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Strategy Case Studies

a case study in strategic management

National Academies Press: OpenBook

Strategic Planning and Decision Making in State Departments of Transportation (2004)

Chapter: chapter four - two mini-case studies.

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32 CHAPTER FOUR TWO MINI-CASE STUDIES Because the essence of strategic management entails the integration of numerous management and decision proc- esses around a strategic framework that sets the direction for moving into the future in a deliberate manner, it can be helpful to have an overview of how given organizations tie the various elements of the process together. Therefore, this chapter presents mini-case studies of two state DOTs at very different stages in developing their strategic man- agement processes. The first is the Pennsylvania Depart- ment of Transportation (PennDOT), a seasoned leader in the field, and the second is the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), a relative newcomer to strategic planning. Although different in many respects, both cases illustrate carefully crafted approaches to strategic man- agement. PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Strategic planning was first initiated at PennDOT in 1982. That initial effort produced a set of 24 major objectives for the department, with the strategies for achieving them to be developed by the relevant organizational units. It also led to the formation of the top-level strate- gic management committee (SMC), which still exists as the highest level policy-making body at PennDOT, and a requirement for the major divisions and the 11 engineering districts to develop 4-year business plans and accompany- ing budget requests designed to help accomplish the major objectives. Over the past 20 years the process has been repeated and enhanced at roughly 4-year intervals, coinciding with the beginning of new gubernatorial administrations. Along the way, participation in developing PennDOT’s strategic planning has broadened considerably, to include as many as 400 to 500 managers and employees in fleshing out stra- tegic objectives and actions as opposed to the 50 top man- agers who were involved in the initial exercise. Although the process became deeply imbedded in the organization, the first round of the Baldrige assessment process, a comprehensive approach to strengthening organ- izational effectiveness, which PennDOT began in 1998, re- vealed that the lack of an effective strategic planning proc- ess constituted a major performance gap in the department. This assessment showed that although strategic planning was taken very seriously at PennDOT, the resulting plans did not drive decisions and behavior in the department on a consistent basis, the plans were not used effectively to manage people and organizational units, and the plans were not necessarily tied to fiscal reality. Therefore, the secretary and the SMC chartered a gap-closure team to lead a 2-year effort to design and implement a revamped strategic planning process. Strategic Planning From this effort a continuing process emerged consisting of planning, implementation, and evaluation on an ongoing basis (Poister 2002). PennDOT’s strategic plan was devel- oped through a process that included the following five steps: 1. Leadership direction—Developing or revalidating the department’s mission, vision, values, and strategic focus areas. 2. Customer expectations—Identifying customer expec- tations as related to the strategic focus areas through analysis of survey data, focus groups, and key stake- holder interviews. 3. Customer service capabilities—Assessing the de- partment’s capacity to meet customer expectations through focus groups with employees, and separately with partners and suppliers, as well as analyzing relevant operating data. 4. Priority tasks and strategies—Developing and evalu- ating alternatives within each focus area to produce a set of high-level goals and strategic objectives, and the strategies for achieving them. 5. Plans and performance targets—Reconciling strategic objectives, performance measures, targets, and budgets to produce plans and strategies that were effective, technically realistic, and fiscally respon- sible. The 8 strategic focus areas, 13 high-level goals, and 21 strategic objectives that came out of this process in 1999 are summarized in Figure 8, which also identifies the own- ers and leaders for each strategic objective. The owners serve as the sponsors of these strategic initiatives, whereas the leaders take the technical lead in implementing them. The targets were meant to be aggressive, but not unrea- sonable, and they were established based on budget re- alities so that the owners, leaders, and other responsible managers would know where the required funding was coming from.

33 STRATEGIC FOCUS AREAS HIGH-LEVEL GOAL STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE OWNER/ LEADER Smoother Roads Improve ride quality by incorporating smooth road strategies into a comprehensive pavement program. Ryan/ Moretz Refine winter services best practices to achieve more timely and efficient response. Hoffman/ Wise Maintenance First Cost-Effective Highway Maintenance Investment Use life-cycle criteria as a tool for asset management and investment to reduce outstanding maintenance needs. Hoffman/ Christie Improve customers’ experiences of our facilities by enhancing beautification efforts and reducing roadside debris. Yearick/ Peda & Hull Balance Social and Environmental Concerns Develop timely transportation plans, programs, and projects that balance social, economic, and environmental concerns. King/ Schreiber Quality of Life Demonstrate Sound Environmental Practices Implement a strategic environmental management program that adopts sound practices as our way of doing business. Ryan/ Kober Delivery of Transportation Products and Services Meet project schedules and complete work within budgeted costs. Ryan/ Azzato Implement congestion management strategies that limit work zone restrictions, address incident management, and reduce corridor travel delays. Hoffman/ Koser Mobility and Access Efficient Movement of People and Goods Implement Keystone Corridor rail passenger improvements as a pilot multi-modal initiative. Peltz/ Smedley Improve Customer Satisfaction Implement a department-wide systematic process to continue to improve customer satisfaction. Serian/ Cross Customer Focus Improve Customer Access to Information Improve information access by providing quality customer contacts across the organization with special attention to driver and vehicles inquiries. Serian/ Cleaver FIGURE 8 PennDOT strategic focus areas, high-level goals, and strategic objectives.

