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- Prof. John Guttag
- Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
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- Computer Science
Introduction to Computer Science and Programming
Lecture 3: problem solving.
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- Each week, send an email to all students in the class that briefly describes activities for that week (lectures, reading, and programming assignments drawn from the book or from this booksite).
- Students watch the lecture videos at their own pace, do the readings, and work on the programming assignments.
CS50's Introduction to Computer Science
An introduction to the intellectual enterprises of computer science and the art of programming.
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Cs50's introduction to computer science, about this course.
Students who earn a satisfactory score on 9 problem sets (i.e., programming assignments) and a final project are eligible for a certificate. This is a self-paced course–you may take CS50x on your own schedule.
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At a glance
- Institution: HarvardX
- Subject: Computer Science
- Level: Introductory
- Professional Certificate in Computer Science for Game Development
- Professional Certificate in Computer Science for Web Programming
- Professional Certificate in Computer Science for Artificial Intelligence
- Professional Certificate in Computer Science for Python Programming
- XSeries in CS50's AP® Computer Science Principles
- Language: English
- Video Transcript: English
What you'll learn
- A broad and robust understanding of computer science and programming
- How to think algorithmically and solve programming problems efficiently
- Concepts like abstraction, algorithms, data structures, encapsulation, resource management, security, software engineering, and web development
- How to engage with a vibrant community of like-minded learners from all levels of experience
- How to develop and present a final programming project to your peers
This course is part of CS50's AP® Computer Science Principles XSeries Program
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1 Steps in problem solving
by vijay mani
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A framework for an integrated problem solving and program development environment that addresses the needs of students learning programming is proposed. Several objectives have been accomplished: defining the tasks required for program development and a literature review to determine the actual difficulties involved in learning those tasks. A comprehensive study of environments and tools developed to support the learning of problem solving and programming was then performed, covering programming environments, debugging aids, intelligent tutoring systems, and intelligent programming environments. This was followed by a careful analysis and critique of these systems, which uncovered the limitations that have prevented them from accomplishing their goals. Next, an extensive study of problem solving methodologies developed in this century was carried out and a common model for problem solving was produced. The tasks of program development were then integrated with the common model for p...
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Computer programming: A computer works by executing a set of instructions known as a program. The term programming refers to the process of developing computer instructions (programs) to solve a particular task. It involves use of special characters, signs and symbols found in a particular programming language to create computer instructions. A programming language is a special set of symbols that can be translated into machine readable form by the computer when arranged in a particular sequence or order. Each language has a special sequence or order of writing characters usually referred to as the syntax.
An algorithm is a set of instructions, sometimes called a procedure or a function that is used to perform a certain task. This can be a simple process, such as adding two numbers together, or a complex function, such as adding effects to an image. For example, in order to sharpen a digital photo, the algorithm would need to process each pixel in the image and determine which ones to change and how much to change them in order to make the image look sharper. Most computer programmers spend a large percentage of their time creating algorithms. (The rest of their time is spent debugging the algorithms that don't work properly.) The goal is to create efficient algorithms that do not waste more computer resources (such as RAM and CPU time) than necessary. This can be difficult, because an algorithm that performs well on one set of data may perform poorly on other data. As you might guess, poorly written algorithms can cause programs to run slowly and even crash. Therefore, software updates are often introduced, touting " improved stability and performance ". While this sounds impressive, it also means that the algorithms in the previous versions of the software were not written as well as they could have been.
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INTRODUCTION TO PROBLEM SOLVING - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
INTRODUCTION TO PROBLEM SOLVING
Introduction to problem solving engineers must analyze and solve a wide range of technical problems. some will be reasonably simple single-solution problems. – powerpoint ppt presentation.
- Engineers must analyze and solve a wide range of technical problems. Some will be reasonably simple single-solution problems. Others will be open-ended and will likely require a team of engineers from several disciplines. Some problems may have no clear solution.
