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- How to Cite a YouTube Video | MLA, APA & Chicago
How to Cite a YouTube Video | MLA, APA & Chicago
Published on March 17, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2022.
To cite a video from YouTube or another video sharing site, you need an in-text citation with a corresponding reference listing the uploader, the publication date, the video title, and the URL.
The format varies depending on the citation style you use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago style .
Use the interactive example generator below to explore the APA and MLA formats or use Scribbr’s Citation Generator .
Table of contents
Citing a video in mla style, citing a video in apa style, citing a video in chicago style, where to find the information for a youtube citation, frequently asked questions about citations.
An MLA Works Cited entry for an online video begins with the name of the video’s author (the person who created it). The uploader is listed later, after the name of the site. The video title appears in quotation marks, the site name in italics.
In the in-text citation, list the author’s last name and the timestamp of the relevant part of the video.
Videos with the same author and uploader
When the person who created the video (the author) is the same person who uploaded it, MLA recommends starting the Works Cited entry with the title so as not to repeat the name in both the author and the uploader position.
This means that the in-text citation for a video like this begins with the title, shortened if it is a long title.
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In an APA Style reference entry for a video , the person or organization that uploaded the video is always listed in the author position, even if they didn’t create the video. The video title appears in italics, followed by “Video” in square brackets.
A timestamp may be used in the in-text citation to show the location of a particular quote .
Note that if the uploader’s real name is known and is different from the name of their channel, both should be included—the real name first, then the channel name in brackets.
To cite an online video in Chicago style , include a bibliography entry listing full details of the video, and a footnote where you cite it in the text.
The bibliography entry shows the video title in quotation marks, as well as specifying that the source is a video and stating its total length.
The footnote may list a timestamp if it’s necessary to highlight the location of a specific part of the video.
Chicago also offers an author-date citation style . An example of how to cite YouTube videos in this style can be found here .
All the key information needed to cite a YouTube video is displayed below the video itself on the site:
- The video title
- The uploader’s username
- The upload date
- The timestamp of the relevant part of the video
- The URL (it’s best to use the one given when you click on “Share”)
If the uploader’s name is not the same as their username, or if you need information about the video’s original creator, this information may be available in the description or in the video itself.
The image below shows where to find the relevant information below the video on YouTube; other video sites tend to follow a similar layout.
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The main elements included in a YouTube video citation across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the name of the author/uploader, the title of the video, the publication date, and the URL.
The format in which this information appears is different for each style.
All styles also recommend using timestamps as a locator in the in-text citation or Chicago footnote .
In APA , MLA , and Chicago style citations for sources that don’t list a specific author (e.g. many websites ), you can usually list the organization responsible for the source as the author.
If the organization is the same as the website or publisher, you shouldn’t repeat it twice in your reference:
- In APA and Chicago, omit the website or publisher name later in the reference.
- In MLA, omit the author element at the start of the reference, and cite the source title instead.
If there’s no appropriate organization to list as author, you will usually have to begin the citation and reference entry with the title of the source instead.
When you want to cite a specific passage in a source without page numbers (e.g. an e-book or website ), all the main citation styles recommend using an alternate locator in your in-text citation . You might use a heading or chapter number, e.g. (Smith, 2016, ch. 1)
In APA Style , you can count the paragraph numbers in a text to identify a location by paragraph number. MLA and Chicago recommend that you only use paragraph numbers if they’re explicitly marked in the text.
For audiovisual sources (e.g. videos ), all styles recommend using a timestamp to show a specific point in the video when relevant.
Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.
- APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
- MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
- Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
- Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.
Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.
The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.
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Caulfield, J. (2022, August 23). How to Cite a YouTube Video | MLA, APA & Chicago. Scribbr. Retrieved August 28, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/cite-a-video/
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / APA YouTube Citation
How to Cite a YouTube Video in APA
While doing research for a paper, you may find relevant YouTube videos that you want to cite. You may already know how to cite a website in APA , but it can be difficult to know how to cite YouTube in APA style. You may also want to cite quotes within the video, user comments, or entire YouTube accounts.
The guidelines of this page cover APA 7th edition and specifies what you need to know to cite any various YouTube video content in APA style. For similar but different media, like citing a movie in APA or a tv show, you’ll need to visit another guide.
Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:
Step-by-step instructions for a YouTube video citation in APA style
Basic youtube video citation structure.
- Video with creator’s real name and screen mame
Video without uploader’s real name OR video by an organization
Citing a youtube channel, citing a direct quote from a video, citing a comment on a youtube video, citing a ted talk found on youtube, a note on apa 7th edition, citing a youtube video in apa, what you need, troubleshooting.
- List the real last name of the video’s uploader, capitalizing the first letter. Place a comma after the last name and then list the first initial of their first name, followed by a period. If you find their middle initial, list it after the first initial and period, also followed by a period. If the creator’s name is unavailable, skip this step and begin your citation with the next step.
- Next, using brackets, list the screen name of the video’s uploader as it is spelled on the page. Place a period after the closing bracket.
- Then, in parentheses, put the full numerical year followed by a comma, the full written month starting with a capital letter and followed by a comma, and the numerical day that the video was posted. Close the parentheses and follow with a period.
- Put the title of the video in Italics and in sentence case (only capitalizing the first letter and proper nouns). Do not place a period after the title.
- After the title, put the word Video (for the source format), capitalized, in normal font, and in brackets. Place a period after the closing bracket.
- Put the word YouTube (for the website source name) as it is spelled here, followed by a period.
- List the full URL for the web page containing the YouTube video you are citing. Do not follow with a period.
Note that in your citation, you must indent any lines after the first line. APA-style in-text citations for quoting and paraphrasing are the same for YouTube videos.
Video with creator’s real name and screen name
If only the screen name is available, you put the screen name first in the citation and omit the “[Screen name]” part of the citation.
Now that you know how to cite YouTube in APA style, you may need more specific information on citing channels, quotes, or comments.
Instead of citing one particular YouTube video, you may want to cite an entire YouTube channel. While the format is similar to citing a YouTube video, there are a few key differences you can see in the format guidelines below.
- You will always use “n.d.” for “no date” because YouTube channels are undated.
- If you are instead citing another tab of the account (Videos, Playlists, Channels, Discussion, About), put the correct tab name instead of the word “Home.”
- Use the words “YouTube Channel” instead of the name of any specific videos since you’re citing a whole channel (not just one video).
You may want to include a direct quote from a YouTube video within your paper. While your reference page citation for the quote will be the same as a citation for the whole video, your in-text citation will need a timestamp to help readers easily access the quote ( Publication Manual , p. 274). It is commonly accepted to only include a timestamp for the beginning of the quote, but you may use a timestamp range if you think it would be helpful.
While researching your topic, you may find that you want to include a comment left on a YouTube video. You will need to cite the comment itself rather than the YouTube video. The format for citing a YouTube comment is similar to citing a YouTube video with a few key differences.
TED Talks are often great sources of information, and they can be found on both the TED website and on YouTube. When citing a TED Talk found on YouTube, list TED as the author for the in-text citation and the reference page.
The 7th edition of the APA Manual came out in 2020, replacing the 6th edition that came out in 2009. There are a few changes in the newest manual that apply when you need to cite YouTube video APA style.
Notable 7th edition changes include:
- Omission of “Retrieved from” before URLs
- Addition of the website name
- Uses “Video” instead of “Video file.”
- In-text citation format is the same,
APA 6th Edition Reference Page Format:
Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title of the video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL
APA 7th Edition Reference Page Format:
Uploader Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title of the video [Video]. Name of website. URL
In-text Citation Format (6th AND 7th Edition):
(Author/Creator Last Name OR Screen name, Year)
To cite YouTube videos in APA style, you will need certain information. If available, find the following to include in your citation:
- Name of the individual(s) or group who uploaded the video. If it’s an individual, use their real name.
- Video uploader’s screen name
- Date attached to the video (including year, month, date)
- Title of the video
- URL of the video’s webpage
If any of the above information is not available on the same page as the YouTube video, you may need to do a little more research to find it. For example, to find the real name of the video’s uploader, you can click on the screen name to view the creator’s account where you might find their real name in the bio.
If any of the information is not available, even after doing additional research, simply leave it out of the citation, but include the rest of the information following the order of the basic format below.
Who is the author?
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020, p. 344) clarifies that the uploader of the video is used as the “author” of the video, even if they are not the creator of it.
Further information on citing in APA can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association in Section 10.12.