34 STRATEGIC FOCUS AREAS HIGH-LEVEL GOAL STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE OWNER/ LEADER Map key processes and improve those with the most strategic impact on business results. Tartline/ Harris Innovation and Technology World Class Process and Product Performance Deliver business results through planned enterprise-focused information technology. Tartline/ Reed Implement cost-effective highway safety improvements at targeted high-crash/fatality locations. Ryan/ Bryer Safer Travel Upgrade safe driving performance through education and enforcement initiatives. Yearick/ Seitz & Bryer Implement prevention strategies to reduce the employee injury rate. Tartline/ Dennin Safety Safer Working Conditions Implement prevention strategies to reduce the vehicle accident rate. Tartline/ Dennin Provide employees with the tools and expectations to communicate effectively to facilitate leadership at all levels. Yearick/ OCCR Internal Com. Mgr. Leadership at All Levels Improve Leadership Capabilities and Work Environment Develop employee skills and capabilities through a structured process of instruction, practice and leadership opportunities. Tartline/ Harris Implement a methodology to involve partners and stakeholders more meaningfully in PennDOT activities. Zimmerman/ Cvejkus Relationship Building Cultivate Effective Relationships Strengthen the efficiency and effectiveness of transportation grant programs using the methodology for partners and stakeholders. Voras/ Brown FIGURE 8 (Continued).

35 Scorecard The strategic plan that emerged in early 2000 from the im- position of fiscal reality onto proposed strategic objectives and targets is summarized in a scorecard that presents the goals and objectives, performance measures, and targets. There are actually two versions of the scorecard: the secre- tary’s scorecard and the SMC scorecard. The SMC score- card is used internally to manage the strategic agenda. It is organized by the strategic objectives and shows a measure and a target, or multiple measures and targets, for each of the 21 strategic objectives. The secretary’s version of the scorecard, shown in Figure 9, provides a simpler format structured by the 13 high-level goals. Although the SMC scorecard is used internally to manage the plan, the secre- tary’s version is oriented more toward public consumption, focusing attention more generally on PennDOT’s overall goals. Cascading Plans The department’s scorecard provides a framework for de- veloping organizational scorecards and business plans. Strategic planning at PennDOT is cascaded down into the organization by requiring the 11 districts and 6 deputates to develop their own strategic objectives and scorecards driven by the enterprise-level strategic agenda. These or- ganization scorecards, which must be approved by the SMC, are built, tested, and justified with the same five-step planning process used at the departmental level. The lead- ership direction comes directly from the strategic objec- tives in the enterprise-level scorecard that relate to the di- vision or district’s responsibilities, along with the underlying rationale that produced them. Each of these or- ganizational units must establish objectives, measures, and targets that contribute to those in the enterprise-level score- card that the organization “owns,” although it can add other “indirectly aligned” objectives as well. Business Planning Business planning is the vehicle PennDOT uses to align organizational units’ activities and priorities with the enter- prise-level strategic agenda. Thus, to advance the depart- ment’s strategic plan, each of the districts and deputates develops business plans designed in part to accomplish its own scorecard objectives. (Some central office bureaus and county maintenance units develop scorecards and business plans as well; however, this is not required at this point.) All of PennDOT’s strategic objectives are implemented through the 4-year business plans, which are updated an- nually. The business plans, which encompass all core func- tions and routine activities as well, present planned efforts for each objective in the organizational scorecards, spelling out exactly how the district or deputate will accomplish a given objective in terms of tasks, work programs, projects, action items, and schedules. This is important because the owners and leaders, and responsible managers at subunit levels, have considerable flexibility as to how they plan to accomplish certain objectives. Resource Allocation Some of PennDOT’s strategic initiatives, primarily those relating to IT, are funded separately through one-time allo- cations from special funds held expressly for that purpose. However, most strategic initiatives are supported through the normal budgeting process, which allocates resources to organizational units for particular uses. Therefore, the business plans all contain specific budgets that invest re- sources in planned actions responding to strategic objec- tives as well as other activities. This requires the districts and deputates preparing business plans to tie their budget request directly to strategic initiatives and to make sure that their plans and work programs are fiscally realistic. When the SMC approves business plans and their associ- ated budgets, usually after some degree of revision and ne- gotiations with respect to targets, programs, and budgets, these managers can be confident that they will have suffi- cient resources to achieve the targets for which they will be held accountable. Performance Management For many years PennDOT has used a management-by- objectives participative approach to providing direction and control over the work of individual managers and em- ployees. In its current form, the more formal written per- formance contracts have been shortened and incorporated in annual employee reviews (EPRs) as “expected work re- sults,” which are grafted onto the more constant annual job descriptions. With the new strategic management process, the EPRs are driven primarily by the strategic agenda, so that individuals who are owners or leaders of strategic ob- jectives, or otherwise identified as having some responsi- bility for them, have those objectives and their attendant action items, along with accompanying performance meas- ures, embodied in the EPRs. This is the case at the enterprise level, but also with the organizational scorecards and associated business plans. Whether or not business plans are used below the district or deputate level, managers at many levels negotiate with subordinates to contribute specified efforts toward accom- plishing strategic objectives and hold them accountable for those results through quarterly performance reviews. Therefore, by tying individuals’ expected work results to strategic objectives, PennDOT’s performance management