- PROBLEM SOLVING INVOLVES
- FOCUS Computer Assisted Problem Solving
- Computers are good tools for solving rule-based problems using decision rules
- SOME SAY ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING REQUIRES A COMBINATION OF SCIENCE AND ART
- RECOGNIZE AND UNDERSTAND THE PROBLEM
- GATHER DATA (AND VERIFY ITS ACCURACY)
- SELECT GUIDING THEORIES AND PRINCIPLES
- MAKE ASSUMPTIONS WHEN NECESSARY
- SOLVE THE PROBLEM
- VERIFY THE RESULTS
- PRESENT THE SOLUTION
- Create a new product
- New/modified design of existing product
- Cost reduction
- Do it faster, cheaper, better
- example Personal computers
- Develop or change a procedure
- Example Warehouse inventory -- Instead of having 3 month's inventory go to "just in time"
- Human factors
- Make our lives longer, better, easier
- Examples cruise control, moving sidewalks, management tools
- GIVENS The initial condition of the problem
- OPERATIONS The various actions we are allowed to perform
- GOALS The desired final condition of the problem
- PROBLEM STATE The state of the problem at any specific point in time
- SOLUTION Completely specified the GIVENS, OPERATIONS, GOALS, and succession of PROBLEM STATES to get to GOAL state
- IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM
- YOU CANT FIX IT IF YOU DONT KNOW WHAT IS BROKEN.
- DETERMINE WHAT IS REQUIRED FOR THE SOLUTION
- WHAT IS KNOWN?
- WHAT IS UNKNOWN?
- ANY RESTRICTIONS OR LIMITATIONS?
- ANY SPECIAL CASES?
- DEVELOP A STEP-BY-STEP PLAN (ALGORITHM).
- HOW ARE YOU GOING TO FIX IT?
- OUTLINE THE SOLUTION IN A LOGIC DIAGRAM
- EXECUTE THE PLAN.
- KEEP TRACK OF WHAT WORKS AND WHAT DOESNT.
- ANALYZE THE SOLUTION
- REVISE THE PLAN AND RE-EXECUTE AS NEEDED.
- KEEP THE GOOD PARTS OF THE PLAN AND ALTER THE NOT-SO-GOOD ONES.
- REPORT / DOCUMENT THE RESULTS
- LET YOUR BOSS KNOW HOW YOUR IDEA WORKED ( in a written report ).
- PROBLEM Keep food from spoiling
- SOLUTION In 1809 Nicholas Appert invented a process for preserving food in glass bottles by filling them with water to kill the bacteria. He was awarded 12 000 francs by the French government.
- In 1810 Appert wrote a book Lart de Conserver (very successful and profitable).
- PROBLEM Bottles break easily.
- SOLUTION Peter Durand (London) devised a sealed tin container.
- PROBLEM How to open the tin. Soldiers used knives, bayonets, and even rifle fire. A tin of roast veal carried on one of William Parrys Arctic expeditions bore the instruction, Cut round on the top near the outer edge with a chisel and hammer. The can (iron) was .2 thick and weighed a pound (empty).
- 1. Use steel (stronger and thinner).
- 2. Create specialized tools for opening cans
- 1858 Ezra Warner (Connecticut) got a patent for a can opener that was describes as Part bayonet, part sickle with a large curved blade.
- 1870 William Lyman (Connecticut) patented a can opener with a wheel that revolved around a center hole punched in the can.
- PROBLEM Lymans can opener had to be adjusted for each can size and the punching of the center hole had to be exact.
- SOLUTION Modern style can opener was patented in 1925. There is still room for improvement.
- PROBLEM Thin cans lacked stiffness and buckled.
- 1. Add a rim at top and bottom.
- 2. Corrugate the sides.
- PROBLEM Beverage cans opened with can openers had jagged edges and too big an opening.
- SOLUTION The Church Key can opener.
- PROBLEM It kept getting lost or you didnt have it with you when you needed it.
- SOLUTION Cans with discardable pull tabs, called pop tops.
- PROBLEM What to do with pull tabs after removal?
- Discard them? Littering
- Make chains? Artistic
- Drop them in the can? Dangerous
- SOLUTION Pop tops that stay attached to the can.
- PROBLEM Some people with long finger nails or weak, arthritic fingers cannot open them.
- AND SO ON, AND ON, AND ON, AND ...
- Problem Fill a bottle with stones
- Document any assumptions that may be required
- Write a step-by-step procedure for solving the problem
- Do this in pairs first then have a solution for your table
- Bottle is present
- Stones are present
- There are enough stones to fill bottle
- Bottle is empty (or at least not full)
- Some (or all) stones fit through opening
- 1. Set bottle upright near stones
- 2. Check to see if bottle is full. If so, then go to Step 6
- 3. Pick up a stone and try to put it in bottle
- 4. If stone too large to fit, discard stone, and go to Step 3
- 5. Otherwise, the stone fits, go to Step 2
- In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state.