Solution #1: How to cite a video when the uploader’s real name cannot be found
When you want to cite a video from YouTube, Vimeo, or any other video-hosting sites, but cannot find the uploader’s real name, use their username in place of their actual name in your APA works-cited citation.
If using a username in place of a typical name, keep the same format and case of the username as it is discovered online, and omit the bracketed “username” part of your APA citation in your bibliography.
Use the username in place of the author’s name for your in-text citation.
Example in-text citation:
videogamedunkey. (2021, September 21). Originality in video games [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AOQzTtsr3AQ
American Psychological Association (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10/1037/0000165-000
Published July 21, 2014. Updated April 16, 2020.
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.
APA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Parenthetical Citations
- Reference Page
- Sample Paper
- APA 7 Updates
- View APA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all APA Examples
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To cite a YouTube video, you need to have the name of the uploader or the screen name, the full date the video was uploaded, the title of the video, and the URL (uniform resource locator). If any of these details are not available, you can skip it and add only the available information. The templates for in-text citations and reference list entries of a YouTube video along with examples are given below.
In-text citation templates and examples:
Video uploader’s name or Screen name (publication year)
(Video uploader’s name or Screen name, publication year)
Note that month and day are not mentioned in in-text citations.
Reference list entry template and example:
Video uploader’s Surname F. M. [Screen name]. (Publication Year, Month Day). Video title [Video]. YouTube. URL
Seburn, C. [Smart Screen]. (2020, May 20). Welcome to the smart student! (Introductory video) [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/wz9kb_cQ57Y
If you want to include the screen name, include it in square brackets after the uploader’s name. Set the title of the video in italics and sentence case. The word “Video” follows the title in square brackets. Use the word “YouTube” before the URL.
To cite a movie in APA style , it is important that you know basic information such as the name of the director, the date, the title of the movie, and the name of the production company.
In-text citation template and example:
Director Surname (Year)
(Director Surname, Year)
Director’s Surname, F. M. (Director). (Year). Title of the movie [Film]. Production Company.
Coppola, F. F. (Director). (1972). The godfather [Film]. Alfran Productions.
To cite a TV series in APA style, it is important that you know basic information such as the name of the executive producer, the date, the title of the TV series, and the name of the production company.
Executive Producer Surname(s) (Year/s)
Crane and Kauffman (1994–2004)
(Executive Producer Surnames, Year/s)
(Crane & Kauffman, 1994–2004)
Executive Producer’s Surname, F. M. (Executive Producers). (Year). Title of the TV show [TV series]. Production Company.
Crane, D., & Kauffman, M. (Executive Producers). (1994–2004). Friends [TV series]. Bright/Kauffman/Crane Productions.
To cite a streaming video in APA style, it is important that you know basic information such as the name of the person or group who uploaded the video (or their username), the year, month, and day the video was uploaded, the title of the video, the streaming service, and the URL.
Video uploader’s surname or username (Year)
(Video uploader’s surname or username, Year)
Video uploader’s Surname F. M. [Username]. (Publication Year, Month Day). Video title . [Video]. YouTube. URL
Stanford. [Smart Screen]. (2010, March 29). Introduction to human behavioral biology . [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NNnIGh9g6fA
If you want to include the username with the uploader’s full name, include it in square brackets after the uploader’s name. Set the title of the video in italics and sentence case. The word “[Video]” follows the title. Use the streaming service’s title, “YouTube,” before the URL.
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APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th ed., 2 nd printing).
N ote: This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until 2021, but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here .
The following FAQs address issues in APA citation and/or formatting. The entries in this section are based on frequently asked questions received by our former OWL Mail Tutors. Also, further information on APA style and citation can be found at the Purdue OWL’s APA Style and Formatting resource.
I’m writing an APA style paper, but I can’t get the header on the first page to be different than the subsequent pages. How do I set a different header on the first page?
In most current versions of Microsoft Word, you can make the header of the first page different from the header on the second and following pages. To do this, follow these steps:
1. After opening your version of Word, click on "Insert" at the top of the page. 2. Click on "Header" and choose the Header template you wish to use. Type in the text you would like for the first page. 3. When you type in your text in the header, you will see the "Design" tab is highlighted. There you can click on "Different first page." This will allow you to type in different text within your header beginning with page two.