36 Strategic Focus Area High-Level Growth Pledge to Customers How Success Will be Measured? External (Customers) Internal (Support) Measurement Tool (Metric) Target 2002 2005 Smoother roads Better ride conditions on major (NHS) highways X International Roughness Index (IRI) 104 for NHS roads 99 for NHS roads MAINTENANCE FIRST Cost-effective highway maintenance investment Reduction in outstanding maintenance needs X Condition assessment for highways and bridges Complete asset management system Meet target established in 2002 Balance social, economic, and environmental concerns Timely decisions based on public and technical input on project impacts X Highway project environmental approvals meeting target dates 75% meeting target dates 90% meeting target dates QUALITY of LIFE Demonstrate sound environmental practices Attaining world class environmental status X ISO 14001 environmental criteria Implement a pilot program Meet ISO standards Delivery of transportation products and services Honoring commitments on scheduled transportation projects X Dollar value of 12-year program construction contracts initiated $1.3 billion per year $1.4 billion per year MOBILITY and ACCESS Efficient movement of people and goods Reduced travel delays X 2002–peak period work zone lane restrictions 2005–travel delays on selected corridors Set baseline in 2000 for reduced 2002 lane restrictions Meet target set in 2002 to reduce corridor travel delays Improve customer satisfaction Competitiveness on Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Excellence X Baldrige Organizational Review Package Scores— Customer Criteria 80 department average 100 department average CUSTOMER FOCUS Improve customer access to information Prompt answers to telephone inquiries X Answer rate of calls to the Customer Call Center 94% of calls answered 94% of calls answered INNOVATION and TECHNOLOGY World class process and product performance Competitiveness on Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Excellence X Baldrige Organizational Review Package Scores—All Criteria 500 level met by lead organizations 600 level met by lead organizations Safe travel Fewer fatalities from highway crashes X Number of fatalities per year 5% reduction in fatalities 10% reduction in fatalities SAFETY Safer working conditions Fewer work- related injuries X Injury rate per 100 employees working 1 year 8.25% injury rate 7.5% injury rate LEADERSHIP at all LEVELS Improve leadership capabilities and work environment Positive trends in employee feedback on job-related factors X Organizational Climate Survey (OCS)—Selected Items 48% positive rating 54% positive rating RELATIONSHIP BUILDING Cultivate effective relationships Effectiveness of partnerships to achieve business results X PennDOT/partner business effectiveness survey scores Establish metric, baseline and target Meet target established in 2002 FIGURE 9 PennDOT scorecard of measures.

37 process uses the EPRs to instill individual responsibility for advancing the strategic agenda deep into the depart- ment. Dashboards and Scorecards Basically, the scorecards are used to manage PennDOT’s strategic agenda at multiple levels. The districts and depu- tates are responsible for reviewing their scorecards on a quarterly basis, and monitoring the performance measures for each objective against the targets and milestones that have been set. Adjustments in programs, work plans, as- signments, and resource allocations are made as necessary to keep their objectives on track. As the embodiment of PennDOT’s strategic agenda, the SMC scorecard contains the most important set of per- formance measures to monitor in terms of guiding the de- partment into the future. However, the SMC also con- cluded that focusing solely on the scorecard could be problematic in that many goals, processes, and functions that are important to the department do not appear on it. Therefore, the SMC decided to develop and monitor a dashboard in addition to the scorecard. In contrast to the change-oriented scorecard, the dashboard tracks a number of measures that pertain to the department’s core functions; important activities and busi- ness results it must produce on an ongoing basis. Although there is considerable overlap between the two, the dashboard is concerned more with more immediate per- formance, whereas the scorecard is more future oriented. Thus, the dashboard focuses on ongoing operations rather than strategic initiatives, and tends to be more input and output oriented, whereas the scorecard is more oriented to outcomes and results. PennDOT’s dashboard, which uses a green light/yellow light/red light format, is reviewed on a monthly basis using a management-by-exception approach. As is the case with the SMC, the districts, deputates, and other units that have scorecards also have complementary dashboards for track- ing the performance of their core functions. Dashboards as well as scorecards are required in business plans, because the districts and deputates cannot afford to lose track of their core functions while they focus on implementing their strategic agendas. Thus, the scorecards align PennDOT’s change-oriented objectives to create a direct path from the department-wide strategic agenda through the business plans to work units and individual employees. Conversely, the dashboards are more daily-work oriented to create a di- rect path from the individual employees and work units through the organization dashboards to department-level core business priorities or objectives. Reviewing and Revising the Strategic Agenda The SMC reviews progress in achieving the strategic ob- jectives identified in “Moving Pennsylvania Forward” on a rotating basis, examining a few each month over a 6- month period, with progress on each objective reviewed every 6 months. The more detailed SMC scorecard is the principal reporting mechanism for tracking the suc- cess of the business plans in advancing the strategic agenda. The SMC scorecard, as opposed to the secretary’s version of the enterprise-level scorecard, tracks progress on each strategic objective, not the more general goals, and often incorporates multiple measures for a given strategic objective. Therefore, the owners and leaders prepare semi-annual progress reports for the SMC on each objective as it comes up on the rotating schedule. They are held accountable by the secretary and the SMC for achieving department-wide results on their strategic objectives, and their progress along these lines also feeds into their quarterly EPRs and thus their own individual annual performance appraisals. In turn, the deputy secretaries and other executives who are the owners and leaders of strategic objectives track those same indicators, or other appropriate ones, for organiza- tional units under their direction to hold those units respon- sible for their piece of the plan. Each December, the SMC conducts a systematic review of the entire enterprise-level scorecard to determine whether and how it might need to be updated. For exam- ple, if a particular strategic initiative has been completed, the SMC will probably decide to remove it from the score- card. Alternatively, the SMC may decide, perhaps based on its continued scanning of the external environment, that new strategic objectives are needed. For example, in De- cember 2001, two additional strategic objectives address- ing post-September 11 security concerns were added to the scorecard. Such new objectives are developed by technical teams of managers and employees at the direction of the SMC and they follow the same process that was used to develop the original scorecard objectives. Finally, the SMC may consider changing the measure or the targets that have been defined to track the progress of particular strategic objectives. To summarize, at Penn DOT strategic management is an ongoing process, moving through a continuous cycle of planning, implementation, and evaluation. The enterprise- level strategic agenda, summarized in the departmental scorecard, is implemented through scorecards and business plans developed by the districts and deputates, and in some cases by county maintenance units and central office bu- reaus. These organizations review their scorecards on a quarterly basis to manage with the measures and ensure that they achieve scorecard targets. The district and depu-

