or a panel discussion. [1]

Regardless of the particular method of delivery, all the elements of outstanding public speaking apply. These elements include a logical structure; an engaging introduction and strong conclusion; well-supported main points; and clear, descriptive language. In terms of delivery, having excellent eye contact, vocal variety, an open posture, and animated features all combine to effectively convey the group’s message.

Let’s look at three presentation formats in more detail:

Individual Report

Although the entire small group has participated in researching and discussing a particular project or objective, oftentimes one person will be designated to present the findings or recommendations. This person might be a group leader or a member who enjoys or has experience presenting. Ideally, the entire group would assist in putting together the presentation so that it is balanced, easy to follow, and well supported. Both the main presenter and the group members might be called upon to answer questions both before and after the presentation. Depending on the tone and setup of the presentation, group members might chime in to clarify any points, so long as they don’t take over the presentation.

“A symposium is a public presentation in which several people present prepared speeches on different aspects of the same topic” (Lucas, 2020, p. 387). If your small group presents a symposium, you need to decide in advance who will present which aspect of your findings or project and practice in advance. Sometimes, the group leader will act as a moderator to introduce the group and segue between each speaker. Other times, each speaker will conclude their remarks by introducing the next speaker: “now that I’ve talked about the risks of adopting our proposal, I’ll turn the time over to Raj to discuss how we hope to address those risks.” In a symposium, each speaker needs to plan their time carefully so they don’t take over other presenters’ allotted time.

Panel Discussion

Like a symposium, a panel discussion draws on some or all members of a small group to present. Unlike a symposium, a panel discussion tends to be more informal and conversational, with a moderator introducing each panelist, asking questions and facilitating the discussion. Like all public speakers, panelists should be well prepared with their content and confer with other panelists in advance, possibly bringing along notes to refer to. However, the tone should still be more spontaneous and discussion oriented with some back-and-forth among panelists and with the moderator. A panel discussion often involves a question-and-answer period with the audience. When asked questions, panelists should listen carefully to each question, keep their responses relatively brief, and be sure they’ve clearly understood and responded to any questions.

Practice Question

  • Lucas, Stephen.  The Art of Public Speaking . United States, McGraw-Hill Education, 2020. ↵
  • Panel discussion. Authored by : Quinn Dombrowski. Located at : . License : CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike
  • Presenting as a Group. Authored by : Susan Bagley-Koyle with Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution

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Frantically Speaking

How To Present With A Group: 14 Expert Tips

Hrideep barot.

  • Presentation

group work

If we consider the research and writing part of a presentation, then a group presentation doesn’t seem that different from a single-person presentation. 

If you wish to deliver a successful presentation, you still need to put in a fair deal of individual research, writing, and practice. Even for the presenting bit: when you speak, the onus of delivering a great speech, as well as the audience’s attention, is going to be on you. 

However, a group presentation is significantly different from a normal presentation. 

While you’ll still have to do your own research, the amount of research you’ll have to do will probably be decreased, as the research material will be divided amongst all the members. Practice and delivery of the speech will not be merely an individual thing: you’ll have to work and synch it with the rest of the group.

Moreover, while it might seem that the individual responsibility is going to reduce if you’re delivering a presentation with more than one person, often the case is quite the opposite. This is because if a single person messes up–or simply doesn’t wish to put in as much effort as the others–the repercussions are going to be faced by the entire group. 

However, group presentations don’t necessarily have to be a difficult thing. Think of your most favorite sports team: what makes the team the best? What makes them stand out from other teams? How are they successful?

The answer for what makes a sports team the best isn’t much different from what makes a group presentation the best: 

Advance planning and division of work, having a strong leader, fostering a sense of comariderie between group members, as well as staying vigilant and supportive on the big day are the key to delivering an awesome group presentation.  

And the goal isn’t as tough to achieve as you might think. 

Stick till the end of this article to find out! 

What Is A Group Presentation?

A group presentation is a collaborative exercise in which a team of speakers works together to create and deliver a presentation on a given topic. The number of members in a group presentation can range from anything between two to over ten! Group presentations are used in a variety of settings like school, workplace, colleges, seminars, etc. 

While the task of presenting with a group of people might feel daunting, especially if you identify as a lone wolf, group presentations can be a great learning experience and teach you how to better navigate the task of dealing with a multitude of people with a multitude of opinions and experiences. 

By keeping in mind a few things, group presentations can be delivered just as efficiently as single-speaker presentations.

Is A Group Presentation For You? 

To decide whether you should deliver a group presentation or not, you need to decide whether the pros of a group presentation outweigh the cons for you. 

Group presentations are great because they decrease workload, increase efficiency, improve the quantity and quality of ideas, and also provide you with experience to work in a group setting. 

However, there are a few fall-backs to group presentation as well. 

Sometimes, a few group members might not work as hard as the other ones, thus increasing the workload on the other members. Also, group members might have different ideas and opinions, which can cause clashes within the group. Coordinating between the group members might be a problem. And if you’re a shy person, you might find it difficult to speak out and voice your opinion in front of other group members. 

So, there is no single answer to whether you should do a group presentation or not. Weigh in the pros and cons of doing one before making your decision. 

Tips For Delivering A Group Presentation: The Preparation Stage 

working with a group

1. Decide On The Purpose Of Your Presentation

First and foremost, you must determine what is the purpose of your presentation. It might seem like a redundant step, but trust me: it’s not. You’ll be surprised by how different people perceive and understand the same topic.

So, say you’re delivering a research paper on the topic “The Effect Of The Coronavirus Pandemic On Street Animals”, sit down together and ask your group members what each individual person thinks the topic is about and the points they feel we need to include in it.

If possible, one member can jot down all the points that the other speakers make, and once all the members are done talking, you can come to a consensus about what to and what not to include in the presentation. 

2. Choose A Presentation Moderator 

In the simplest terms, the presentation moderator is the designated “leader” of a group. That is, they’re the one responsible for the effective functioning of the group, and to make sure that the group achieves their shared purpose i.e giving the presentation.

They sort out any potential conflicts in the group, help out other members when they ask for guidance, and also have the final say on important decisions that the group makes. The best and the simplest way to select the presentation moderator is by vote. This will ensure that every member has a say, and avoid any potential conflicts in the future. 

3. Divide The Work Fairly  

The next step is to divide the work. The best way to do this is to break your presentation into equal parts, and then to assign them to group members. While doing so, you can keep in mind individuals’ preferences, experience, and expertise. For example, if there are three people, you can divide your presentation into three sections: the beginning, the middle, and the end.

Then you can ask which member would feel more comfortable with a particular section, and assign the sections accordingly. In case of any overlap, the individual members can be asked to decide themselves who’s the better fit for the part. Alternatively, if the situation doesn’t seem to resolve, the presentation moderator can step in and assign parts randomly to the members; the members can do this themselves, too. 

4 . Do A Member Analysis 

To know the individual strengths and weaknesses of group members, it’s important to carry out a member analysis. Not everyone feels comfortable in front of a crowd. Or, someone could be great at building presentations, but not so good with speaking into a mic. On the contrary, a member might be an excellent orator but terrible with technology.

So, in order to efficiently divide the work and to have a seamless presentation, carry out a member analysis beforehand. 

5. Individual And Group Practice Are Equally Important 

Individual practice is important as it helps you prepare the presentation in solitude, as you would if you were the only speaker. Practicing alone is generally more comfortable, as you do not have to worry about other people watching or judging you.

It also allows you to prepare at your own convenience and time, while for group practice you’ll have to adjust to when it’s convenient for the other members to practice, as well.

Besides, the individual practice also saves the group’s time as each member can simultaneously but separately prep their own part, while group practice sessions are often longer as the other members generally have to pay attention to the speaking member instead of their own bit.

However, it’s essential to do group practice at least three to four times before delivering your presentation. This is important not just for the smooth delivery of the presentation, but also for the group members to grow comfortable with each other.

Group practice sessions also help you time out the total duration of the presentation, have smooth transitions between speakers, avoid repetitions, and also sort out any potential hiccups or fallbacks in the presentation. 

6. Perfect The Transitions 

A common fallback of group presentations is having awkward transitions between members. Not only will this be an unpleasant experience for the audience, but it might also make you waste precious time.

So, make sure you practice and perfect the transitions before the big day. It doesn’t have to be too long–even a single line will do. What matters is how well you execute it. 

7. Bond With The Group Members 

Bonding with the group is a great way to enhance the overall presentation experience; both, for yourself as well as the audience. This is because a better bond between the group members will make for the smoother functioning of the group, reduce potential conflicts, make decisions quickly and more easily, and also make the presentation fun!

The audience will also be able to sense, maybe even witness, this camaraderie between the members. They will thus have a better viewing experience.

There are many ways to improve the bonding between group members. Before the presentation, you could go out for dinner, a movie, or even meet up at one location–like somebody’s house–to get to know each other better. Group calls are another option. You could also play an ice-breaker if you’re up for some fun games!

8. Watch Other Group Presentations Together 

This is another great way of bonding with the team and also improving your presentation skills as you do so. By listening to other group presentations, you will be able to glean a better idea of how you can better strategize your own presentation. As you watch the presentation, make note of things like the time division, the way the topics are divided, the transition between speakers, etc. 

A few presentations you could watch are: 

Delivering A Successful Team Presentation 

Takeaway: This is a great video to learn how to deliver a  great group presentation. As you watch the video, make note of all the different tips that each speaker gives, and also how they incorporate  them in their own presentation, which goes on simulatenously with the tips. 

Sample Group Presentation: Non-Verbal Communication

Takeaway: This is another great video that depicts how you can deliver a presentation with a group. Notice how the topics are divided, the transition between different speakers, and also the use of visuals in the presentation. 

AthleteTranx Team Presentation- 2012 Business Plan Competition

Takeaway: Another great example of a group presentation that you can watch with your own group. In this video, keep a lookout for how the different speakers smoothly transition, their body language, and the way the presentation itself is organized to make it an amazing audience experience. 

Tips For Delivering A Group Presentation: The Presentation Stage  

presenting with people

1.Introduce All Members 

A good idea to keep in mind while delivering a group presentation is to introduce all members at the onset of the presentation. This will familiarize the audience with them, and also work to ease the member’s nerves.

Besides, an introduction will make the members feel more included, and if done correctly, can also give a more shy member a confidence boost. The simplest way of introducing members is to have the person beginning the speech do it. Alternatively, the presentation moderator could do it. 

Need some tips on how to introduce people? Check out our article on How To Introduce A Speaker In Any Setting (And Amaze Your Audience).

2. Coordinate Your Dressing 

What better way to make people believe that you’re a team than dressing up as one? 

Coordinated dressing not only makes the group stand out from the audience, but it can also make the group members feel more like one team. 

A general rule of thumb is to dress one level more formally than your audience. Don’t wear your casual clothes: remember that it’s a formal event and your clothing must reflect that. Also, keep in mind individual preferences and beliefs while choosing the clothing.

This is important as if a person is uncomfortably dressed, it can have a negative impact on their performance, which will eventually be detrimental to the group performance. 

Confused about what to wear on the presentation day? Check out our article on Guide: Colors To Wear During A Presentation.

3. Make Sure To Incorporate Visual & Audio Aids

Visual elements like photographs, videos, graphs, etc. Are a must in all presentations, group or otherwise. This is because visual aids help the audience better understand the topic, besides making the presentation a better experience overall. Same goes with audio elements, which include things like audio clips, music, background sounds etc. 

So, if you wish to have your audience’s attention, make sure to incorporate tons of visual and audio elements in your presentation. You could also divide the kind of visual elements you use between different members: for example, one person could show a short documentary to expand on their point, and the other could make use of memes and animation to add a dose of fun to their part. 

4. Pay Attention To What Others Are Saying 

Another thing to keep in mind while delivering your speech is to pay attention to what the other speakers are saying. While it might be tempting to tune out others and use the extra time to rehearse your own presentation, it’s not a good idea to do so.

Remember that the audience can see each speaker on the stage. If you don’t look interested, then why should they pay attention? Besides, your lack of attention can make the speaker feel bad: if their own team members aren’t listening to them speaking, does that mean they’re doing a bad job? So, make sure to keep your eyes and ears on your teammate as they deliver their speech.

5. Remember All Speech Parts By Heart 

This is a great way to ensure that you have a seamless presentation. One of the primary benefits of having a team to work with is knowing that you can turn to them for help if something goes wrong.

So, it’s important to not just practice and work together but to also be well-versed in what other group members are going to be saying. This will make it easier for you to cue or help someone if they forget their part. Also, if there’s an emergency or if a member is not able to make it to the speech, the other members can easily take their place.

6. Work Together For A Question And Answer Session 

Q & A sessions are a common element in most presentations. They might seem daunting to an individual speaker, however, a group setting makes the session much easier. This is because an individual speaker doesn’t have to know everything about the topic.

The presentation moderator can simply refer to the speaker who is the most well-versed about the topic or is best able to answer the question from the group, and they can answer it. 

Creative Ideas To Make Use Of Multiple Presenters! 


There are many ways by which you can use the fact that there’s not just one single presentator but many to your advantage. A few of them are: 

1. Add A Dose Of Fun With Skits! 

Adding a dose of creativity to your presentation will greatly enhance its appeal to the audience, and make it more likely that they will remember your presentation in the future! 

One way of doing this is by having a short skirt in the opening. This is another great way of introducing the members, and of warming up the audience to them.

A fun skit can not only expand on the topic you’re about to present but will also elevate the audience’s mood, which will improve their attention span as well as their opinion of you! What else could you ask for?