- Write a detailed set of instructions (algorithm) for replacing the tire and inner tube on the front wheel of a ten-speed bicycle. The bicycle has caliper brakes that must be loosened unless the tire is not inflated. It has standard (not quick release) hubs and no front fender. The axle may not be removed from the wheel because it contains bearings. The bicycle must be ready to ride when the work described in your algorithm is completed. Organize your detailed set of instructions into logical sub-tasks. Document any assumptions you make.
- Your boss has asked you to instruct a new employee in the use of drawing instruments. Your task is to explain how to construct a polygon using drawing instruments. You have decided to start with construction of a regular dodecagon (12 sided polygon) using only a pencil, straightedge, and compass. Write an algorithm (a step by step procedure) to accomplish this task. Assume that the new employee has had no experience with the use of drawing instruments. You must specify which instruments are to be used. It may be useful to draw simple diagrams to help the new employee understand more easily.
- In 1989, the National Academy of Engineering selected the 10 engineering achievements that it considered to be the most important accomplishments during the previous 25 years
- Moon landing
- Application satellites
- CAD(Computer Aided Design)/CAM(Computer Aided Manufacturing)
- Advanced composite materials
- CAT(Computer Axial Tomography)
- Genetic engineering
- Optical fiber
- The Office of Science and Technology Policy in Washington, D.C. identified the grand challenges as part of a research and development strategy for high performance computing.
- Prediction of weather, climate, and global change
- Computerized speech understanding
- Human Genome Project
- Improvements in vehicle performance
- Enhanced oil and gas recovery
- strong communication skills for both oral presentations and for preparing written materials
- the design/process/manufacture path, which consists of taking an idea from a concept to a product
- cooperativeness in interdisciplinary team
- to understand world marketplace
- not only to analyze data, but synthesize a solution using many pieces of information
- to consider their solutions in their social context
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Chapter 1 - An Introduction to Computers and Problem Solving
Aug 06, 2014
740 likes | 1.09k Views
Chapter 1 - An Introduction to Computers and Problem Solving. 1.1 An Introduction to Computers 1.2 Windows, Folders, and Files 1.3 Program Development Cycle 1.4 Programming Tools. 1.1 An Introduction to Computers. Create and manage a list of friends' addresses and phone numbers
- numbered nyc streets algorithm
- different parts
- pseudocode example
- alt tools folder options
- calculate loan
- translation process
Chapter 1 - An Introduction to Computers and Problem Solving • 1.1 An Introduction to Computers • 1.2 Windows, Folders, and Files • 1.3 Program Development Cycle • 1.4 Programming Tools
1.1 An Introduction to Computers • Create and manage a list of friends' addresses and phone numbers • Calculate loan payments and amortization • Computations to support other course work
Communicating with the Computer • Machine language – low level, hard for humans to understand • Visual Basic – high level, understood by humans, consists of instructions such as Click, If, and Do
Compiler • A compiler translates a high-level language into machine language. • The Visual Basic compiler points out certain types of errors during the translation process.
Programming and Complicated Tasks • Tasks are broken down into instructions that can be expressed by a programming language • A program is a sequence of instructions • Programs can be only a few instructions or millions of lines of instructions
All Programs Have in Common: • Take data and manipulate it to produce a result • Input – Process – Output • Input – from files, the keyboard, or other input device • Output – usually to the monitor, a printer, or a file
Hardware and Software • Hardware – the physical components of the computer • Central processing unit • Disk drive • Monitor • Software – The instructions that tell the computer what to do
Programmer and User • Programmer – the person who solves the problem and writes the instructions for the computer • User – any person who uses the program written by the programmer • In this class, you are BOTH Programmer and User….NOT TYPICAL
Problem Solving • Developing the solution to a problem • Algorithm – a step by step series of instructions to solve a problem
Visual Basic 2010 • BASIC originally developed at Dartmouth in the early 1960s • Visual Basic created by Microsoft in 1991 • Visual Basic 2010 is similar to original Visual Basic, but more powerful • Released Last Summer (2010)
XP vs Vista vs Windows 7 XP Vista Windows 7
1.2 Windows, Folders, and Files • Windows and Its Little Windows • Mouse Actions • Files and Folders
Windows and Its Little Windows • Difference between Windows and windows. • Title bar indicates if window is active.
Mouse Actions: • Hover • Drag and drop • Click • Right-click • Double-Click
Files and Folders File: holds programs or data. Its name usually consists of letters, digits, and spaces. Folder: contains files and other folders (called subfolders).