38 tate business plans, containing both organization score- cards and dashboards, must be updated annually and ap- proved by the SMC to ensure alignment with enterprise- level strategic objectives. At the departmental level, the SMC monitors its score- card on an ongoing basis and annually reviews the overall strategic agenda, sometimes making modifications based on current external and internal scan data in addition to the department’s progress in achieving “Moving Pennsylvania Forward” scorecard targets. Periodically, at roughly 4-year intervals coinciding with changes in administrations, Penn- DOT has undertaken more comprehensive efforts to update its strategic agenda so as to respond more deliberately to changing trends and forces, newly emerging issues, new customer demands, and shifting political mandates. Administrative Transitions PennDOT’s strategic planning process has evolved through the administrations of three governors and has become well institutionalized at this point. With a new governor and a new secretary of transportation taking office in Janu- ary 2003, the stage was set for possible additional refine- ments and further direction setting through strategic plan- ning. Initially, the new secretary has decided to retain the process, and the SMC has reviewed the scorecard and made some changes in the strategic objectives in time to guide the current round of business planning and budget development throughout the organization. The intention then is to use this coming year to undertake a more com- prehensive effort to update the strategic plan, and the proc- ess may be further refined along the way. ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION IDOT initiated strategic planning activities in early 2000. Although the secretary of transportation had considered the possibility earlier, a blanket mandate from the governor in 1999 provided the leadership commitment from the top of state government that the secretary felt was needed to make strategic planning effective. The effort was led by the deputy secretary and the assistant to the secretary for strategic planning, working with a 30-member strategic planning team, and it was facilitated by an external con- sulting group. Strategic Plan Working with the balanced scorecard approach, the plan- ning team completed the enterprise-level strategic plan in a few months, and it was approved by the department’s ex- ecutive committee in July 2000. As shown in Figure 10, the original strategic plan included 14 objectives spread across the four quadrants of the public-sector balanced scorecard, which substitutes a “mission effectiveness” or “program delivery” quadrant for the “financial” quadrant found in private-sector scorecards. For each of these objec- tives, one or more types of performance measures were identified for tracking success. In addition, for each strate- gic objective, targets or more specific objectives were identified, whose accomplishment would lead to achieving the overall strategic objective. Furthermore, for each of these targets, the plan identifies specific initiatives to be undertaken to accomplish the target. This specification of measures, targets, and initiatives is illustrated in Figure 11 for IDOT’s objective concerning improved safety for the traveling public and department employees. Cascading Strategic Plans Once the enterprise-level strategic plan was approved, IDOT began training division and office teams made up of cross sections of managers and employees in strategic planning and use of the balanced scorecard model. These groups then set about developing their own strategic plans in support of the department-wide plan. As an interesting process innovation, a mobile laptop system was employed to help these teams develop their strategic plans. This collaborative software, supported by a wireless system of lap- top computers, serves as an “electronic flipchart” in facili- tated sessions; helps groups in brainstorming, analyzing, and processing information; and greatly reduces the meet- ing time required to accomplish particular planning tasks. As of April 2003, IDOT had completed 28 balanced scorecards, including those for the 4 major divisions, 8 central office bureaus, 6 staff support offices, and 9 re- gional highway districts, in addition to the department’s overall enterprise-level scorecard. Each of these scorecards is reviewed and must be approved by the next level up in the chain of command. For instance, district engineers take the lead in selecting members of their strategic planning teams and in developing their scorecards, but these teams and plans must be approved by the director of the division of highways. This ensures alignment of the scorecards de- veloped by these organizational units with the depart- ment’s overall scorecard. Several of these scorecards have now been revised and updated from their original versions. All of IDOT’s scorecards are reviewed at least annually and updated as appropriate. For example, although the en- terprise-level scorecard originally consisted of 14 objec- tives, it then added one new objective for a total of 15, and now is likely to be reduced to 13 objectives through the successful completion of one and the combining of two others. These scorecards constitute strategic plans at the division, office, bureau, and district levels, all within the