2. Make Them Engage With Cosplay! 

Cosplay is another great way of making your presentation stand apart! This can make the presentation more interactive for the audience, as well, and earn you that sought-after dose of chuckling.

It’s not necessary to buy the most expensive costumes or be perfect in your cosplay, either. You can pick an outfit that’s easy to drape over your other outfit, and pick props that are easy to carry as well as versatile so that you can use them in other parts of your presentation as well. 

3. Write & Sing A Song Together!

Listen, you don’t have to be a professional singer or composer to do this. You’re not trying to sell a studio album. All you need is a little dose of creativity and some brainstorming, and you can write a song that helps you explain a component of your speech better.

You could even summarize the entire topic in that song, and sing it in the end as a sort of post-credits scene (thank you, Marvel). Alternatively, the song doesn’t necessarily have to explain your speech, but can simply be a surprise element after you’re done with the main part of your speech! 

4. Record A Short Film!

If you don’t want to have a live skit, another creative way to add fun to your skit is by recording a short film beforehand and playing it during your presentation. The film doesn’t have to be very long–even a few minutes work.

What matters is the content of the film, and how well-made it is. If not all members wish to act or record themselves, the ones that are not up for it can do the editing and compilation, or even write the script! After all, it’s not just actors that make a film successful: a strong director and writer are just as important! 

5. Have A Continuous Story 

Another great way to make the presentation seem more connected and seamless is by incorporating a continuous story. You can pick a story–or even make one up–related to your topic and break it up in sections.

Then, assign a section to each speaker. This will not only make the presentation more intriguing but if done right will also hook your audience’s attention and make them anticipate what comes next. Awesome, right? 


Q. how do i begin a group presentation.

To begin a group presentation, have the moderator or any other group member introduce all other members and the topic that they’ll be speaking on. This might seem like a redundancy, however it is anything but useless.

This gives the chance to the audience to become familiar with the speakers, which is necessary if you want them to grow comfortable with you. Also, prior introduction of members saves the audience’s time, as each speaker will not have to re-introduce themself before driving into their topic. 

If each member wishes to individually introduce themselves, then that can be done too. However, make sure that you’ve practiced transitioning between members smoothly, so as to avoid making the switch look awkward.

Next, share a brief summary of what you’re going to be talking about. Like the introduction, you could even split the summary among yourselves, with each speaker describing briefly what they’re going to be talking about. Tell the audience why it’s relevant, and how you’re planning to go about giving the speech. Incorporating attention-grabbing statements is another good idea.

This could be a sneak peek into what’s going to be coming in your presentation, or simply a relevant statement, fact or statistic. Make sure the introduction doesn’t last too long, as you want to keep the audience fresh and primed for the main content of your speech. 

For some awesome opening lines, check out our article on 15 Powerful Speech Opening Lines (And How To Create Your Own).


As mentioned before, having a smooth transition between speakers in the group is imperative to provide the audience with a seamless experience. The abrupt way of doing this would be to simply have the first speaker stop and for the other speaker to begin speaking.

However, a better way to transition would be by using transitional phrases. Pass the baton to the next speaker by introducing them. You could do this by saying something like, “To talk about the next topic we have…” Or something like, “Now I would like to invite…” 

After verbally introducing them, it’s also a good idea to motion towards or look towards the new speaker. Also, if you’re the next speaker, it’s always good manners to thank the previous one. 

Transitioning is one place where many presentations go wrong. Practicing the transition might seem redundant, but it’s anything but that. In fact, it’s as necessary as the practice of the other elements of your speech. Also, make sure to incorporate both, verbal and non-verbal cues while moving to the next speaker. That is, don’t just say that ‘A’ is going to be speaking now and then walk away.

Make eye contact with the speaker, motion for them towards the podium, or smile at them. That is, both speakers should acknowledge the presence of each other.

Make sure to practice this beforehand too. If you want, you could also have the moderator do the transitioning and introduce all speakers. However, make sure that your transitions are brief, as you don’t want to take up too much time from the main presentation.


For the ending of the presentation, have the moderator or any other group member step forward again. They can provide a quick summary of the presentation, before thanking the audience and asking them if they have any questions.

The moderator doesn’t have to answer all the questions by themselves: the members can pitch in to answer the question that relates to their individual part. If there’s another group presenting after you, the moderator can conclude by verbally introducing them or saying that the next group will take over now. 

During the end, you could have all the presenters on the stage together, as this will provide a united front to your audience. If you don’t wish to finish the presentation with a Q & A, you could also end it by a call to action.

Or, you could loop back and make a reference to the opening of your presentation, or the main part of your speech. If you’d set up a question at the beginning, now would be a good time to answer it. This will increase the impact of your speech.

Make sure that the closing words aren’t vague. The audience should know it’s the end of the presentation, and not like you’re keeping them hanging for something more. Make sure to thank and acknowledge your audience, and any other speakers or dignitaries present. Lastly, just like the opening and the transitioning, practice the ending before you step onto the stage!  

Want some inspiration for closing lines? Check out our article on 15 Powerful Speech Ending Lines (And Tips To Create Your Own).


There are many ways by which you can introduce the next speaker in the presentation. For starters, you could wrap up your presentation by simply summarizing what you said (make sure it’s a brief summary) and then saying the other speaker will take over from this point.

Or, you could finish with your topic and then give a brief introduction of the next speaker and what they’re going to be talking about. The introduction can be simply the name of the speaker, or you could also provide a brief description of them and their achievements if any.

To lighten the mood, you could even add a fun fact about the speaker in your introduction–this is, of course, provided that you’re both comfortable with it. You could also ask for a round of applause to welcome them onto the stage.

However you choose to approach the transition, make sure that your introduction is short, and not more than two minutes at the maximum. Remember that it’s the next speaker’s turn to speak–not yours. If you’re the incoming speaker, make sure to thank the speaker who introduced you. You could also respond to their description or fun fact about you. A smile doesn’t hurt, either!


To sum up, while group presentations might seem daunting at first, if planned and executed properly, they don’t have to be difficult at all! On the contrary, they can make the presentation a more seamless and fun experience overall. By doing thorough preparation in advance, dividing the work properly, as well as staying vigilant and supportive during the presentation, you can execute your next group presentation as easily as an individual project! 

Hrideep Barot

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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Assignments

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Analyzing a Scholarly Journal Article
  • Group Presentations
  • Dealing with Nervousness
  • Using Visual Aids
  • Grading Someone Else's Paper
  • Types of Structured Group Activities
  • Group Project Survival Skills
  • Leading a Class Discussion
  • Multiple Book Review Essay
  • Reviewing Collected Works
  • Writing a Case Analysis Paper
  • Writing a Case Study
  • About Informed Consent
  • Writing Field Notes
  • Writing a Policy Memo
  • Writing a Reflective Paper
  • Writing a Research Proposal
  • Generative AI and Writing
  • Acknowledgments

Planning for and Giving a Group Presentation

Students working on group projects are often asked to give an oral presentation summarizing the results of their research. Professors assign group presentations because they combine the cooperative learning benefits of working in groups with the active learning benefits of speaking in front of an audience. However, similar to participating in a group project , giving a group presentation requires making decisions together , negotiating shared responsibilities, and collaborating on developing a set of solutions to a research problem . Below are issues to consider when planning and while giving a group presentation.

Before the Presentation

When to Begin

Planning the logistics around giving a presentation should take place as the group project progresses and, most critically, coalesce immediately after results of your study are known and clear recommendations can be made. Keep in mind that completing the basic tasks of giving a presentation [e.g., designating a moderator, designing the slide templates, working on the introduction, etc.] can save you time and allow your group to focus just before giving the presentation on how to effectively highlight the most important aspects of the research study.

Sharing the Responsibility

Everyone in the group should have an equal role in preparing the presentation and covering a similar amount of information during the presentation. However, a moderator should be elected to lead the presentation. The group should then determine what each member will speak about. This can be based on either the member's interests or what they worked on during the group project. This means that each member should be responsible for developing an outline of what they will talk about and drafting the content of their section of the slides or other forms of visual aids.

NOTE: If , for whatever reason, a group member is  particularly anxious about speaking in front of an audience or perhaps they are uncomfortable because English is not their first language, consider giving them a role that can be easily articulated, such as, introducing the purpose of the study and its importance. Everyone must participate in speaking, but be cognizant of the need to support that person by discussing what would work best for them while still being an active contributor to the presentation.

Organizing the Content

The content of the presentation should parallel the organization of the research study. In general, it should include a brief introduction, a description of the study, along with its purpose and significance, a review of prior research and its relevance to your group's project, an analysis of the results, with an emphasis on significance findings or recommended courses of action, and a brief statement about any limitations and how the group managed them. The conclusion of the presentation should briefly summarize the study's key findings and implications and, if time has been allotted, ask for questions from the audience. The conclusion can also be used to highlight areas of study the require further investigation. Note that the group's time should be spent primarily discussing the results of the study and their implications in furthering knowledge about the research problem .

Developing the Content

The narrative around each section must flow together smoothly t o ensure that the audience remains engaged. An initial meeting to discuss each section of the presentation should include the following: 1) deciding on the sequence of speakers and which group member presents on which section; 2) determining who will oversee the use of any technology [and who steps up when it's that person's turn to speak]; 3) determining how much time should be allocated for each section in relation to the overall time limit; 4) discussing the use and content of slides or other visual aids; and, 5) developing a general outline of the presentation. Once everyone's roles and responsibilities have been negotiated, the group should establish a schedule of deadlines for when the work should to be completed.

Creating Transitions

Building the narrative of an oral presentation means more than imparting information; it also requires the group to work together developing moments of transition from one section to the next. Transitional statements ensures coordination among members about what is to be covered and helps your audience follow along and remain engaged. The transition from one section to the next should include both verbal cues [e.g., a recap what you just discussed and an introduction of the next speaker] and non-verbal gestures [e.g., stepping away from the podium or front of class to make room for the next speaker]. An example of this transition could be something like this:

Speaker 1: " to summarize, the literature suggested that allegations of election fraud often created the conditions for massive street protests in democratized societies. Next Mike will discuss how we analyzed recent events in Mexico and determined why this assumption may not apply under certain conditions. "

Speaker 2: " Thank you, Jordan. Next slide. In our study, we coded and analyzed the content of twitter accounts to explore the rise of dissension among.... "

NOTE:   Each member of the group should learn the entire presentation and not just their section. This ensures that members can help out if the speaker becomes nervous and loses track of what to say or if they forget something. If each member knows the entire presentation, then there is always someone who can step up and support the speaker by maintaining the narrative and not losing the audience's attention.

Practicing the Presentation

The most critical thing to do before giving a group presentation is to practice as a group. Rehearse what will be said and how it will be said so you know that the overall structure works, that the time is allotted correctly, and that any changes can be made, if needed. Also, rehearsing the presentation should include practicing use of the technology and choreographing where people will stand. An effective strategy is to rehearse the entire presentation at least twice. Practice with each member taking turns speaking in front of the other members pretending that they are the audience. This way the group members can take turns offering suggestions about improving the presentation and the speaker gets more comfortable speaking in front of people. Practice a second time presenting as a group. This way, everyone can rehearse where to stand and coordinate transitions. If possible, practice in the room where your presentation will take place; standing in the front of a classroom feels very different from sitting there as a student.

During the Presentation

Before the Presentations Begin

If groups are presenting from a shared computer, ask your professor if you could pre-load your slides or other visual aids before the class begins . This will ensure that you're not taking time away from your presentation downloading and setting everything up. In addition, if there is a problem, it can be resolved beforehand rather than it being a distraction when you start the presentation.


Begin by having the moderator introduce the group by giving each member's name and a brief description of what they will be presenting on. And, yes, this seems like a pointless formality because it's likely that everyone knows everyone else. However, this is expected because it reflects giving oral presentations in most professional and work settings. In addition, your group has a limited amount of time to present and introducing everyone before the presentation begins saves more time than having each individual introduce themselves before they speak.

When Not Speaking

Assuming your group has practiced at least twice [and preferably more], you have heard and seen the entire presentation multiple times. Keep in mind, however, that your audience has not and they can observe everyone in the group. Be engaged. Do not look bored or distracted while others are speaking. Pay attention to each other by watching what the presenter is doing. Respond positively to the presenter and use nonverbal cues [e.g., nodding your head] as a way to help emphasize keys points of the presentation; audiences notice when those not speaking react to something the speaker is saying.

Coordinate Moving from One Speaker to the Next

The person presenting should take a position in the foreground of where you are delivering the information. Group members not speaking should step back and take a spot behind or off to the side of the speaker. When the person speaking is done, the next person steps forward. This pre-planned choreography may seem trivial, but it emphasizes to your audience who the next speaker will be and demonstrates a smooth, coordinated delivery throughout the presentation.

Visual Aids

Plan ahead how to use slides or other visual aids. The person currently presenting should not be distracted by having to constantly move to the next slide, backup and show an earlier slide, or exit a slide to show a video or external web page . Coordinate who in the group is responsible for taking the cue to change slides or otherwise manipulate the technology. When it's time for that person to speak, have a plan in place for passing this responsibility to someone else in the group. Fumbling around with who does what when, distracts the audience. Note however that the role of moving from one slide to the next does not count as being a presenter!

The presentation should conclude with the moderator stepping forward and thanking the audience and asking if there are any questions. If a question relates to a specific part of the presentation, the group member who spoke during that part should answer the question; it should not be the moderator's responsibility to answer for everyone. If another group follows your presentation from a shared computer, be courteous and close out all of your slides or other visual aids before stepping away.