If you do not have a version of Word which allows you to do this, you can simply type “Running Head: SHORTENED TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” at the upper most line on the first page without typing it inside the header. Then type the shortened title inside the header as you wish it to appear throughout your document.
Using APA, how do I cite an author if their work is referenced more than once in a single paragraph?
Here’s what the 6 th edition of the APA manual says: "Within a paragraph, when the name of the author is part of the narrative...you need not include the year in subsequent nonparenthetical references to a study as long as the study cannot be confused with other studies cited in the article. Do include the year in all parenthetical citations" (pg. 174). In other words, every time you bring up the author in a new paragraph, you should use the year, but you don’t have to within a paragraph, as long as it’s clear from your wording that you are discussing the same author. If you were giving a direct quotation that needed a parenthetical reference for the page number, then you’d include the year as well.
How do I cite a work that has no listed author in an APA-style paper?
According to the OWL website’s resource on APA-style citations, "When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source’s title instead of an author’s name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: ( Merriam-Webster’s 1993)." The bibliographical citation is as follows:
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10 th ed.).(1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
What do I do if the source-type that I’m using doesn’t appear in any APA reference/style guides?
The APA manual models several different templates for references, but the forms given may not apply to all documents. In this case, the APA manual states that you should format the entry as best you can in accordance with their models: "Occasionally, however, you may need to use a reference for a source for which this chapter does not provide specific guidance. In such a case choose the example that is most like your source and follow that format...When in doubt, provide more information rather than less." (American Psychological Association, 2009 p. 193).
What do I do if a website is missing information required for an APA-style citation?
The APA Style Blog is a helpful source when it comes to citing websites with missing information. For example, if your website has no author, you can use the following example as a template for the citation for your reference page:
All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/
As you can see, the title of the document is moved up to where the author’s name would be.
If your website has no date, you can put "n.d." instead. For example:
The College of William and Mary. (n.d.). College mission statement. Retrieved from http://www.wm.edu/about/administration/provost/mission/index.php
If I co-author a paper, how should the author’s names appear in an APA-style title page?
According to the 6 th edition of the APA manual, "The names of the authors should appear in the order of their contributions, centered between the side margins. For names with suffixes (e.g., Jr. and III), separate the suffix from the rest of the name with a space instead of a comma. The institutional affiliation should be centered under the author’s name, on the next line" (p. 24).
Some examples include the following:
Two authors, one affiliation:
Jamie R. Clark and Owen B. Engel Jr. Harvard University
Three authors, one affiliation:
Andrea Ferris, Brian Atkinson, and Rebecca Schultz University of Michigan
Two authors, two affiliations:
Paul Jacobs Rhodes College
Erin Gibson Vanderbilt University
Three authors, two affiliations:
Stacy Johnson and Madeline Ramirez Chicago Medical School
Brandon James Columbia University
I’m including an image in my APA style PowerPoint presentation. How do I properly cite the image that I’m going to use?
In the current digital age, you need to be careful not to infringe on copyrighted images found on the internet. See this series of posts from the APA Style Blog on navigating copyrighted images here.
If the image you are using is uninhibited by copyright, follow the guidelines below for proper citation:
Name of image creator, A. A. (Year images was made). Title of image in italics [medium of image - i.e file type]. Retrieved from http://.....
How do I cite unpublished works in APA?
Here is the relevant format from the APA manual, 6 th edition, p. 211:Unpublished manuscripts with a university cited:
Blackwell, E., & Conrod, P.J. (2003). A five dimensional measure of drinking motives . Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Manuscript in progress or submitted for publication:
Ting, J. Y., Florsheim, P., & Huang, W. (2008). Mental health help-seeking in ethnic minority populations: A theoretical perspective . Manuscript submitted for publication [or "Manuscript in preparation"].
Along with the format for the latter work, you can add the university where the author works (if indeed they are doing research as part of their position with a university or college).
I’m writing a paper about computer-aided writing instruction. How do I cite pieces of software in APA?
According to the 6 th edition of the APA manual, here is the general format for citing software:
Rightsholder, A.A. (Year). Title of program (Version number) [Description of form]. Location: Name of producer.
Alternatively, instead of using "Location:..." you can use "Retrieved from http://www...." If you can't find who the rightsholder is (i.e. the company or person who made the software), you can start the citation with the name of the program. Here’s another example from the manual:
Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2) [Computer software]. Englewood, NJ: Biostat.