39 CUSTOMER SATISFACTION & PARTNERSHIPS LEARNING & GROWTH C1. Expedite the delivery of work and services to minimize public inconvenience. L1. Attract, develop and retain a diverse, quality workforce—tools include cohesive employee recognition program. C2. Continue to assess customer satisfaction and needs—to drive process improvement. L2. Develop knowledge management/sharing process and create an environment that encourages innovation. C3. Improve safety for the traveling public and Department employees. L3. Establish consistent internal communications to ensure all employees have access and the ability to share information about IDOT activities and progress. C4. Improve proactive external communications— increase public understanding of IDOT objectives programs, and projects. L4. Revitalize a department professional identity. BEST BUSINESS PRACTICES DELIVERY OF PROGRAMS AND SERVICES B1. Document, evaluate, and improve business processes. P1. Assess and/or establish levels of delivery of programs and services. B2. Acquire and allocate resources (including money, people, technology, and capital assets) based on demonstrated needs—evaluate investment strategy and use to ensure mission accomplishment. P2. Design and develop a mechanism to better integrate and coordinate the delivery of programs and services—reduce overlap. B3. Create an organizational environment where leadership is fostered at all levels in an effort to improve decision making. P3. Develop program/service risk assessment process relating to external factors (examples of external factors are special interest groups, resources, and components necessary for the completion of the program.) P4. Assist appropriate agencies to ensure ongoing security of transportation services in the face of credible threats or attacks. FIGURE 10 IDOT Enterprise Plan at May 31, 2002. framework of the overall enterprise-level strategic plan. Most of these units also develop their own annual work programs, and the scorecards are a driving force in devel- oping the work programs. Assigning Responsibilities IDOT assigns lead responsibility for several elements in its strategic plans. First, each of the scorecards is assigned a champion for the entire plan. Typically, this is the head of the organizational unit for which the plan has been de- signed (i.e., division or office director, district engineer, or bureau chief) or his/her designee. Second, each objective on a scorecard has a champion or leader to coordinate and report on progress on that objective as needed. Optionally, the targets specified for each objective may also have target managers. Finally, most objectives and/or targets have multiple initia- tives to help guide actions that will accomplish the objec- tives and targets. Each initiative is assigned an initiative manager who takes the lead in developing action plans for implementing the plans as well as achieving the targets.

40 To be measured by: 1. Change in internal attitudes and understanding surrounding safety. 2. Percent of reported work zone accidents that involved noncompliance with IDOT safety policy. 3. Percent of development of the General Accident Information System against established milestones. 4. Number of safety innovations implemented during the review period. 5. Percent change in vehicle crashes involving fatalities and/or serious injury. To be accomplished through: Target No. 1: Establish consistency and internal cohesion in the department’s employee safety focus: Initiatives: 1. Conduct review of current safety policy. 2. Review internal structure and recommend improvements if warranted [i.e., zone activities (internal and external)]. 3. Establish employee attitude/understanding baseline. Target No. 2: Examine and improve (internal and external) safety information flow: Initiatives: 1. Rework and implement the General Accident Information System (GAI). 2. Educate the public on a continuing basis. Target No. 3: Imbed safety in all department processes: Initiatives: 1. Develop process to find, share, and implement innovative ideas on safety. 2. Integrate safety into all relevant process steps under Objective B1. FIGURE 11 Objective C3: Improve safety for the traveling public and department employees. (Source: Illinois DOT.) At each level, these champions and managers are re- sponsible for both coordinating efforts and reporting on progress in achieving their strategic objectives. In essence, the hierarchy of strategic plan implementation and report- ing mirrors the traditional top-down hierarchy of the whole agency, which is comfortable for most managers and em- ployees. The difference is that implementation of the plans for the most part relies on teams on which individual rank has little meaning to the process. The initiative managers put together cross-functional or multidisciplinary teams as needed to implement their stra- tegic initiatives. Moving away from the command and con- trol management style that traditionally has dominated IDOT, these initiative managers are encouraged to com- municate across chains of command, if necessary, to achieve their objectives. However, they are required to re- port through the normal chains of command to ease possi- ble concerns about unsupervised activities taking place. At present, these individual-level assignments to take additional responsibilities as objective coordinators, target managers, or initiative managers are completely voluntary, and although they are recognized as an important part of the employee’s duties, they do not lead directly into the normal annual employee evaluation process. Rather, moti- vation for attending to these assignments and performing effectively in these roles is based primarily on leadership and communication, a sense of professional pride, peer support, and a highly visible process for reporting success or failure in implementing strategic initiatives and achiev- ing strategic objectives. IDOT’s assistant to the secretary for strategic planning indicated that assigning individual responsibility and fol- low-up on implementation activities is crucial to the suc- cessful completion of strategic initiatives. Eliciting com- mitments from individuals regarding specific tasks in the plan, emphasizing team work and collective responsibility, and then conducting quarterly, semi-annual, or annual re- views and updates in public settings serves to provide a powerful incentive for target managers and initiative man- agers to ensure that these strategic initiatives are imple- mented effectively. Performance Measurement To track overall success, IDOT uses a few general per- formance measures for each objective and encourages the use of more focused measures at each successive lower level of planning. The teams created to implement strategic initiatives use outcome measures derived from ongoing motorist surveys, employee surveys, crash reports, average daily travel counts, and so forth, to show long-term trends in bottom line results. Other more output-oriented meas-