Aguilera, Anna, Jesse Schreier, and Cassandra Saitow. "Using Iterative Group Presentations in an Introductory Biology Course to Enhance Student Engagement and Critical Thinking." The American Biology Teacher 79 (August 2017): 450-454; Barnard, Sam. "Guide for Giving a Group Presentation." VirtualSpeech Ltd., 2019; Eisen, Arri. "Small-Group Presentations: Teaching Science Thinking and Context in a Large Biology Class." BioScience 48 (January 1998): 53-58; Group Presentations. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University ; Kågesten, Owe, and Johann Engelbrecht. "Student Group Presentations: A Learning Instrument in Undergraduate Mathematics for Engineering Students." European Journal of Engineering Education 32 (2007): 303-314; Lucas, Stephen. The Art of Public Speaking . [Chapter 19]. 12th edition. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2015; McArthur, John A. “10 Tips for Improving Group Presentations.” [blog]. Department of Communication Studies, Furman University, November 1, 2011; Melosevic, Sara. “Simple Group Presentation Tips for Maximum Teamwork Magic.” PresentBetter, November 13, 2018; St. John, Ron. Group Project Guidelines. Department of Speech, University of Hawai'i Maui Community College, January 16, 2002.

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  • Formats for Group Presentations

The following is a brief list of alternatives for structuring a group presentation. It is by no means an exhaustive list of all the format options, but its enough to get you started. Keep in mind that your group can devise its own unique format by taking elements of each of the options presented below:

The group divides its topic up into a series of more or less equal parts, and each group member is assigned the task of presenting one part of the topic. The group needs to decide how to break up the presentation into several smaller topics, and the group should also plan the order in which the individual topics are to be presented. Each presenter should get the same amount of time to offer their part of the overall topic.

A big problem with this format is that one member might inadvertently cover material that another member thought was theirs to introduce. Groups which divide up the work and rarely meet to check in on each other’s progress are especially vulnerable to this problem. Groups doing a symposium have a high need to coordinate their efforts.

Timing is also a problem. Even if everyone understands that they have 10 minutes to speak, some group members may take longer than expected. This act forces other group members to compensate by rushing or eliminating ideas they had planned to present. Careful time management is essential in this format.

Finally, a symposium runs the risk of becoming a series of unrelated bits unless the group plans careful transition statements in between each of the individual presentations. These transitions help link the parts of the presentation together. It also helps if presenters refer to each other’s ideas — to integrate one person’s material with other ideas presented by different members of the groups. By referring to each other, the group communicates the “connectedness” of their material.

A panel is an interactive format. A moderator poses questions or makes statements to the group, and group members discuss. Each panelist speaks for only a short time — contributions continuing for more than two minutes uninterrupted run the risk of converting the interactive panel into a symposium! The idea is for the members of the group to have a discussion before the audience for the benefit of the audience. So, the panelists talk both to each other and the audience — shifting their focus of attention back and forth.

Panels are often lively, but run the risk of becoming disorganized! The group needs a good moderator and an outline of the topics to be discussed to ensure that the panel avoids becoming chaotic.

Additionally, panelists (other than the moderator) need to be aware of the following suggestions:

  • Know and stick to the outline of the discussion
  • Contribute frequently
  • Keep your contributions focused and BRIEF
  • Avoid repetition of points already made
  • Assert yourself-don’t wait to be called on
  • Listen carefully and critically
  • Indulge in friendly disagreements (productive conflict helps raise points
  • that might otherwise not surface)
  • Be fully prepared to discuss
  • Be sensitive to nonverbal communication (your own and others — look
  • like you’re interested and that you’re listening!)
  • Assist the moderator


Not nearly as threatening as the name sounds! In this approach, the group questions one or more “experts” before an audience of observers. These might be “bone fide” experts that the group has invited to be part of its presentation or members of the presenting group who “role play” an expert. (A group doing a presentation about global warming might ask a faculty member who has done research on the issue to answer questions; a group doing a presentation on a notable author might have one group member play the role of the author and answer questions about particular writings.)

Obviously, this format takes lots of planning. Experts are busy, and may be unable or unwilling to commit the necessary time to your project. Role playing presents different challenges. The group member(s) doing it must thoroughly research the person(s) they’re to become so that the simulation will be accurate and credible.

Because this format is somewhat untraditional in academic settings, it’s essential to check with your instructor to see if he/she will approve of the use of these approaches.

You can arrange a “pro/con” presentation in which members of the group are split. Some present information in favor of a particular issue, while the others in the group present the opposing side. There’s a separate link about debate where you can learn more.

This is a panel presentation where members of the audience can interact with the panel. The moderator asks for audience input during the discussion, and audience members who so desire either ask questions, make statements, or argue with the panel. (If you’ve seen a typical TV talk show, you’ve seen this approach.) The format works best with a skillful moderator who can easily bounce back and forth from panel to audience without getting rattled or confused.

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How to Deliver Group Presentations: The Unified Team Approach

When you’re asked to present as part of a panel of experts or a team making a sales pitch, you might think that there is safety in numbers and that you need to prepare less than if you were speaking on your own.

The truth is that, for your audience, a group presentation is only as strong as its weakest presenter. Here’s how to help your team create a strong and unified group presentation .

3 Ingredients of Great Group Presentations

The three ingredients to develop and deliver a unified group presentation are clarity, control, and commitment.

Clarity of Purpose

Clarity of roles, clarity of message, control introductions, control transitions, control time and space, commit to a schedule, commit to rehearsing.

  • Commit to Answering Your Audience’s Questions

Incorporating these elements will give your audience a “seamless” message.

Ingredient #1: Clarity

Just as your presentation will have a clear purpose, expressed in a thesis statement, your group should create a Charter Statement that explicitly captures the group’s desired outcome.

The charter is different from a thesis statement. The thesis specifically frames the presentation message whereas the charter frames your group’s purpose. This Charter Statement becomes the test of everything that will go into the presentation and help guide the efforts of the team. The charter and the thesis may overlap, but even your thesis statement must be tested against the group’s Charter.

For example, if your group agrees that your general purpose is to sell your product, and, more specifically, you know that the key decision maker in the audience is leery about cutting checks to companies like yours, build that into your Charter Statement.

The purpose of our presentation is to sell our Product to ABC Company by overcoming the objections of the company’s Purchasing Officer through clear examples of how our Product provides a fast return on investment.

The Charter Statement will come in handy when you have a team member who may want to go “off track” to tell personal anecdotes that don’t pass the test of the group’s charter.

Personalities come into play when groups meet to develop presentations. Jockeying for position and ego struggles can quickly deplete the group’s momentum, resulting in hurt feelings and, potentially, a weaker presentation. Providing clarity to group roles helps to establish expectations and keep the entire group moving towards a common objective: a great group presentation.

“ Developing clarity within your group will help you develop a clear message for your audience. ”

Identify the roles your group needs during message development. For example, to ensure that team members are meeting assignments, select a Project Manager . This person isn’t the “boss of the presentation”, but rather will focus on schedule and assignments.

Other roles could include a Gap Analyst who is responsible for identifying “gaps” in content and support materials (handouts, graphics, etc.), which in turn could work closely with other roles within the group like the Chief Researcher .

Capitalize on the unique personalities within your group to develop roles that work well for all, but be sure to discuss the roles openly so they are clear to everyone.

Instead of writing “speeches” for each individual speaker , try creating one master presentation , a unified narrative, and then decide who speaks to which points, and when.

This is a shift from the traditional segmented method of group presentations where often group members are directed to “give five minutes of talking” and then are left to develop content independently.

In a master presentation, each speaker may weave in and out at various points during the presentation. When done well, this fluid dynamic can hold an audience’s attention better by offering a regular change in speakers’ voices and presence.

By using a master presentation, your group will ensure that each of the presenters will stay “on script” and use cohesive language, smooth transitions, and (when using visuals) consistent graphics.

Ingredient #2: Control

Your audience notices how your group introduces itself, so plan those introductions with your presentation.

Your presentation may be part of a larger event that includes an emcee who will introduce the team. If so, be sure that you provide pertinent information to the emcee that will allow her/him to generate interest in your presentation even before you begin speaking.

If your group is responsible for making its own introductions, however, you will need to decide if you will introduce your group members in the beginning, or when they first speak. Your group also will need to decide if each member introduces her/himself, or if one member will introduce everyone.

There is no one right way to do introductions, but your group must decide how to do them before the day of the presentation.

Decide how you are going to “hand off” from one speaker to the next. In the “master presentation” approach, you may want to consider simply have speakers pick up a narrative right where the previous speaker left off.

“ Your audience notices how your group introduces itself, so plan those introductions with your presentation. ”

If you use the more traditional segmented approach, each speaker may cue the subsequent speakers by identifying them and their subject matter. For example:

“…and speaking of quality control, no one is more qualified the Bob Johnson. Bob is going to tell us about how this team will deliver a quality project for you.”

Another option is to assign a group emcee who will handle transitions between presentation sections. Your group will need to determine which option makes the most sense based on your presentation style and audience expectations.

Multiple speakers translate to occupying more physical space, and the potential to gobble up more time with introductions and transitions.

If you will be presenting in a small room, consider where each speaker needs to be positioned to quickly reach the speaking area, and whether they will sit or stand when not speaking.

Your presentation must fit within your allotted time, so you will need to time your group’s presentation, including equipment set up, introductions, and transitions.

Ingredient #3: Commitment

Once you know the date of your presentation, create a schedule that includes specific milestones, such as “presentation draft due” and “final rehearsal”. Having a specific schedule allows members either to agree to the group’s expectations or to offer dates that better fit their personal schedules.

Additionally, you can assign specific responsibilities to the scheduled milestones; for example, who is responsible for bringing the handouts, projector, and laptop to the presentation?

“ If you find group members who lack the commitment to rehearse, consider finding group members who will commit. ”

Rehearsing is one of the most important steps for presentation success. Have your team members agree from day one that they will make themselves available to practice with the group.

If you find group members who lack the commitment to rehearse, consider finding group members who will commit. Practice makes perfect, and no rehearsal means your group doesn’t know what will happen to the content, timing, or quality of the presentation. Do those sound like things your group would like to leave to chance?

Commit to Answering Your Audience’s Questions

Once your formal presentation is over, you may see some raised hands in the audience, ready to pepper your group with questions. Your presentation is not over yet. How you handle those questions is as important as the presentation itself. A well-done presentation means nothing if presenters fumble questions so badly that they appear incompetent.

Have each member develop a list of potential questions and then, as a group, review the list. Discuss who will be responsible for handling which types of questions. Are there any questions important enough to build into the presentation?

From a Rag-Tag Group of Speakers to a Dynamic Presenting Team

By incorporating these three ingredients into your next group presentation process, you will find that you not only develop a presentation that your audience loves, but your group will transform from a rag-tag group of speakers into a dynamic presenting team.

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Great article — what I have found over the years with group presentations (2 or more people) is that the transitions are critical for success. Done well, with good chemistry, and a group presentation is fun to watch. Done badly, with awkward moments, and a group presentation becomes a group debacle.

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Effective group presentation methods

I think we all believe in the miracle of teamwork, but has it ever happened to you that you decide to do teamwork, but you don’t know what to do or what steps to go through? Although effective group presentations usually end with success, we all saw groups that ended up failing, maybe because they didn’t know what presentation skills they needed.

But it can have other reasons as well, read this blog until the end to understand where your strengths and weaknesses are and what can be done to have better teamwork and effective Presentation design services .

presentation methods are most effective for

Table of Contents

What is a group presentation?

When we are having a presentation with a group of people that’s a group presentation. And this group can be made up of friends, classmates, colleagues, or anyone else who is working together on a project. In my view, if you want to involve everyone in the project and to ensure that everyone is on the same page group presentation is the best way.

There are a few things you should keep in mind when it comes to group presentations.

I want to mention a few things plea keep them in your mind about group presentation.

  • First, you should make sure that everyone on the team is prepared.
  • Second, you should make sure that the presentation is focused and on track.
  • Finally, you should make sure that everyone on the team is comfortable with the presentation.

So, here, some have we were learning what is the definition of group presentation after that I’m going to tell you what is important to have it.

Why is it important to have a group presentation?

I’m calling them as reasons, there are the reasons why we need them and why it’s important that much.

  • First: it’s your chance to get everyone on the team involved with the presentation so you can look at it as a chance.
  • Second: it’s an opportunity to ensure that everyone on the team is on the same page.
  • Finally: if you need other people to focus on the project it’s a great chance.

group presentation skills

Effective Group Presentations

Group presentations are a common way for individuals to collaborate and convey information, ideas, or projects to an audience. To ensure about effective group presentations, several key aspects need to be considered:

1-Planning and Organization:

Effective group presentations start with thorough planning. Define the presentation’s purpose, objectives, and target audience. Establish a clear structure, including an introduction, main points, and a conclusion. Divide tasks among group members, assigning roles and responsibilities.

2-Content Development:

Collaboratively develop content that is relevant, clear, and engaging. Ensure that each point is well-researched and supported with evidence. Create a logical flow between topics to maintain the audience’s interest and comprehension.

3-Visual Aids:

Visual aids, such as slides, charts, and graphs, can enhance understanding and retention. Design them to be visually appealing and uncluttered. Visuals should complement the spoken content, not replace it.


Rehearse the presentation as a group multiple times. This helps improve the flow, timing, and coordination among presenters. The practice also reduces nervousness and builds confidence.

5-Engagement Techniques:

Engage the audience through various means, such as asking questions, providing real-world examples, or using anecdotes. Encourage participation to maintain interest and interaction.

6-Body Language and Delivery:

Effective communication extends beyond words. Pay attention to non-verbal cues like eye contact, gestures, and posture. Maintain a confident and friendly demeanor. Speak clearly and at an appropriate pace, considering the audience’s ability to follow.