The date may be excluded if it is not available. If you are citing a piece of software for a smartphone of a video game console, use the most descriptive term for the kind of software you’re using, i.e., [iPhone application].
How do I cite my professor’s classroom PowerPoint presentations in APA?
Your first choice is to follow the format for online PowerPoint presentation slides exemplified on this page of the Purdue OWL , and to simply not include the url:
You would reference this source in-text as you normally would by the author’s last name and date. Your second choice is to refer to the lecture as personal communication. For an example, please see this resource on the Purdue OWL .
Please note: personal communication is only cited in-text and not within your References list.
How do I cite lecture notes in my APA-style research paper?
The citation on the Reference page for the lecture notes would look like the following in APA:
Author. (year). In italics write the name or title of the lecture. Personal Collection of (the lecturer’s name), school or organization they teach for, city, state.
Berliner, A. (1959). Lecture on Reminiscences of Wundt and Leipsig. Personal Collection of A. Berliner, University of Akron, Akron OH.
How do I cite a work of art, like Salvador Dali’s The Ecumenical Council , in APA?
There is no “official” APA citation style for paintings or other works of art, but the APA Style Blog has addressed this question in one of its posts. You can access that post by clicking here .
As they say, "There are no guidelines for paintings, sculptures, or more complicated installations (e.g., a chair, a photo of a chair, and a definition of “chair”). So let’s use the Franken reference concept to model a few ways to handle art in your reference list."The basic format they suggest is below (using Wyeth’s painting Christina’s world as an example:
Wyeth, A. (1948). Christina’s world [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www.moma.org/explore/collection/index
I created and administered my own survey for a project. How would I cite this survey in an APA-style paper?
Since a survey you conducted yourself is not published elsewhere by someone else, you do not cite it in the same way you cite other materials. Instead, in your paper you describe your survey and make it clear that the data you’re referring to is from the survey, usually by saying so in introductory sentences. In your paper, you should include a short overview of your survey method: whom the survey was administered to, how it was administered, how many responses you got, and what kind of questions you asked. You should include a copy of the survey instrument (the full set of questions asked) as an appendix to your paper. You do not need to include your survey in your reference list.
How do I cite state bills in APA?
APA follows the guidelines for legal citations in the United States as outlined in The Bluebook ® . You can access a version of The Bluebook by clicking here .
However, guidelines for references to legal materials can also be found on pages 216-224 in the 6 th edition of the Publication Manual of the APA .
The following sample reference to a statute in a state code and its explanation can be found on page 220:
Mental Care and Treatment Act, 4 Kan. Stat. Ann.§§ 59-2901-2941 (1983 & Supp. 1992).
Explanation: This Kansas act can be found in codified version between sections 2901 and 2941 in Chapter 59 of volume 4 of the 1983 edition of Kansas Statutes Annotated. Two amendments to the act and additional references are provided in the 1992 supplement for the Kansas Statutes Annotated.
How do I cite artifacts in an APA-style paper?
Artifacts may fall under "Archival Documents and Collections." An extensive explanation of this can be found in the 6 th edition of the APA publication manual. The general format for this reference is as follows:
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of material . [Description of material]. Name of Collection (Call number, Box number, File name or number, etc.). Name of Repository, Location.
This general format may be modified for collections requiring more or less specific information to locate materials, for different types of collections, or for additional descriptive information. If the artifact you are referencing is not accessible by others, nor is it reproducible, it may not need to be cited.
How do I cite a products instructional guide (e.g., the Apple iPad user’s manual) in APA?
While the APA publication manual lists many different references, product instructions are not something that has a specific reference example. Since there is not a specific reference guideline for instructions, try to adapt another similar reference for your uses. For example:
Title of the Instructions (Year). Name of the product . Company Name, City, State. Current Location of the Product.
Note: If the product is maintained at a business, list the name of the business and city, state for the "current location of product." If you own the product you are referencing, list "Copy in possession of author."
How do I cite genealogies in APA?
The APA does not seem to specifically address this issue. Here’s what we’ve been able to find from other sources:
Genealogy.com offers a method of citing birth/death certificates, which can be found by clicking here and scrolling down to the “Official Records” section of the page.
Archive.gov also offers suggestions on how to cite birth/death certificates, which can be accessed by clicking here .