41 ures (e.g., the number or percent of targeted process re- views completed) are used to track the efforts expended on strategic initiatives, assess needed changes in tactics, or understand when manpower shortages or other factors are slowing down progress. The assistant to the secretary for strategic planning usu- ally suggests performance measures at the outset of a new project; however, the teams have the option of rejecting them as long they have replacement measures that are bet- ter suited to the purpose. The general philosophy regarding performance measurement at IDOT is to make the meas- ures as nonthreatening as possible, rather than emphasize accomplishment of objectives; identify what is going well versus what may need to be changed. However, once agreement is reached regarding objectives, initiatives, im- plementation plans, and performance measures, tracking the measures and reporting performance data provides a powerful accountability tool for ensuring that a high prior- ity is placed on achieving the strategic objectives. Budget Linkages IDOT’s strategic planning process for the most part is loosely linked to budgeting. When additional financial re- sources are necessary, funds are earmarked in the budgets prepared by the division, office, bureau, or district that is responsible for implementing a particular strategic initia- tive. On the other hand, budget realities are often a major factor in determining whether the department can more forward with proposed strategic objectives, planned initia- tives, or recommendations from an implementation team in the first place. However, given the nature of most of IDOT’s strategic objectives, the budget is often not a major issue, even in a period of tighter fiscal constraints. Most of the strategic objectives cut across organizational lines and focus on or- ganization development or process improvement rather than the capital program or direct investment in the trans- portation system, meaning that the costs of these initiatives are typically measured in man-hours rather than dollars. Many of the activities derived from these initiatives; for example, process or program reviews, or on-the-job train- ing by peers and supervisors, can be completed using exist- ing personnel, and with appropriate time management techniques they can be cost-neutral and not require addi- tional funds. Conversely, the strategic plan does help IDOT delineate and prioritize additional spending in some areas, particu- larly with respect to IT. Although the department does not have a strategic objective that focuses on IT per se, virtu- ally all of the process improvements that are called for by several of the objectives require technological improve- ments designed to upgrade communication and informa- tion, save time, and/or reduce paperwork or other costs. In addition, IDOT’s Bureau of Information Technology has developed its own scorecard to further the improvement of IT processes and services in support of strategic objectives in higher-level plans. Through the strategic planning proc- ess IDOT identifies needs for additional IT that substan- tially exceed currently available budget levels. Rather than relying on the standard incremental approach, the ongoing planning work provides a systematic approach to assem- bling a priority list of IT acquisitions with fairly firm costs that the department can readily promote in future budget cycles. Evaluation of the Planning Process A cost-benefit analysis conducted in the spring of 2002 (SAIC 2002), and random surveys of both motorists and IDOT employees conducted in 2001, 2002, and 2003, show that the results of the strategic planning activities are paying off for the transit department and Illinois taxpayers. The benefit-cost analysis projects that all start-up costs of the strategic planning initiative, including employee time for training, planning, and implementation, will have been recovered by early 2004, primarily through process im- provements that have come out of the strategic plan. An in-house survey completed in April 2003, indicated that more than 40% of IDOT employees believe that goals and objectives are clearer as a result of the strategic plan- ning initiative. The survey also indicated that nearly two- thirds of IDOT employees believe that worker productivity and job satisfaction have improved over the 36 months that the strategic initiative has been in place. Correspondingly, annual surveys of the motoring public, conducted by the University of Illinois at Springfield, showed that a majority of motorists believe that IDOT is doing a good or excellent job, particularly in terms of roadway maintenance, high- way construction and repair, travelers’ services, and em- ployee conduct on the job. New Administration At the beginning of 2003, with a new governor in Illinois, a new secretary of transportation assumed direction of IDOT and, for the most part, assembled a new executive team. However, the new secretary also decided to retain the strategic planning process and the top staff personnel most closely associated with it, even though the new administra- tion may alter strategic priorities. Therefore, strategic planning has survived its first administrative transition at IDOT, and this is expected to help provide a sense of con- tinuity in a department that has seen substantial turnover in personnel over the past several years.

42 COMPARISONS These two departments were selected for mini-case studies as part of this synthesis because they illustrate both simi- larities and differences in their approaches to strategic management. At this time, PennDOT has been involved in strategic management for some 20 years and has worked to sharpen and deepen the process to ensure positive results in achieving its strategic goals and objectives. Currently, PennDOT has a mature strategic management process that affords a high degree of alignment among all the elements shown in Figure 1. By way of contrast, IDOT initiated its first strategic planning efforts in 2000, and it may not, like PennDOT, have all the elements in place. However, IDOT also presents a noteworthy case, because it is installing a very deliberate strategic management process, which en- sures follow-through in implementing and evaluating stra- tegic plans. Driving Decisions Both PennDOT and IDOT have developed strategic plans for their organizations that are summarized succinctly in scorecards. Both departments then require districts and di- visions to develop their own strategic plans or scorecards within the framework of the overall corporate-level strate- gic plan and, in both cases, these lower-level scorecards must be approved by higher-level management. However, PennDOT also requires these units to develop 4-year busi- ness plans, updated annually, which are the principal vehi- cles for driving the department’s strategies down into the operations of the organization. IDOT, in contrast, relies primarily on action plans developed for individual strategic objectives and/or targets as the means of implementing strategic plans at each level of the organization. Building Ownership Both PennDOT and IDOT place great importance on as- signing individual executives or managers to take the lead responsibility for implementing strategies and achieving strategic objectives. Whereas PennDOT identifies owners and leaders for each strategic objective, however, the IDOT process is more elaborate, with owners assigned for overall strategic plans, strategic goals, objectives, targets, and strategic initiatives. This is consistent with IDOT’s re- liance on the action plans developed by these owners and the teams they put together for implementing the depart- ment’s strategic objectives. Interestingly, for PennDOT, the responsibilities assigned to individuals for implement- ing strategic plans lead into these individuals’ annual per- formance appraisals, whereas for IDOT these are consid- ered to be “additional responsibilities,” which do not. Allocating Resources Many of the strategic initiatives established by both of these departments can be supported with existing budgetary re- sources, although PennDOT uses its business planning proc- ess to work these initiatives into the operating budgets of or- ganizational units, whereas IDOT has numerous labor- intensive initiatives whose costs are covered principally by as- signing individuals and teams to work on them. The two de- partments also differ with respect to strategic initiatives that entail additional direct monetary investment, such as substan- tial upgrades in IT. Whereas PennDOT estimates the cost of such initiatives as part of the planning process and earmarks funding sources at that point, IDOT establishes the initiative as part of the planning process and then, as part of the im- plementation process, begins to identify costs and priori- tize investments to be made as funds become available. Evaluating Performance Each of these transportation departments establishes per- formance measures for each strategic objective, including typically a mix of output and outcome indicators. For each of its measures, PennDOT sets numerical targets to be achieved within a given time frame, whereas IDOT identifies the measure and preferred direction of movement, but does not set numerical targets. Both departments, however, empha- size the importance of performance measures in managing their strategic agendas, and both review the performance data generated to track progress in implementing strategic initiatives and flag problems that need to be addressed. System Maintenance and Enhancement Both PennDOT and IDOT have an individual assigned on a full-time basis to support its strategic management proc- ess, providing staff support at the executive level and gen- erally facilitating development and use of the process. Both departments have also provided training to managers re- garding strategic planning, performance measurement, and related elements of strategic management. In addition, both have commissioned evaluations of their strategic manage- ment processes by consultants to help strengthen them. Fi- nally, new administrations have recently taken office in both departments, and in each case the new executives have decided to adopt the in-place strategic management processes and use them to revalidate or redirect future di- rections and priorities for these organizations.

TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 326: Strategic Planning and Decision Making in State Departments of Transportation examines state and provincial transportation departments' experience with strategic planning and synthesizes current approaches to linking strategic planning with other decision-making processes, including operational and tactical planning, resource allocation, performance management, and performance measurement.

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Through handpicked cases from a variety of areas and business houses, this book illustrates how strategic management can be used to achieve better operational performance and strengthen their services by aligning business goals with performance measures.

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a case study in strategic management

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Please note you do not have access to teaching notes, strategic planning, strategy map and management control: a case study.

Nankai Business Review International

ISSN : 2040-8749

Article publication date: 11 April 2021

Issue publication date: 9 September 2021

This paper aims to explore the relationship between the components of the management control system (MCS) based on the reform process of the management system of China Resources Group and the influence of these components on the implementation effect of MCS.


This study uses an exploratory research method and an open-ended grounded theory approach to conduct six formal investigations and several in-depth interviews with employees and senior management in China Resources Group. This paper supplements these data by performing a documentary analysis of the internal documents of China Resources Group such as the statistical yearbook, business plan and meeting records.

This study puts forward four propositions. The formal strategic planning process creates an application environment for the strategy map and balanced scorecard (BSC), making it easier for an enterprise to adopt these tools. The combination of the strategy map and formal strategic planning helps to build the logical relationship between strategic goals and budget goals and strengthens the correlation between budget and strategy. In diversified organizations applying MCS, the strategy map and BSC facilitate the implementation of the strategy for specialized business units, while the financial measure system facilitates the implementation of the strategy for diversified business units. Strategic boundaries based on financial measures in the MCS help organizations determine the scope of strategic choices before implementing strategies.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability and the influence of the strategic planning process on budget participation, budget slack and other budget behaviors has not been fully discussed. Therefore, future studies are expected to provide more evidence regarding strategic planning and budget behaviors.

Practical implications

Before establishing a strategy map and BSC, the enterprise should consider the application environment to ensure their feasibility and legitimacy and construct the BSC system under appropriate conditions. A formal strategic planning process should be formed within the enterprise; that is, a set of detailed management methods should be adopted and clear rules should be used to support the enterprise management control process. The enterprise should add strategic boundaries to the MCS to determine the scope of strategic choices and the budgeting bottom line.


This paper sheds light on the impact of the formal strategic planning process on the organization and contributes new evidence on the key success factors for implementing the strategy map and BSC, enriching the researchers’ understanding of the applicability of the BSC.

  • Balanced scorecard
  • Strategy map
  • Management control system
  • Formal strategic planning process


Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications.

The national natural science fund of China.

The national social science fund of China.

Li, H. , An, N. and Liu, J. (2021), "Strategic planning, strategy map and management control: a case study", Nankai Business Review International , Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 386-408.

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Top 40 Most Popular Case Studies of 2017

We generated a list of the 40 most popular Yale School of Management case studies in 2017 by combining data from our publishers, Google analytics, and other measures of interest and adoption. In compiling the list, we gave additional weight to usage outside Yale

We generated a list of the 40 most popular Yale School of Management case studies in 2017 by combining data from our publishers, Google analytics, and other measures of interest and adoption. In compiling the list, we gave additional weight to usage outside Yale.

Case topics represented on the list vary widely, but a number are drawn from the case team’s focus on healthcare, asset management, and sustainability. The cases also draw on Yale’s continued emphasis on corporate governance, ethics, and the role of business in state and society. Of note, nearly half of the most popular cases feature a woman as either the main protagonist or, in the case of raw cases where multiple characters take the place of a single protagonist, a major leader within the focal organization. While nearly a fourth of the cases were written in the past year, some of the most popular, including Cadbury and Design at Mayo, date from the early years of our program over a decade ago. Nearly two-thirds of the most popular cases were “raw” cases - Yale’s novel, web-based template which allows for a combination of text, documents, spreadsheets, and videos in a single case website.

Read on to learn more about the top 10 most popular cases followed by a complete list of the top 40 cases of 2017.  A selection of the top 40 cases are available for purchase through our online store . 