7-Time Management:

Keep track of time to ensure the presentation runs smoothly and smoothly. Allocate time for questions and discussion at the end if necessary.

8-Handling Questions:

Anticipate potential questions and prepare answers. When responding to questions from the audience, be concise and, if necessary, defer questions that require more in-depth discussion to a later time.


Be ready to adapt to unexpected situations, technical glitches, or audience response changes. Flexibility and the ability to improvise can make a significant difference.

What is teamwork?

You should not forget about teamwork cause a good team presentation is made of good teamwork. Teamwork is when a group of people comes together to achieve a common goal. There are many benefits to teamwork, including the ability to accomplish more than what one person could do alone, the ability to share knowledge and skills, and the ability to provide support for one another.

So we talked about group presentation and why we are doing it then we had to work on how we could have a better group presentation. One of the greatest factors that are involved in it is teamwork, cause a good team presentation is made of good teamwork. Teamwork is when a group of people comes together to achieve a common goal(i don’t know if have i ever mentioned it on my blogs or not but people with the same goals with a good strategy can change the world) Let back to our topic here are many benefits to teamwork, including the ability to accomplish more than what one person could do alone, the ability to share knowledge and skills, and the ability to provide support for one another.

Why is important to have teamwork?

We worked on the meaning of teamwork is time to say why it is important to have that. There are many reasons why teamwork is important i’m giving you three important reasons to believe that soo is so important.

One of the most important is that it allows for a greater level of productivity. When a team works together, each member can focus on their strengths and contribute to the overall goal. This can help a team to achieve more than what one person working alone could ever hope to achieve.

Another reason teamwork is important is that it allows for the sharing of knowledge and skills. When team members work together, they can share their expertise and learn from one another. This can help to improve the skills of the team as a whole and make them more effective at giving presentations.

Finally, teamwork is important because it provides support for one another. When team members work together, they can offer encouragement and motivation to one another. This can be a great way to keep team members focused and on track during a presentation.

presentation methods are most effective

Choose a team captain

When it comes to giving presentations, one of the most important things you can do is choose a team captain. The team captain is responsible for coordinating the team’s efforts and making sure that everyone is on the same page. They will also be responsible for giving the final presentation, so it is important to choose someone confident and capable of delivering a great presentation.

So, like always we are talking about the most important factors that you should keep in mind and do to improve your chance of success.

The team captain is responsible for coordinating the team’s efforts and making sure that everyone is on the same page and will also be responsible for giving the final presentation, so it is important to choose someone confident and capable of delivering a great presentation, so it’s important to choose a good team captain.

There are a few things you should keep in mind when choosing a team captain.

I’m mentioning a few things to keep in mind when you are choosing a team captain.

  • First, they should be organized and able to keep the team on track.
  • Second, they should be confident and able to deliver a great presentation.
  • Finally, they should be comfortable working with a team.

presentation methods are effective

Know your roles within the team

So why do we use a captain to make everything clear so everyone knows their roles?

In a group presentation, all of the group members need to know their roles so they can do them faster and be prepared for them. There are a few different roles that you can play on a team, and each one has its own set of responsibilities.

  • The first role is that of the presenter . The presenter is responsible for delivering the presentation to the audience.
  • The second role is that of the support staff . The support staff is responsible for helping the presenter with the presentation.
  • The third role is that of the audience . The audience is responsible for listening to the presentation and providing feedback.

group presentation skill

Have a strategy in place for question time

When it comes to giving presentations, one of the most important things you can do is have a strategy in place for question time.

First ill make it clear when is question time. Question time is when the audience gets to ask the team questions about the presentation. You had to look at it as a great opportunity to get feedback from the audience and to clarify any points that they may be confused about.

group presentationneed skills

The team needs a full group rehearsal

If you want to give a great presentation, it is important to have a full group rehearsal. This rehearsal should be done with the entire team, and it should be focused on going over the presentation from start to finish so care about this one cause it’s too important. This rehearsal will help to ensure that everyone on the team is on the same page and that they know what they need to do.

Do a member analysis

So, what to do if we want to have a member analysis you should first make a list of all the members of the group. Then, you should write down the strengths and weaknesses of each member. After you have done the member analysis, you should assign roles for the presentation.

As i told you before it’s one of the ways to go and know your roles.

Make sure everyone is prepared

So, this one is more about the captain i mean the captain should check this but the other members should know too. The captain should make sure that everyone on the team is prepared. 

Individual and group practice are equally important

 it is important to do both individual and group practice. Individual practice will help you to understand your role in the presentation. Group practice will help you to understand how to work with the other members of the group.

Watch other group presentations together

I can mention this one as a hint so that the reason that is at the end of my list so go and watch other group presentations. Cause this will help you to meet the exact mistakes that you may have in your presentation, the other reason that I’m recommending it to you is that it will also help you to understand the different elements of a group presentation.

So as your last job go and see the other group presentation and try to cover their week ness in your own presentation.

Effective Presentation Methods

Choosing effective presentation methods depends on the content, audience, and goals. Presentation methods are most effective for includes:

Lecture-Style Presentations:

Suitable for conveying complex information or educational content. The presenter speaks while using visual aids to support key points.

Interactive Workshops:

Ideal for fostering participation and skill-building. Participants actively engage with the material through exercises, discussions, and group activities.

Panel Discussions:

Effective for presenting multiple perspectives on a topic. Experts or panelists share their insights and engage in a moderated discussion.

Demonstrations and Product Showcases:

Great for showcasing products, software, or tangible items. Demonstrations allow the audience to see how something works in practice.

Storytelling Presentations:

Powerful for connecting with the audience emotionally and making information memorable. Stories engage the audience on a personal level.

Question and Answer (Q&A) Sessions:

These can follow other presentation methods, allowing the audience to seek clarification and dialogue with presenters.

Visual Presentations (e.g., Infographics):

Visual methods effectively convey complex data or statistics in a more digestible format.

Group Presentation Skills

Group presentations require a set of skills beyond individual public speaking abilities. You need to learn crucial group presentation skills, including:

  • Effective communication within the group is vital. Team members should be on the same page regarding content, roles, and timing.
  • Group members should actively listen to each other during rehearsals and the actual presentation. This ensures smooth transitions between speakers and helps address potential issues.
  • Conflicts or disagreements may arise within the group. Skills in negotiation and conflict resolution are essential for maintaining group cohesion.
  • Each member should have a defined role based on their strengths. Roles include the main presenter, content expert, timekeeper, and question-handler.
  • Group presentations may require quick adjustments. Be flexible and ready to adapt if the situation changes.
  • Encourage open and constructive feedback within the group. Use feedback to refine the presentation and enhance group dynamics.
  • Provide support and encouragement to fellow group members. Confidence and motivation are contagious and can boost the overall quality of the presentation.
  • Maintain professionalism during both the preparation and delivery of the presentation. This includes punctuality, deadline adherence, and a respectful attitude toward all team members.

Effective group presentations rely on careful planning, content development, engagement techniques, and delivery skills. The choice of presentation method should align with the content and goals, while group presentation skills, including communication, coordination, and conflict resolution, are essential for successful collaboration. Mastering these aspects will enable groups to deliver impactful and engaging presentations.

How do you structure a group presentation?

A common way to do this is the introduction-body-conclusion format, which consists of three main parts. The introduction should capture the audience’s attention, introduce the topic and main idea, and preview your presentation’s structure and key points.

What are the four common types of group presentations?

Informative, instructional, arousing, and persuasive. Informative presentations briefly educate your audience on a specific topic. Instructional presentations teach your audience more thoroughly and generally include details and directions.

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Cambridge Dictionary

  • Cambridge Dictionary +Plus

Meaning of presenting in English

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present verb ( GIVE )

  • give Give me that dirty plate.
  • offer Your doctor should be able to offer advice.
  • provide This booklet provides useful information about local services.
  • supply The lake supplies the whole town with water.
  • donate Four hundred dollars has been donated to the school book fund.
  • He has a lot more work to do before he can present the scheme to the public .
  • Ruth was astonished when he presented her with an engagement ring .
  • She presented a well-argued case for the banning of smoking in public places .
  • She graciously accepted the flowers that were presented to her.
  • The Duchess of Kent will be presenting the trophies .
  • accommodate
  • accommodate someone with something
  • administration
  • arm someone with something
  • hand something down
  • hand something in
  • hand something out
  • hand something over
  • reassignment

present verb ( INTRODUCE )

  • I'd like to present my grandson , Jackson Junior.
  • He was presented to the Queen and given a knighthood .
  • She used to present one of those holiday programmes but now she reads the news .
  • May I present Sir Bob Geldof?
  • What was that documentary called that she used to present?
  • audio described
  • audio description
  • commentary box
  • interchannel
  • live stream
  • serialization
  • slow motion
  • station break
  • transmission

You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics:

present verb ( SHOW SIGNS OF ILLNESS )

  • adverse reaction
  • aggressively
  • contraindication
  • echocardiogram
  • vital signs
  • withdrawal symptoms

Examples of presenting

In English, many past and present participles of verbs can be used as adjectives. Some of these examples may show the adjective use.


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presenting group meaning

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  • present (GIVE)
  • present (INTRODUCE)
  • present yourself
  • present itself
  • All translations

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Team Presentations: How to Present Better as a Group

Posted by Belinda Huckle  |  On January 28, 2022  |  In Presentation Training, Tips & Advice

In this Article...quick links

1. Choose a team captain

2. map out a cohesive narrative, 3. know your roles within the team, 4. have a strategy in place for question time, 5. all team presentations must have a full group rehearsal, 6. be supportive and put up a united front in your next team presentation, 7. making good, better, follow us on social media for more great presentation tips:.

teamwork to deliver an excellent presentation

We’re all getting used to being back in the office and re-learning our in person presentation skills after spending so much time working remotely. So it’s not surprising that the prospect of creating a seamless and cohesive group presentation is even more daunting right now.

It’s safe to say that team presentations involve a lot of moving parts, not least because it brings together different personalities with varying confidence levels and presentation styles.

One of the common pitfalls with group presentations is a diffusion of responsibility – ‘My bit’s OK, that’s all I should worry about, right?’ Wrong.

A group presentation is only as good as its weakest presenter. There are a lot of potential obstacles to overcome, but there are some key reasons why presenting as a team is both relevant and a good idea:

  • Showcasing expertise – to showcase different people’s expertise as Subject Matter Experts (SMEs).
  • Meeting the team – increasingly in new business/pitch situations, clients and customers want to see, and hear from, ‘the team’ – those who will actually be looking after their business i.e. those operating at the ‘coalface’. And so having multiple presenters becomes an imperative.
  • Maintaining energy, engagement & attention – breaking up longer presentations with different presenters helps to inject energy (much like in a relay race), keep people’s attention and maintain listeners’ engagement. Remember, variety is the spice of life!

Your people may be seasoned presenters but team them up to present with others, and lots of practical questions arise:

How do you start a team presentation? Who ends a team presentation? How do you seamlessly hand over to the next presenter, or who fields questions from the audience?

In this blog post we discuss how teams can collaborate to plan, practise and present successfully as a group.

presentation team captain

Why this is important: Having a strong Team Captain is crucial as they will usually start and finish the presentation. As part of starting and finishing the presentation the role of the Captain also often includes:

  • Making sure there is a strong Attention Grab early in the presentation in order to hook the audience from the start.
  • Assigning roles within the team.
  • Introducing each presenter and their role at the start of the presentation.
  • Managing the transitions/handovers between each presenter.
  • Fielding questions from the audience on behalf of the team and directing questions to the most relevant speaker as required.
  • Summarising next steps or action points after the conclusion to the presentation.

Top Tip: The Captain should typically be either the most senior person in the group, or the most confident speaker. They don’t have to be subject matter experts.

presentation narrative structure

Why this is important: Team members may have differing opinions about the message they want to convey. Having a clear overall goal for the presentation before everyone starts working on their slides is crucial for ensuring the deck, and the message you’re delivering, is clear and cohesive.

The team should decide in advance roughly how long each speaker should be speaking for (and don’t forget to include time for questions), what the structure of the presentation will be and who will cover what.

SecondNature’s Presentation Mapper™ methodology is a great tool for achieving all of this. If you’re not using our Presentation Mapper™ then get together as a team with a stack of A4 paper and, on a large table, storyboard your presentation.

Don’t get bogged down in the details at this stage. Instead, decide collectively what the purpose and end goal of the presentation are, the sections of the presentation (chapters of your story), what the key takeaways for the audience should be, and then roughly the information you want to include. Once you have outlined the storyboard for the presentation you can then discuss how long each section/chapter should be and who will be delivering each element.

Spending a bit of time at the beginning mapping out the narrative and setting a single goal for the presentation will save lots of time at the end of the process because it will ensure there aren’t areas that are needlessly repetitive. And likewise it will mean there aren’t gaping holes in your logic. Missing this step could result in duplication of content, inconsistency in the flow (and impact) of different sections, and not enough clarity about who’s presenting what.

Don’t forget to ensure that every section contributes to your presentation’s main aim, and if data is critical to your presentation, ensure everyone knows the go-to data collection sources, or people to interview, so there are no conflicting numbers.

Top Tip: Everyone needs to know all of the information inside out, even if they’re not presenting it, in case someone can’t make it on the day.

Successful team presentation

Why this is important: Assigning roles based on peoples’ strengths will create accountability and ensure things don’t fall through the cracks.

Take the time to assess your team – of course you will select people to present certain sections within the presentation based on their expertise and experience. But you should also consider some additional factors. E.g. some people may be better at explaining and simplifying difficult-to-understand ideas while others are good at engaging the audience and providing supporting information through humour, videos and interesting case studies.