Key Terms in using Folders and Files TermExample • Disk Hard disk, flash drive, DVD • File name Payroll • Extension .txt • Filename Payroll.txt • Path TextFiles\Payroll.txt • Filespec C:\TextFiles\Payroll.txt
Windows Explorer • Used to view, organize, and manage folders and files. • Manage: copy, move, delete
Invoking Windows Explorer • Right-click on Windows Start button • Click on Explore (or Open Windows Explorer) in context menu
Display File Extensions (Vista & Windows 7) • Click on Windows Start button. • Type Folder Options into Search box. • Press Enter key. • Click on View tab in dialog box. • Uncheck ″Hide extensions for known file types″. • Click on OK.
Display File Extensions (Vista & Windows 7 cont.)
Display File Extensions (XP) • Alt/Tools/Folder Options • Click the View tab. • Uncheck "Hide extensions for known file types“. • Click on OK.
1.3 Program Development Cycle • Performing a Task on the Computer • Program Planning
Terminology A computer program may also be called: • Project • Application • Solution
Program Development Cycle • Software refers to a collection of instructions for the computer • The computer only knows how to do what the programmer tells it to do • Therefore, the programmer has to know how to solve problems
Performing a Task on the Computer • Determine Output • Identify Input • Determine Processnecessary to turn given Input into desired Output
Problem-Solving: Approach Like Algebra Problem • How fast is a car traveling if it goes 50 miles in 2 hours? • Output: a number giving the speed in miles per hour • Input: the distance and time the car has traveled • Process: speed = distance / time
Pictorial representation of the Problem Solving Process
Program Planning • A recipe is a good example of a plan • Ingredients and amounts are determined by what you want to bake • Ingredients are input • The way you combine them is the processing • What is baked is the output
Program Planning (continued) • Always have a plan before trying to write a program • The more complicated the problem, the more complex the plan must be • Planning and testing before coding saves time
Program Development Cycle • Analyze: Define the problem. • Design: Plan the solution to the problem. • Choose the interface: Select the objects (text boxes, buttons, etc.).
Program Development Cycle (continued) • Code: Translate the algorithm into a programming language. • Test and debug: Locate and remove any errors in the program. • Complete the documentation: Organize all the materials that describe the program.
1.4 Programming Tools • Flowcharts • Pseudocode • Hierarchy Chart • Direction of Numbered NYC Streets Algorithm • Class Average Algorithm
Programming Tools Three tools are used to convert algorithmsinto computer programs: • Flowchart- Graphically depicts the logical steps to carry out a task and shows how the steps relate to each other. • Pseudocode- Uses English-like phrases with some Visual Basic terms to outline the program. • Hierarchychart - Shows how the different parts of a program relate to each other.
Algorithm A step-by-step series of instructions for solving a problem (a recipe is an example of an algorithm).
Problem Solving Example • How many stamps should you use when mailing a letter? • One rule of thumb is to use one stamp for every five sheets of paper or fraction thereof.
Algorithm • Request the number of sheets of paper; call it Sheets. (input) • Divide Sheets by 5. (processing) • Round the quotient up to the next highest whole number; call it Stamps. (processing) • Reply with the number Stamps. (output)
Flowchart Graphically depicst the logical steps to carry out a task and show how the steps relate to each other.
Flowchart Symbols (continued)
Pseudocode Uses English-like phrases with some Visual Basic terms to outline the task.
Pseudocode Example Determine the proper number of stamps for a letter Read Sheets (input) Set the number of stamps to Sheets / 5 (processing) Round the number of stamps up to the next whole number (processing) Display the number of stamps (output)
HierarchyChart • Shows how the different parts of a program relate to each other Hierarchy charts are also called • structure charts • HIPO (Hierarchy plus Input-Process-Output) charts • top-down charts • VTOC (Visual Table of Contents) charts
Hierarchy Charts Example
Divide-and-ConquerMethod • Used in problem solving – take a large problem and break it into smaller problems • Solve the small problems first
Statement Structures • Sequence – execute instructions from one line to the next without skipping over any lines • Decision - if the answer to a question is “Yes” then one group of instructions is executed. If the answer is “No,” then another is executed • Looping – a series of instructions are executed repeatedly
Sequence Flow Chart
Decision Flow Chart
Looping Flow Chart
Direction of Numbered NYC Streets Algorithm • Problem: Given a street number of a one-way street in New York City, decide the direction of the street, either eastbound or westbound • Discussion: in New York City even numbered streets are Eastbound, odd numbered streets are Westbound
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