Now, let’s assume everyone has been assigned a speaking slot based on their strengths and expertise and you’ve got a strong team captain to open and close the presentation.

But who takes accountability for things like design, delivery, questions and setting the boardroom up?

Here are some ways to make your next team presentation smooth and effective:

  • The Team Captain, along with input from the presenters, should assign responsibilities for the smaller moving parts like consistency in design, the order of presenters, organising rehearsals, AV checks, timekeeping and so on.
  • Schedule brief, but regular update meetings to ensure everyone is on track to fulfil their roles.
  • Put someone in charge of the dry run , which should be scheduled at least a week before the presentation. This is important so people have enough time to work on constructive feedback before the day of the presentation.

Top Tip: Remember that unequal participation can negatively impact the dynamics of your team, so sharing responsibility is important!

Why this is important: Question time can be nerve-wracking . In a group presentation, question time can also cause some confusion if too many people jump in to answer at once, or worse still, if no one seems to know who will answer the question.

It’s best to have the team captain direct questions to the speaker with the most relevant knowledge.

Remember to pause before answering and formulate your thoughts – keep your reply concise and ensure it answers the question. If you don’t understand the question, there’s no harm in asking for a clarification. To learn more about answering questions with confidence during a presentation, read this blog .

Top Tip: If you don’t know the answer, don’t be afraid to say so. You can look into the question and return with the best answer later.

Why this is important: While everyone practising their individual presentations is great, it doesn’t guarantee that once you’ve combined all the slides, it will feel coherent or go well.

As they say, practice makes perfect – and you definitely need to schedule at least one group rehearsal to present and engage a large audience. Here are some things that you should aim to cover in a dry run of your presentation:

  • The order of speakers. The team captain should open and close the presentation assuming they are the strongest and most confident presenter. The remaining speakers should follow the order, or natural chapters of the story.
  • It’s important that introductions establish the credibility of each speaker i.e. why are they there.
  • The transition dialogue to recap the last section and briefly introduce the next section and speaker. For longer presentations, it’s a good idea to provide an agenda for the audience which details who is speaking against each section within the presentation.
  • Fine-tuning and adjusting time for each section. This keeps the presentation from being too lengthy, so you don’t lose the audience’s interest. It will also ensure you stick to the time allocated for the presentation – making sure you also allow time for questions!
  • At the end of the presentation, ensure you deliver a clear, concise summary that highlights all the key points, and then the overall message or final call-to-action.

During the rehearsals you should also work out where the presenting team will be seated and/or standing in the room (taking into account where the client/customer might/will be) – when they’re presenting, and also when they aren’t speaking. Think about how you use the room. For tips about ‘The Attention Traingle’ and how to use it check out this blog .

A great option is to have the Team Captain starting and finishing at the front and centre of the room; with those that are speaking early in the presentation standing front and left of the room; and those that are speaking later, front and right of the room.

This is because we read from left to right and this visual positioning will be intuitive for the audience ‘moving through the presentation from start to finish’. And remember, if the presentation is taking place at someone else’s offices, ask to have access to the meeting room at least 30 minutes before the start to allow for adequate set up time.

Top Tip: We always recommend that there is someone outside the presentation group to listen to the presentation, from the audience’s perspective, to make sure the narrative is as clear and as tight as possible. They can also get the team to practise some Q&A and make sure timings are adhered to.

team members working together on presentation

Why this is important: Remember that you’re in this together and teamwork is non-negotiable if you want to inspire confidence in your audience.

There’s nothing that puts a presenter off more than seeing their own team members look disinterested. So regardless of how many times you’ve seen and heard your team-mates present, act as though it’s the very first time.

Put up a united front by being mindful of these small but important details:

  • Arrive early so the entire team has enough time to set things up.
  • Be an attentive listener as each person presents – laughing, nodding and reacting in a supportive manner throughout the presentation.
  • If someone can’t answer a question, step in and answer it for them, but without making them lose face..
  • Avoid the urge to go through your notes when others in your team are presenting. It’s disrespectful to whomever is speaking and it will make you come across as unprepared and nervous.
  • Watch your timings. The team captain should be keeping an eye on this (or they make have delegated this important task to someone else) so look to him/her to make sure you’re on track.
  • Do not overrun because doing so will rob time from others in the team.

Top Tip: Remember that if in the planning process you argue, you’re only human. Work out how you can move forward in a way that makes the most of each presenter’s strengths.

post presentation review to improve presentation quality

Most of us don’t make group presentations that often. So a PPR (Post Presentation Review) is a great way to sharpen everyone’s skills ever further. Within 24 hours of a group presentation sit down as a team and discuss what worked well and how could things been improved in terms of:

  • The process leading up to the presentation
  • Handling of the technology
  • The clarity of the message and the flow of the narrative
  • The level of detail covered
  • Overall and individual timings
  • Handovers between speakers
  • Management and answering of questions
  • Non-verbal support from team members
  • People’s individual presenting style and confidence

Top Tip: Be honest in your feedback. Remember, feedback is, as the saying goes, the breakfast of champions!

We can help improve your presenting skills

If you want to take your presenting skills (or your people’s) to the next level, we can help. We take people further TM because our programs are 100% tailored for your business and fully personalised for you/your people.

For nearly 20 years we have been the Business Presentation Skills Experts , training & coaching thousands of people in an A-Z of global blue-chip organisations – check out what they say about our programmes .

To find out more, click on one of the buttons below:


Written By Belinda Huckle

Co-Founder & Managing Director

Belinda is the Co-Founder and Managing Director of SecondNature International. With a determination to drive a paradigm shift in the delivery of presentation skills training both In-Person and Online, she is a strong advocate of a more personal and sustainable presentation skills training methodology.

Belinda believes that people don’t have to change who they are to be the presenter they want to be. So she developed a coaching approach that harnesses people’s unique personality to build their own authentic presentation style and personal brand.

She has helped to transform the presentation skills of people around the world in an A-Z of organisations including Amazon, BBC, Brother, BT, CocaCola, DHL, EE, ESRI, IpsosMORI, Heineken, MARS Inc., Moody’s, Moonpig, Nationwide, Pfizer, Publicis Groupe, Roche, Savills, Triumph and Walmart – to name just a few.

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3 Group Presentation Pitfalls — and How to Avoid Them

  • Allison Shapira

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Strategies for a polished, unified final product.

Putting together an effective group presentation takes teamwork and coordination so it doesn’t look like a patchwork quilt. And yet, many of us never budget the time to fully prepare. The author outlines some of the common mistakes people make in group presentations and offers best practices to keep you on track. 

Many of us have experienced poor group presentations. If you’re giving one, it’s the last-minute scramble the night before to decide who is presenting which part of the presentation. If you’re observing one, it’s the chaos of hearing multiple people talking over one another or, even worse, simply reading their slides word-for-word and ignoring their audience. 

presenting group meaning

  • Allison Shapira teaches “The Arts of Communication” at the Harvard Kennedy School and is the Founder/CEO of Global Public Speaking, a training firm that helps emerging and established leaders to speak clearly, concisely, and confidently. She is the author of the new book, Speak with Impact: How to Command the Room and Influence Others (HarperCollins Leadership).

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What is a Presentation?

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The formal presentation of information is divided into two broad categories: Presentation Skills and Personal Presentation .

These two aspects are interwoven and can be described as the preparation, presentation and practice of verbal and non-verbal communication. 

This article describes what a presentation is and defines some of the key terms associated with presentation skills.

Many people feel terrified when asked to make their first public talk.  Some of these initial fears can be reduced by good preparation that also lays the groundwork for making an effective presentation.

A Presentation Is...

A presentation is a means of communication that can be adapted to various speaking situations, such as talking to a group, addressing a meeting or briefing a team.

A presentation can also be used as a broad term that encompasses other ‘speaking engagements’ such as making a speech at a wedding, or getting a point across in a video conference.

To be effective, step-by-step preparation and the method and means of presenting the information should be carefully considered. 

A presentation requires you to get a message across to the listeners and will often contain a ' persuasive ' element. It may, for example, be a talk about the positive work of your organisation, what you could offer an employer, or why you should receive additional funding for a project.

The Key Elements of a Presentation

Making a presentation is a way of communicating your thoughts and ideas to an audience and many of our articles on communication are also relevant here, see: What is Communication? for more.

Consider the following key components of a presentation:

Ask yourself the following questions to develop a full understanding of the context of the presentation.

When and where will you deliver your presentation?

There is a world of difference between a small room with natural light and an informal setting, and a huge lecture room, lit with stage lights. The two require quite different presentations, and different techniques.

Will it be in a setting you are familiar with, or somewhere new?

If somewhere new, it would be worth trying to visit it in advance, or at least arriving early, to familiarise yourself with the room.

Will the presentation be within a formal or less formal setting?

A work setting will, more or less by definition, be more formal, but there are also various degrees of formality within that.

Will the presentation be to a small group or a large crowd?

Are you already familiar with the audience?

With a new audience, you will have to build rapport quickly and effectively, to get them on your side.

What equipment and technology will be available to you, and what will you be expected to use?

In particular, you will need to ask about microphones and whether you will be expected to stand in one place, or move around.

What is the audience expecting to learn from you and your presentation?

Check how you will be ‘billed’ to give you clues as to what information needs to be included in your presentation.

All these aspects will change the presentation. For more on this, see our page on Deciding the Presentation Method .

The role of the presenter is to communicate with the audience and control the presentation.

Remember, though, that this may also include handing over the control to your audience, especially if you want some kind of interaction.

You may wish to have a look at our page on Facilitation Skills for more.

The audience receives the presenter’s message(s).

However, this reception will be filtered through and affected by such things as the listener’s own experience, knowledge and personal sense of values.

See our page: Barriers to Effective Communication to learn why communication can fail.

The message or messages are delivered by the presenter to the audience.

The message is delivered not just by the spoken word ( verbal communication ) but can be augmented by techniques such as voice projection, body language, gestures, eye contact ( non-verbal communication ), and visual aids.

The message will also be affected by the audience’s expectations. For example, if you have been billed as speaking on one particular topic, and you choose to speak on another, the audience is unlikely to take your message on board even if you present very well . They will judge your presentation a failure, because you have not met their expectations.

The audience’s reaction and therefore the success of the presentation will largely depend upon whether you, as presenter, effectively communicated your message, and whether it met their expectations.

As a presenter, you don’t control the audience’s expectations. What you can do is find out what they have been told about you by the conference organisers, and what they are expecting to hear. Only if you know that can you be confident of delivering something that will meet expectations.

See our page: Effective Speaking for more information.

How will the presentation be delivered?

Presentations are usually delivered direct to an audience.  However, there may be occasions where they are delivered from a distance over the Internet using video conferencing systems, such as Skype.

It is also important to remember that if your talk is recorded and posted on the internet, then people may be able to access it for several years. This will mean that your contemporaneous references should be kept to a minimum.


Many factors can influence the effectiveness of how your message is communicated to the audience.

For example background noise or other distractions, an overly warm or cool room, or the time of day and state of audience alertness can all influence your audience’s level of concentration.

As presenter, you have to be prepared to cope with any such problems and try to keep your audience focussed on your message.   

Our page: Barriers to Communication explains these factors in more depth.

Continue to read through our Presentation Skills articles for an overview of how to prepare and structure a presentation, and how to manage notes and/or illustrations at any speaking event.

Continue to: Preparing for a Presentation Deciding the Presentation Method

See also: Writing Your Presentation | Working with Visual Aids Coping with Presentation Nerves | Dealing with Questions Learn Better Presentation Skills with TED Talks

presenting group meaning

How to present with a group

by Allison Shapira | Nov 10, 2015 | Speaking Tips | 0 comments

I recently judged a case competition at Georgetown University’s McDonough School of Business, where I’m an adjunct professor. The competition was part of the residency program of the school’s  Online Master of Science in Finance , a fantastic program that gives finance professionals the skills they need to become industry leaders.

Watching 15 different groups present the exact same case was a great study in effective group presentations. And the timing was perfect; my colleague Christine Clapp of Spoken with Authority had just written an article for The Toastmaster magazine on the same topic – read that article for more information on developing (as well as presenting) your group presentation.

Here are some of my takeaways which are just as relevant in the corporate boardroom as they are in the classroom.

1. Open with energy: You dictate the energy in the room within the first 10 seconds, so make sure that the first person to open the presentation has high energy and connects with the audience. This same person should close the presentation with that same energy, creating a well-rounded presentation and setting up the stage for next steps.

2. Practice your transitions:  When you’re presenting as a group, how you transition from one person to the next is really important. The best presenters introduced their colleagues by saying, “And now Steve is going to talk about our recommendations.” Then, Steve would say “Thanks, Jennifer. So Jennifer walked us through the points to keep in mind. Now I will…” which gave a nice flow to the presentation and kept up momentum from one speaker to the next.

3. Always be on: Even when you’re not presenting, you are still “on stage” so to speak . If you’re standing off to the side, be attentive and stay focused on the person speaking or on the audience – not on your phone or tablet. Make sure you’re also not standing in the light of the projector. Every moment in the room, you are representing the group.

4. Avoid group fillers : I’ve noticed that people in the same office tend to use the same filler words, such as: sort of ,  kind of, right?  – passing around filler words in what one colleague calls “linguistic contagion.” Avoid picking up those words from your colleagues and remember to pause and breathe instead.

5. Speak to the audience, not to the slides : When presenting material developed by a group, we tend to defer to the slides over the audience. Sometimes it’s because only one person on the team developed the slides at the last minute. Whatever the reason, make sure that your focus is squarely on the audience. You can have a printout of the slides in front of you or a confidence monitor – but remember that you need to make a compelling case to the people in front of you, not to the slides behind you.

6. Don’t just show the numbers, talk about what they mean : At one of my workshops in New York, a participant from a major bank mentioned the importance of interpreting the numbers, not just listing them. She said, “I don’t just show the numbers, I tell the client why those numbers are important and what they mean for the client.” Make your presentation personal to the audience by talking about the WHAT and also the WHY.

7. Speak in a conversational tone: When presenting with a team, I’ve noticed people have a tendency to either speak too formally (full of jargon) or too casually (“ Hey guys” ). Find a natural tone that sounds both professional to the audience and natural to you. Use clear words and real-world examples, especially if you can include a personal example, such as, “If you’re from California like me, then you’ll know…”

8. Leave time for Q+A: We all know that speeches with slides take longer than speeches without, especially in a group. Remember to give yourself plenty of time to prepare and always run through the full presentation as a group with slides to time yourself. The best presentations keep to time and leave time for substantive Q+A.

9. Have a clear ask: The best presenters have a clear call to action, request, or recommendation for the audience. You can either state it up front or use it as your conclusion (ideally both) but always make sure it’s clear and clearly supported by your substance. The more specific you are in your “ask,” the easier you make it for the audience to say “yes.”

So the next time you have to present with a group, keep these ideas in mind. If you implement them successfully, you will give a powerful and momentum-building presentation that spurs your audience to take action.

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How to Structure your Presentation, with Examples

August 3, 2018 - Dom Barnard

For many people the thought of delivering a presentation is a daunting task and brings about a  great deal of nerves . However, if you take some time to understand how effective presentations are structured and then apply this structure to your own presentation, you’ll appear much more confident and relaxed.

Here is our complete guide for structuring your presentation, with examples at the end of the article to demonstrate these points.

Why is structuring a presentation so important?

If you’ve ever sat through a great presentation, you’ll have left feeling either inspired or informed on a given topic. This isn’t because the speaker was the most knowledgeable or motivating person in the world. Instead, it’s because they know how to structure presentations – they have crafted their message in a logical and simple way that has allowed the audience can keep up with them and take away key messages.

Research has supported this, with studies showing that audiences retain structured information  40% more accurately  than unstructured information.

In fact, not only is structuring a presentation important for the benefit of the audience’s understanding, it’s also important for you as the speaker. A good structure helps you remain calm, stay on topic, and avoid any awkward silences.

What will affect your presentation structure?

Generally speaking, there is a natural flow that any decent presentation will follow which we will go into shortly. However, you should be aware that all presentation structures will be different in their own unique way and this will be due to a number of factors, including:

  • Whether you need to deliver any demonstrations
  • How  knowledgeable the audience  already is on the given subject
  • How much interaction you want from the audience
  • Any time constraints there are for your talk
  • What setting you are in
  • Your ability to use any kinds of visual assistance

Before choosing the presentation’s structure answer these questions first:

  • What is your presentation’s aim?
  • Who are the audience?
  • What are the main points your audience should remember afterwards?

When reading the points below, think critically about what things may cause your presentation structure to be slightly different. You can add in certain elements and add more focus to certain moments if that works better for your speech.

Good presentation structure is important for a presentation

What is the typical presentation structure?

This is the usual flow of a presentation, which covers all the vital sections and is a good starting point for yours. It allows your audience to easily follow along and sets out a solid structure you can add your content to.

1. Greet the audience and introduce yourself

Before you start delivering your talk, introduce yourself to the audience and clarify who you are and your relevant expertise. This does not need to be long or incredibly detailed, but will help build an immediate relationship between you and the audience. It gives you the chance to briefly clarify your expertise and why you are worth listening to. This will help establish your ethos so the audience will trust you more and think you’re credible.

Read our tips on  How to Start a Presentation Effectively

2. Introduction

In the introduction you need to explain the subject and purpose of your presentation whilst gaining the audience’s interest and confidence. It’s sometimes helpful to think of your introduction as funnel-shaped to help filter down your topic:

  • Introduce your general topic
  • Explain your topic area
  • State the issues/challenges in this area you will be exploring
  • State your presentation’s purpose – this is the basis of your presentation so ensure that you provide a statement explaining how the topic will be treated, for example, “I will argue that…” or maybe you will “compare”, “analyse”, “evaluate”, “describe” etc.
  • Provide a statement of what you’re hoping the outcome of the presentation will be, for example, “I’m hoping this will be provide you with…”
  • Show a preview of the organisation of your presentation

In this section also explain:

  • The length of the talk.
  • Signal whether you want audience interaction – some presenters prefer the audience to ask questions throughout whereas others allocate a specific section for this.
  • If it applies, inform the audience whether to take notes or whether you will be providing handouts.

The way you structure your introduction can depend on the amount of time you have been given to present: a  sales pitch  may consist of a quick presentation so you may begin with your conclusion and then provide the evidence. Conversely, a speaker presenting their idea for change in the world would be better suited to start with the evidence and then conclude what this means for the audience.

Keep in mind that the main aim of the introduction is to grab the audience’s attention and connect with them.

3. The main body of your talk

The main body of your talk needs to meet the promises you made in the introduction. Depending on the nature of your presentation, clearly segment the different topics you will be discussing, and then work your way through them one at a time – it’s important for everything to be organised logically for the audience to fully understand. There are many different ways to organise your main points, such as, by priority, theme, chronologically etc.

  • Main points should be addressed one by one with supporting evidence and examples.
  • Before moving on to the next point you should provide a mini-summary.
  • Links should be clearly stated between ideas and you must make it clear when you’re moving onto the next point.
  • Allow time for people to take relevant notes and stick to the topics you have prepared beforehand rather than straying too far off topic.

When planning your presentation write a list of main points you want to make and ask yourself “What I am telling the audience? What should they understand from this?” refining your answers this way will help you produce clear messages.

4. Conclusion

In presentations the conclusion is frequently underdeveloped and lacks purpose which is a shame as it’s the best place to reinforce your messages. Typically, your presentation has a specific goal – that could be to convert a number of the audience members into customers, lead to a certain number of enquiries to make people knowledgeable on specific key points, or to motivate them towards a shared goal.

Regardless of what that goal is, be sure to summarise your main points and their implications. This clarifies the overall purpose of your talk and reinforces your reason for being there.

Follow these steps:

  • Signal that it’s nearly the end of your presentation, for example, “As we wrap up/as we wind down the talk…”
  • Restate the topic and purpose of your presentation – “In this speech I wanted to compare…”
  • Summarise the main points, including their implications and conclusions
  • Indicate what is next/a call to action/a thought-provoking takeaway
  • Move on to the last section

5. Thank the audience and invite questions

Conclude your talk by thanking the audience for their time and invite them to  ask any questions  they may have. As mentioned earlier, personal circumstances will affect the structure of your presentation.

Many presenters prefer to make the Q&A session the key part of their talk and try to speed through the main body of the presentation. This is totally fine, but it is still best to focus on delivering some sort of initial presentation to set the tone and topics for discussion in the Q&A.

Questions being asked after a presentation

Other common presentation structures

The above was a description of a basic presentation, here are some more specific presentation layouts:


Use the demonstration structure when you have something useful to show. This is usually used when you want to show how a product works. Steve Jobs frequently used this technique in his presentations.

  • Explain why the product is valuable.
  • Describe why the product is necessary.
  • Explain what problems it can solve for the audience.
  • Demonstrate the product  to support what you’ve been saying.
  • Make suggestions of other things it can do to make the audience curious.


This structure is particularly useful in persuading the audience.

  • Briefly frame the issue.
  • Go into the issue in detail showing why it ‘s such a problem. Use logos and pathos for this – the logical and emotional appeals.
  • Provide the solution and explain why this would also help the audience.
  • Call to action – something you want the audience to do which is straightforward and pertinent to the solution.


As well as incorporating  stories in your presentation , you can organise your whole presentation as a story. There are lots of different type of story structures you can use – a popular choice is the monomyth – the hero’s journey. In a monomyth, a hero goes on a difficult journey or takes on a challenge – they move from the familiar into the unknown. After facing obstacles and ultimately succeeding the hero returns home, transformed and with newfound wisdom.

Storytelling for Business Success  webinar , where well-know storyteller Javier Bernad shares strategies for crafting compelling narratives.

Another popular choice for using a story to structure your presentation is in media ras (in the middle of thing). In this type of story you launch right into the action by providing a snippet/teaser of what’s happening and then you start explaining the events that led to that event. This is engaging because you’re starting your story at the most exciting part which will make the audience curious – they’ll want to know how you got there.

  • Great storytelling: Examples from Alibaba Founder, Jack Ma

Remaining method

The remaining method structure is good for situations where you’re presenting your perspective on a controversial topic which has split people’s opinions.

  • Go into the issue in detail showing why it’s such a problem – use logos and pathos.
  • Rebut your opponents’ solutions  – explain why their solutions could be useful because the audience will see this as fair and will therefore think you’re trustworthy, and then explain why you think these solutions are not valid.
  • After you’ve presented all the alternatives provide your solution, the remaining solution. This is very persuasive because it looks like the winning idea, especially with the audience believing that you’re fair and trustworthy.


When delivering presentations it’s important for your words and ideas to flow so your audience can understand how everything links together and why it’s all relevant. This can be done  using speech transitions  which are words and phrases that allow you to smoothly move from one point to another so that your speech flows and your presentation is unified.

Transitions can be one word, a phrase or a full sentence – there are many different forms, here are some examples:

Moving from the introduction to the first point

Signify to the audience that you will now begin discussing the first main point:

  • Now that you’re aware of the overview, let’s begin with…
  • First, let’s begin with…
  • I will first cover…
  • My first point covers…
  • To get started, let’s look at…

Shifting between similar points

Move from one point to a similar one:

  • In the same way…
  • Likewise…
  • Equally…
  • This is similar to…
  • Similarly…

Internal summaries

Internal summarising consists of summarising before moving on to the next point. You must inform the audience:

  • What part of the presentation you covered – “In the first part of this speech we’ve covered…”
  • What the key points were – “Precisely how…”
  • How this links in with the overall presentation – “So that’s the context…”
  • What you’re moving on to – “Now I’d like to move on to the second part of presentation which looks at…”

Physical movement

You can move your body and your standing location when you transition to another point. The audience find it easier to follow your presentation and movement will increase their interest.

A common technique for incorporating movement into your presentation is to:

  • Start your introduction by standing in the centre of the stage.
  • For your first point you stand on the left side of the stage.
  • You discuss your second point from the centre again.
  • You stand on the right side of the stage for your third point.
  • The conclusion occurs in the centre.

Key slides for your presentation

Slides are a useful tool for most presentations: they can greatly assist in the delivery of your message and help the audience follow along with what you are saying. Key slides include:

  • An intro slide outlining your ideas
  • A  summary slide  with core points to remember
  • High quality image slides to supplement what you are saying

There are some presenters who choose not to use slides at all, though this is more of a rarity. Slides can be a powerful tool if used properly, but the problem is that many fail to do just that. Here are some golden rules to follow when using slides in a presentation:

  • Don’t over fill them  – your slides are there to assist your speech, rather than be the focal point. They should have as little information as possible, to avoid distracting people from your talk.
  • A picture says a thousand words  – instead of filling a slide with text, instead, focus on one or two images or diagrams to help support and explain the point you are discussing at that time.
  • Make them readable  – depending on the size of your audience, some may not be able to see small text or images, so make everything large enough to fill the space.
  • Don’t rush through slides  – give the audience enough time to digest each slide.

Guy Kawasaki, an entrepreneur and author, suggests that slideshows should follow a  10-20-30 rule :

  • There should be a maximum of 10 slides – people rarely remember more than one concept afterwards so there’s no point overwhelming them with unnecessary information.
  • The presentation should last no longer than 20 minutes as this will leave time for questions and discussion.
  • The font size should be a minimum of 30pt because the audience reads faster than you talk so less information on the slides means that there is less chance of the audience being distracted.

Here are some additional resources for slide design:

  • 7 design tips for effective, beautiful PowerPoint presentations
  • 11 design tips for beautiful presentations
  • 10 tips on how to make slides that communicate your idea

Group Presentations

Group presentations are structured in the same way as presentations with one speaker but usually require more rehearsal and practices.  Clean transitioning between speakers  is very important in producing a presentation that flows well. One way of doing this consists of:

  • Briefly recap on what you covered in your section: “So that was a brief introduction on what health anxiety is and how it can affect somebody”
  • Introduce the next speaker in the team and explain what they will discuss: “Now Elnaz will talk about the prevalence of health anxiety.”
  • Then end by looking at the next speaker, gesturing towards them and saying their name: “Elnaz”.
  • The next speaker should acknowledge this with a quick: “Thank you Joe.”

From this example you can see how the different sections of the presentations link which makes it easier for the audience to follow and remain engaged.

Example of great presentation structure and delivery

Having examples of great presentations will help inspire your own structures, here are a few such examples, each unique and inspiring in their own way.

How Google Works – by Eric Schmidt

This presentation by ex-Google CEO  Eric Schmidt  demonstrates some of the most important lessons he and his team have learnt with regards to working with some of the most talented individuals they hired. The simplistic yet cohesive style of all of the slides is something to be appreciated. They are relatively straightforward, yet add power and clarity to the narrative of the presentation.

Start with why – by Simon Sinek

Since being released in 2009, this presentation has been viewed almost four million times all around the world. The message itself is very powerful, however, it’s not an idea that hasn’t been heard before. What makes this presentation so powerful is the simple message he is getting across, and the straightforward and understandable manner in which he delivers it. Also note that he doesn’t use any slides, just a whiteboard where he creates a simple diagram of his opinion.

The Wisdom of a Third Grade Dropout – by Rick Rigsby

Here’s an example of a presentation given by a relatively unknown individual looking to inspire the next generation of graduates. Rick’s presentation is unique in many ways compared to the two above. Notably, he uses no visual prompts and includes a great deal of humour.

However, what is similar is the structure he uses. He first introduces his message that the wisest man he knew was a third-grade dropout. He then proceeds to deliver his main body of argument, and in the end, concludes with his message. This powerful speech keeps the viewer engaged throughout, through a mixture of heart-warming sentiment, powerful life advice and engaging humour.

As you can see from the examples above, and as it has been expressed throughout, a great presentation structure means analysing the core message of your presentation. Decide on a key message you want to impart the audience with, and then craft an engaging way of delivering it.

By preparing a solid structure, and  practising your talk  beforehand, you can walk into the presentation with confidence and deliver a meaningful message to an interested audience.

It’s important for a presentation to be well-structured so it can have the most impact on your audience. An unstructured presentation can be difficult to follow and even frustrating to listen to. The heart of your speech are your main points supported by evidence and your transitions should assist the movement between points and clarify how everything is linked.

Research suggests that the audience remember the first and last things you say so your introduction and conclusion are vital for reinforcing your points. Essentially, ensure you spend the time structuring your presentation and addressing all of the sections.

Press Release

Macquarie Group 2024 Operational Briefing

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Sydney, 13 February 2024

  • FY24 year to date (YTD) Net Profit After Tax substantially down on FY23 YTD which included an exceptional quarterly result in 3Q23, however underlying client franchises were resilient in ongoing uncertain conditions
  • FY24 YTD net profit contribution substantially down on FY23 YTD primarily due to lower asset realisations in green investments and continued investment in the development of green energy portfolio companies in MAM
  • FY24 YTD net profit contribution substantially down on FY23 YTD mainly due to exceptionally strong results in Commodities including gas and power in the pcp in CGM and non-recurrence of material asset realisations and lower fee and commission income, partially offset by higher net interest income from portfolio growth and gains from a small number of investments in Macquarie Capital
  • Group capital surplus of $A9.7 billion 1 , 2
  • Bank CET1 ratio 13.4% (Harmonised: 18.2% 3 ), Leverage ratio 5.0% (Harmonised: 5.7% 3 ), LCR 217% 4 , NSFR 113% 4

Macquarie Group Limited (Macquarie) (ASX: MQG; ADR: MQBKY) today provided an update on business activity in the third quarter of the financial year ending 31 December 2023 (3Q24).

Macquarie Group Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer, Shemara Wikramanayake, said: “Underlying client franchises were resilient in ongoing uncertain conditions with continued customer growth, fundraising and new business origination a feature across all of our businesses.”

The annuity-style businesses’ combined 3Q24 net profit contribution was down on 3Q23. For FY24 YTD, net profit contribution substantially down on FY23 YTD, primarily due to lower asset realisations in green investments and continued investment in the development of green energy portfolio companies in MAM.

The markets-facing businesses’ combined 3Q24 net profit contribution was substantially down on 3Q23. For FY24 YTD, net profit contribution substantially down on FY23 YTD. This was mainly due to exceptionally strong results in Commodities including gas and power in the pcp in CGM and non-recurrence of material asset realisations and lower fee and commission income, partially offset by higher net interest income from portfolio growth and gains from a small number of investments in Macquarie Capital.

Macquarie Group’s financial position comfortably exceeds APRA’s Basel III regulatory requirements, with a Group capital surplus of $A9.7 billion 1 , 2 at 31 December 2023, down from $A10.5 billion at 30 September 2023. The Bank Group’s APRA Basel III Common Equity Tier 1 capital ratio was 13.4 per cent (Harmonised: 18.2 per cent 3 ) at 31 December 2023, up from 13.2 per cent at 30 September 2023. The Bank Group’s APRA leverage ratio was 5.0 per cent (Harmonised: 5.7 per cent 3 ), the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) was 217 per cent 4 and the Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) was 113 per cent 4 at 31 December 2023.

Third quarter business highlights

Ms Wikramanayake provided an overview of business activity undertaken during 3Q24:

MAM had assets under management (AUM) of $A882.5 billion at 31 December 2023, down one per cent on 30 September 2023. In the quarter, Public Investments AUM fell two per cent to $A535.1 billion, primarily driven by net flows and unfavourable foreign exchange movements, partially offset by positive market movements. Private Markets AUM 5  rose one per cent to $A347.4 billion, primarily driven by fund investments and increase in asset valuations, partially offset by unfavourable foreign exchange movements. At 31 December 2023, Private Markets’ equity under management 6  was $A210.6 billion with $A35.4 billion of equity to deploy after raising $A6.7 billion in new equity, investing $A6.0 billion and divesting $A0.1 billion.

BFS had total deposits 7  of $A135.6 billion at 31 December 2023, up three per cent on 30 September 2023. The home loan portfolio of $A117.9 billion increased three per cent on 30 September 2023, while funds on platform 8  of $A132.8 billion increased six per cent. During 3Q24, the business banking loan portfolio increased six per cent to $A15.5 billion, while the car loans portfolio decreased eight per cent to $A4.8 billion.

CGM commodities contribution was down on the pcp, primarily due to decreased inventory management and trading revenues in North American Gas, Power and Emissions. The result also included a reduced contribution from risk management revenue, primarily in the Resources and Gas, Power and Emissions sectors, as volatility and price movements stabilised across commodity markets following previous record highs. CGM saw a consistent contribution from client risk management, market access and financing activity across the Financial Markets businesses including fixed income, foreign exchange, credit and futures. CGM also saw continued positive performance across all industries in Asset Finance with portfolio growth driven by Advanced Technology and Shipping Finance sectors. 

Macquarie Capital completed 59 transactions globally in 3Q24, valued at $A65 billion 9 . Investment-related income was significantly up on the pcp and down on the prior period. Fee revenue was down on both the pcp and the prior period, driven by lower mergers and acquisition (M&A) fees. The Private Credit portfolio of over $A20 billion 10  with $A1.5 billion deployed in 3Q24 through focused investment in credit markets and bespoke financing solutions.

On-market share buyback

On 3 November 2023, Macquarie announced that it intends to buy back up to $A2.0 billion of ordinary shares on-market. The buyback provides additional flexibility to manage the Group’s capital position and Macquarie retains the ability to vary, pause or terminate the buyback at any time. As at 31 December 2023, a total of $A235.8 million of ordinary shares have been acquired on-market at an average price of $A168.74 per share.

Management update

After 28 years with Macquarie and five years as Group Head, Nicholas O’Kane has decided to step down as Head of Commodities and Global Markets and from Macquarie’s Executive Committee, effective 27 February 2024, to pursue opportunities outside Macquarie. Simon Wright, currently Global Head of CGM’s Financial Markets division, becomes Group Head of CGM and following the completion of necessary procedures will join the Executive Committee from 1 April 2024. Mr Wright has been with Macquarie for 35 years, leading the build and oversight of Macquarie’s global Financial Markets platform and as a senior member of the CGM leadership team.

The Group highlighted business-specific factors impacting its short-term outlook:

Macquarie Asset Management

  • Base fees expected to be broadly in line
  • Subject to market conditions and the completion of a number of transactions in 4Q24, Net Other Operating Income 11  for 2H24 is expected to be substantially down on 2H23

Banking and Financial Services

  • Growth in loan portfolio, deposits and platform volumes
  • Market dynamics to continue to drive margins
  • Ongoing monitoring of provisioning
  • Higher expenses to support volume growth, technology investment, compliance and regulatory requirements

Macquarie Capital – subject to market conditions:

  • Transaction activity in FY24 is expected to be slightly down on FY23
  • Investment-related income for 2H24 expected to be significantly up on 1H24, with increased FY24 revenue from growth in the private credit portfolio and gains on a small number of investments partially offset by lower revenue due to the timing of asset realisations
  • Continued balance sheet deployment in both debt and equity investments

Commodities and Global Markets - subject to market conditions, which make forecasting difficult:

  • Commodities income benefitted from exceptionally strong trading conditions in FY23. Commodities income is expected to be broadly in line with the prior FY22, albeit volatility may create opportunities
  • Consistent contribution from client and trading activity across the Financial Markets platform
  • Continued contribution from Asset Finance across sectors

From a Corporate perspective, the FY24 compensation ratio and effective tax rate are expected to be broadly in line with historical levels.

We continue to maintain a cautious stance, with a conservative approach to capital, funding and liquidity that positions us well to respond to the current environment.

The range of factors that may influence our short-term outlook include:

  • Market conditions including global economic conditions, inflation and interest rates, significant volatility events, and the impact of geopolitical events
  • Completion of period-end reviews and the completion of transactions
  • The geographic composition of income and the impact of foreign exchange
  • Potential tax or regulatory changes and tax uncertainties

Ms Wikramanayake said, “Macquarie remains well-positioned to deliver superior performance in the medium term with its diverse business mix across annuity-style and markets-facing businesses; deep expertise across diverse sectors in major markets with structural growth tailwinds; patient adjacent growth across new products and new markets; ongoing technology and regulatory spend to support the Group; a strong and conservative balance sheet; and a proven risk management framework and culture.”

  • The Group capital surplus is the amount of capital above APRA regulatory requirements. Bank Group regulatory requirements are calculated in accordance with Prudential Standard APS 110 - Capital Adequacy, at 10.50% of RWA. This includes the industry minimum Tier 1 requirement of 6.0%, CCB of 3.75% and a CCyB. The CCyB of the Bank Group at December 2023 is 0.71% (September 2023: 0.71%; March 2023: 0.61%), this is rounded to 0.75% (September 2023: 0.75%, March 2023: 0.5%) for presentation purposes. The individual CCyB varies by jurisdiction and the Bank Group CCyB is calculated as a weighted average based on exposures in different jurisdictions at period end.
  • The surplus reported includes provisions for internal capital buffers and differences between Level 1 and Level 2 requirements, including the $A500m operational capital overlay imposed by APRA.
  • ‘Harmonised’ Basel III estimates are calculated in accordance with the updated Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) Basel III framework, noting that MBL is not regulated by the BCBS and so impacts shown are indicative only. 
  • Average LCR for December 2023 quarter is based on an average of daily observations. APRA imposed a 15% add-on to the Net Cash Outflow component of the LCR calculation, and a 1% decrease to the Available Stable Funding component of the NSFR calculation, effective from 1 April 2021. The LCR Net Cash Outflow add-on increased to 25% from 1 May 2022.
  • As at 31 December 2023. Private Markets Assets under Management (AUM) is calculated as the proportional ownership interest in the underlying assets of funds and mandated assets that Macquarie actively manages or advises for the purpose of wealth creation, adjusted to exclude cross-holdings in funds and reflect Macquarie’s proportional ownership interest of the fund manager. Private Markets AUM includes equity yet to deploy and equity committed to assets but not yet deployed.
  • Private Markets’ total Equity under Management includes market capitalisation at measurement date for listed funds, the sum of original committed capital less capital subsequently returned for unlisted funds and mandates as well as invested capital for managed businesses.
  • BFS Deposits include home loan offset accounts and exclude certain corporate/wholesale deposits.
  • Funds on platform includes Macquarie Wrap, Funds Under Management in relation to institutional relationships and Macquarie Vision (used by Macquarie Private Bank).
  • Dealogic & IJ Global for Macquarie Group completed Mergers and Acquisitions, investments, Equity Capital Markets and Debt Capital Markets transactions converted as at the relevant report date. Deal values reflect the full transaction value and not an attributed value. Comparatives are presented as previously reported.
  • Committed portfolio as at 31 December 2023.
  • Net Other Operating Income includes all operating income excluding base fees.

Media contacts

Australia and New Zealand T: +61 2 8232 2336 Email regional contact

Americas T: +1 212 231 1310 Email regional contact

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Europe, Middle East and Africa T: +44 20 3037 4014 Email regional contact

What is the 25th Amendment? A simplified explanation of what it does, who can invoke it

presenting group meaning

The 25th Amendment is once again a topic of discussion following a Justice Department report released Thursday concerning President Joe Biden's alleged mishandling of confidential documents and behavior in office.

The special counsel investigation, led by Trump appointee Robert Hur, determined that the evidence doesn't establish Biden's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt of mishandling classified documents in a criminal manner and found that charges were "unwarranted based on our consideration of the aggravating and mitigating factors."

However, the report also attributed part of this conclusion to Biden's "poor memory," painting a picture of an older man with memory issues and "diminished capacities." This has prompted a discussion of the 25th Amendment amongst the Republican party, as reps including House Speaker Mike Johnson, Marjorie Taylor Greene, R-Ga., and Sen. Rick Scott, R-Fla., have called for Biden's removal under the fourth section of the amendment.

The 25th Amendment was discussed similarly during Trump's presidency . However, Section 4 has yet to be successfully invoked and executed in U.S. history.

Here's what to know about the 25th Amendment and what invoking it can do.

Prep for the polls: See who is running for president and compare where they stand on key issues in our Voter Guide

What is the 25th Amendment?

The 25th Amendment addresses what happens if the president or vice president of the United States dies, resigns, becomes incapacitated or is otherwise unable to fulfill their duties. It was passed by Congress on July 6, 1965, and was ratified by the states on Feb. 10, 1967.

It also formalized the practice of the vice president taking over presidential office if the president dies or resigns and gives the president and Congress power to replace a vice president.

It was inspired by the assassination death of President John F. Kennedy, as confusion as to whether Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson had also been shot at the time led to questions about office succession.

Who can invoke the 25th Amendment?

Exonerated but not unscathed: Biden faces political nightmare with special counsel investigation

The 25th Amendment cannot be executed by a single party. Instead, it takes a few steps of approval by multiple parties.

The vice president is the primary starting point for invoking the 25th Amendment, specifically the fourth section. The vice president, in conjunction with either a majority of the executive Cabinet or a specific "body" designated by Congress, must invoke the Amendment in tandem.

The vice president takes over once these parties submit a formal written declaration to Congress. If the president refutes this, they can return to power for four days, in which time the other parties can again submit a declaration invoking the president's removal. If this happens, the VP takes over again and Congress must secure a two-thirds vote in both the House and Senate within 21 days to permanently remove the president.

How does the 25th Amendment work?

The 25th Amendment has four sections that can apply to different situations resulting in a president or vice president vacating or being forced to leave their position. In the case of presidential removal due to incompetence, it is Section 4 of the amendment specifically that applies.

Section 4 declares that, if the vice president and a majority of the executive Cabinet or a Congressionally appointed review body feel the president is no longer able to perform their duties, they can submit this belief in writing to Congress, resulting in the replacement of the president with the vice president. The president can submit a declaration to the contrary and bring the matter to voting in Congress.

Section 4 is the most controversial and has yet to be successfully used. The closest this section ever came to actual use was during Reagan's presidency, when he was undergoing surgery after being shot in March 1981. His administration prepared the paperwork to make Vice President George H.W. Bush acting president, but it was never signed. Several members of his staff again suggested it in 1987, arguing the president was mentally inept, but his chief of staff disagreed and it was not further pursued.

It was again proposed during Trump's presidency but was not ultimately invoked.

25th Amendment text

In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

Biden won’t be charged in classified docs case; special counsel cites instances of ‘poor memory’

WASHINGTON — Special counsel Robert Hur has declined to prosecute President Joe Biden for his handling of classified documents but said in a report released Thursday that Biden’s practices “present serious risks to national security” and added that part of the reason he wouldn't charge Biden was that the president could portray himself as an "elderly man with a poor memory" who would be sympathetic to a jury.

“Our investigation uncovered evidence that President Biden willfully retained and disclosed classified materials after his vice presidency when he was a private citizen,” the report said, but added that the evidence “does not establish Mr. Biden’s guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.”

The report from Hur — who previously appointed by former President Donald Trump as one of the country's top federal prosecutors — also made clear the "material distinctions" between a theoretical case against Biden and the pending case against Trump for his handling of classified documents, noting the "serious aggravating facts" in Trump's case.

Biden said in remarks from the White House after the report was made public that he was pleased that the report cleared him.

"The decision to decline criminal charges was straightforward," Biden said.

He also said: “My memory’s fine.”

Hur’s report included several shocking lines about Biden’s memory, which the report said “was significantly limited” during his 2023 interviews with the special counsel. Biden’s age and presentation would make it more difficult to convince a jury beyond a reasonable doubt that the now-81-year-old was guilty of willfully committing a crime.

“We have also considered that, at trial, Mr. Biden would likely present himself to a jury, as he did during our interview of him, as a sympathetic, well-meaning, elderly man with a poor memory,” it said. “Based on our direct interactions with and observations of him, he is someone for whom many jurors will want to identify reasonable doubt. It would be difficult to convince a jury that they should convict him — by then a former president well into his eighties — of a serious felony that requires a mental state of willfulness.”

Later in the report, the special counsel said that the president’s memory was “worse” during an interview with him than it was in recorded conversations from 2017.

“He did not remember when he was vice president, forgetting on the first day of the interview when his term ended (‘if it was 2013 — when did I stop being Vice President?’), and forgetting on the second day of the interview when his term began (‘in 2009, am I still Vice President?’),” the report said.

Biden also had difficulty remembering the timing of his son Beau’s death, as well as a debate about Afghanistan, the report said.

“He did not remember, even within several years, when his son Beau died,” the report said.

Defenders of the president quickly pointed out that he sat for the interview in the days after Hamas’ Oct. 7 attack on Israel. Biden, giving previously scheduled remarks on Thursday, appeared to nod to that, saying, “I was in the middle of handling an international crisis.”

He also added that he was “especially pleased” that the special counsel “made clear the stark differences between this case and Donald Trump.”

Andrew Weissman, who served on special counsel Robert Mueller’s team, said Thursday on MSNBC that Hur’s decision to lodge criticisms of Biden’s memory problems was “gratuitous” and reminded him of when former FBI Director James Comey held a news conference criticizing Hillary Clinton in the months before the 2016 election.

“This is not being charged. And yet a person goes out and gives their opinion with adjectives and adverbs about what they think, entirely inappropriate,” he said. “I think a really fair criticism of this is, unfortunately, we’re seeing a redux of what we saw with respect to James Comey at the FBI with respect to Hillary Clinton in terms of really not adhering to what I think are the highest ideals of the Department of Justice.”

page 131 photo hur report

In a Monday letter to Hur and his deputy special counsel, Richard Sauber and Bob Bauer, Biden’s personal counsel, disputed how the report characterized the president’s memory.

“We do not believe that the report’s treatment of President Biden’s memory is accurate or appropriate,” Sauber and Bauer wrote in the letter, which was also released on Thursday. “The report uses highly prejudicial language to describe a commonplace occurrence among witnesses: a lack of recall of years-old events.”

Separately, Sauber responded to the report by saying the White House is “pleased” it has concluded and that there were no criminal charges.

“As the Special Counsel report recognizes, the President fully cooperated from day one,” he said in a statement. “His team promptly self-reported the classified documents that were found to ensure that these documents were immediately returned to the government because the President knows that’s where they belong.”

Sauber went on to appear to criticize the report but raised no specific points.

“We disagree with a number of inaccurate and inappropriate comments in the Special Counsel’s report,” Sauber said in his statement. “Nonetheless, the most important decision the Special Counsel made — that no charges are warranted — is firmly based on the facts and evidence.”

Hur’s report said there were “clear” material distinctions between a potential case against Biden and the pending case against Trump, noting that unlike “the evidence involving Mr. Biden, the allegations set forth in the indictment of Mr. Trump, if proven, would present serious aggravating facts.”

presenting group meaning

Most notably, the report said, “after being given multiple chances to return classified documents and avoid prosecution, Mr. Trump allegedly did the opposite.” In contrast, it said, “Mr. Biden turned in classified documents to the National Archives and the Department of Justice, consented to the search of multiple locations including his homes, sat for a voluntary interview, and in other ways cooperated with the investigation.”

Some of the report focuses on documents about Afghanistan, from early in Barack Obama’s presidency. About a month after Biden left office as vice president, in a recorded conversation with his ghostwriter in February 2017, Biden remarked that he “just found all this classified stuff downstairs,” the report said. He told him, “Some of this may be classified, so be careful," in one recording. Biden was believed to have been referring to classified documents about the Afghanistan troop surge in 2009, which Biden opposed.

The announcement tops off a lengthy saga that began in November 2022, after one of Biden’s personal attorneys found classified documents that appeared to be from the Obama administration at the Penn Biden Center for Diplomacy and Global Engagement, which Biden had used as a personal office after his vice presidential term concluded. Classified documents were later also found at Biden’s Delaware home.

The existence of classified documents at Biden’s home and former office were first reported in January 2023. CBS News first reported the existence of the documents at the Penn Biden Center.

Attorney General Merrick Garland in January 2023 announced that he would appoint Hur as special counsel to oversee the investigation into Biden, saying the appointment authorized him “to investigate whether any person or entity violated the law in connection with this matter.”

Biden was interviewed in October as part of the investigation, the White House said. The interview was voluntary, according to White House spokesman Ian Sams.

“As we have said from the beginning, the President and the White House are cooperating with this investigation, and as it has been appropriate, we have provided relevant updates publicly, being as transparent as we can consistent with protecting and preserving the integrity of the investigation,” Sams said at the time.

NBC News has also previously reported that the special counsel had interviewed Hunter Biden as well, according to a source familiar with the matter.

With Hur’s announcement, Donald Trump remains the only president in history to face criminal charges, which include seven criminal charges in connection with mishandling classified documents found at Mar-a-Lago. According to the indictment in that case, Trump had more than 100 classified documents at his Florida home, including documents with “Top Secret” classification markings.

presenting group meaning

Ryan J. Reilly is a justice reporter for NBC News.

presenting group meaning

Ken Dilanian is the justice and intelligence correspondent for NBC News, based in Washington.

presenting group meaning

Megan Lebowitz is a politics reporter for NBC News.


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What to Know About Pakistan’s Election

Analysts say Pakistan’s powerful military has never intervened so openly on behalf of its preferred candidate.

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A street scene with people and motorbikes. Campaign posters hang outside market stalls near colorful garlands.

By Christina Goldbaum

Reporting from Lahore, Pakistan

Pakistan went to the polls on Thursday for an election that analysts say will be among the least credible in the country’s 76-year history, one that comes at a particularly turbulent moment for the nation.

For nearly half of Pakistan’s existence, the military has ruled directly. Even under civilian governments, military leaders have wielded enormous power, ushering in politicians they favored and pushing out those who stepped out of line.

This will be only the third democratic transition between civilian governments in Pakistan’s history. And it is the first national election since former Prime Minister Imran Khan was removed from power after a vote of no confidence in 2022. Mr. Khan’s ouster — which he accused the military of orchestrating, though the powerful generals deny it — set off a political crisis that has embroiled the nuclear-armed nation for the past two years.

The vote on Thursday is the culmination of an especially contentious campaign season , in which analysts say the military has sought to gut Mr. Khan’s widespread support and pave the way to victory for the party of his rival, former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif .

Here’s what you need to know.

What’s the campaign been like?

Over the past two years, Pakistanis have come out in droves to protest the behind-the-scenes role that they believe the military played in Mr. Khan’s ouster. The generals have responded in force, arresting Mr. Khan’s allies and supporters, and working to cripple his party ahead of the vote.

While the military has often meddled in elections to pave the way for its preferred candidates, analysts say this crackdown has been more visible and widespread than others.

That has also made this perhaps Pakistan’s most muted election in decades. Streets that would normally be filled with political rallies have remained empty. For weeks, many people were convinced that the election would not even take place on the scheduled date. A common refrain among Pakistanis is that this is a “selection” — not an election — as many feel it is clear that the military has predetermined the winner.

Who’s running?

Roughly 128 million voters were eligible to cast ballots for a new Parliament, which will then choose a new prime minister after the election.

There are 266 seats to fill in the National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, with an additional 70 seats reserved for women and minorities. If no party wins an outright majority — which is considered highly likely — then the one with the biggest share of assembly seats can form a coalition government.

Three main parties dominate politics in Pakistan: the Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (P.M.L.N.), the Pakistan People’s Party (P.P.P.) and Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (P.T.I.).

Mr. Khan, the leader of P.T.I., has been notably absent from the campaign: He was arrested in August and has since been sentenced to multiple prison terms for a variety of offenses and barred from holding public office for a decade. Candidates from his party say they have been detained , forced to denounce the party and subjected to intimidation campaigns.

Most election observers expect a victory by the P.M.L.N. , the party of Mr. Sharif. A three-time prime minister, Mr. Sharif built his political reputation on reviving economic growth. He has repeatedly fallen out with the military after pushing for more civilian control in government, only to find himself once more in its favor in this election.

The P.P.P. is led by Bilawal Bhutto Zardari, the son of former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, who was assassinated in 2007 . The party is expected to win some seats in the south, where it has a power base, and would most likely form part of a Sharif-led coalition government.

What’s at stake?

Pakistan’s next government will inherit a raft of problems. The economy is in shambles, terrorist attacks have resurged and relations with neighbors — particularly Afghanistan, ruled by the Taliban — are tense.

The cost of living has soared in Pakistan, where inflation last year hit a record high of nearly 40 percent. Meanwhile, gas outages and electricity blackouts are frequent occurrences for the country’s 240 million people. Pakistan has had to turn to the International Monetary Fund for bailouts to keep its economy afloat and prop up its foreign exchange reserves. It also has relied on financing from wealthy allies, like China and Saudi Arabia.

At the same time, extremist violence in Pakistan has surged since the Taliban swept back to power in Afghanistan in 2021. Much of it has been carried out by the Pakistani Taliban, also known as Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, or T.T.P. — an ally and ideological twin of the Taliban in Afghanistan.

That has stoked tensions between Pakistan and Afghanistan, with Pakistani officials accusing the Taliban of offering the Pakistani Taliban safe haven on Afghan soil, a claim that Taliban officials deny. Those tensions appeared to boil over last year when Pakistan ordered all undocumented foreigners to leave the country by Nov. 1, a move that has primarily affected Afghans .

How will the vote take place?

A day before the election, two separate explosions outside election offices in an insurgency-hit area of Pakistan killed at least 22 people . The blasts were the latest in a series of attacks on election-related activities, including the targeting of candidates, throughout the campaign season.

In light of such security threats, the authorities have designated half of Pakistan’s approximately 90,000 polling stations as “sensitive” or “most sensitive” and have deployed the military to secure them.

The polls officially closed at 5 p.m. Preliminary results are expected by late Thursday night, but it could take up to three days for all votes to be officially counted.

Once the count is finalized, members of Parliament will convene to form the government and choose the next prime minister. The selection of the prime minister is expected by the end of February.

Zia ur-Rehman contributed reporting.

Christina Goldbaum is the Afghanistan and Pakistan bureau chief for The Times. More about Christina Goldbaum


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