#1 - Coffee 2016

Faculty Supervision: Todd Cort

Coffee 2016 asks students to consider the coffee supply chain and generate ideas for what can be done to equalize returns across various stakeholders. The case draws a parallel between coffee and wine. Both beverages encourage connoisseurship, but only wine growers reap a premium for their efforts to ensure quality.  The case describes the history of coffee production across the world, the rise of the “third wave” of coffee consumption in the developed world, the efforts of the Illy Company to help coffee growers, and the differences between “fair” trade and direct trade. Faculty have found the case provides a wide canvas to discuss supply chain issues, examine marketing practices, and encourage creative solutions to business problems. 

#2 - AXA: Creating New Corporate Responsibility Metrics

Faculty Supervision: Todd Cort and David Bach

The case describes AXA’s corporate responsibility (CR) function. The company, a global leader in insurance and asset management, had distinguished itself in CR since formally establishing a CR unit in 2008. As the case opens, AXA’s CR unit is being moved from the marketing function to the strategy group occasioning a thorough review as to how CR should fit into AXA’s operations and strategy. Students are asked to identify CR issues of particular concern to the company, examine how addressing these issues would add value to the company, and then create metrics that would capture a business unit’s success or failure in addressing the concerns.

#3 - IBM Corporate Service Corps

Faculty Supervision: David Bach in cooperation with University of Ghana Business School and EGADE

The case considers IBM’s Corporate Service Corps (CSC), a program that had become the largest pro bono consulting program in the world. The case describes the program’s triple-benefit: leadership training to the brightest young IBMers, brand recognition for IBM in emerging markets, and community improvement in the areas served by IBM’s host organizations. As the program entered its second decade in 2016, students are asked to consider how the program can be improved. The case allows faculty to lead a discussion about training, marketing in emerging economies, and various ways of providing social benefit. The case highlights the synergies as well as trade-offs between pursuing these triple benefits.

#4 - Cadbury: An Ethical Company Struggles to Insure the Integrity of Its Supply Chain

Faculty Supervision: Ira Millstein

The case describes revelations that the production of cocoa in the Côte d’Ivoire involved child slave labor. These stories hit Cadbury especially hard. Cadbury's culture had been deeply rooted in the religious traditions of the company's founders, and the organization had paid close attention to the welfare of its workers and its sourcing practices. The US Congress was considering legislation that would allow chocolate grown on certified plantations to be labeled “slave labor free,” painting the rest of the industry in a bad light. Chocolate producers had asked for time to rectify the situation, but the extension they negotiated was running out. Students are asked whether Cadbury should join with the industry to lobby for more time?  What else could Cadbury do to ensure its supply chain was ethically managed?

#5 - 360 State Real Options

Faculty Supervision: Matthew Spiegel

In 2010 developer Bruce Becker (SOM ‘85) completed 360 State Street, a major new construction project in downtown New Haven. Just west of the apartment building, a 6,000-square-foot pocket of land from the original parcel remained undeveloped. Becker had a number of alternatives to consider in regards to the site. He also had no obligation to build. He could bide his time. But Becker worried about losing out on rents should he wait too long. Students are asked under what set of circumstances and at what time would it be most advantageous to proceed?

#6 - Design at Mayo

Faculty Supervision: Rodrigo Canales and William Drentell

The case describes how the Mayo Clinic, one of the most prominent hospitals in the world, engaged designers and built a research institute, the Center for Innovation (CFI), to study the processes of healthcare provision. The case documents the many incremental innovations the designers were able to implement and the way designers learned to interact with physicians and vice-versa.

In 2010 there were questions about how the CFI would achieve its stated aspiration of “transformational change” in the healthcare field. Students are asked what would a major change in health care delivery look like? How should the CFI's impact be measured? Were the center's structure and processes appropriate for transformational change? Faculty have found this a great case to discuss institutional obstacles to innovation, the importance of culture in organizational change efforts, and the differences in types of innovation.

This case is freely available to the public.

#7 - Ant Financial

Faculty Supervision: K. Sudhir in cooperation with Renmin University of China School of Business

In 2015, Ant Financial’s MYbank (an offshoot of Jack Ma’s Alibaba company) was looking to extend services to rural areas in China by providing small loans to farmers. Microloans have always been costly for financial institutions to offer to the unbanked (though important in development) but MYbank believed that fintech innovations such as using the internet to communicate with loan applicants and judge their credit worthiness would make the program sustainable. Students are asked whether MYbank could operate the program at scale? Would its big data and technical analysis provide an accurate measure of credit risk for loans to small customers? Could MYbank rely on its new credit-scoring system to reduce operating costs to make the program sustainable?

#8 - Business Leadership in South Africa’s 1994 Reforms

Faculty Supervision: Ian Shapiro

This case examines the role of business in South Africa's historic transition away from apartheid to popular sovereignty. The case provides a previously untold oral history of this key moment in world history, presenting extensive video interviews with business leaders who spearheaded behind-the-scenes negotiations between the African National Congress and the government. Faculty teaching the case have used the material to push students to consider business’s role in a divided society and ask: What factors led business leaders to act to push the country's future away from isolation toward a "high road" of participating in an increasingly globalized economy? What techniques and narratives did they use to keep the two sides talking and resolve the political impasse? And, if business leadership played an important role in the events in South Africa, could they take a similar role elsewhere?

#9 - Shake Shack IPO

Faculty Supervision: Jake Thomas and Geert Rouwenhorst

From an art project in a New York City park, Shake Shack developed a devoted fan base that greeted new Shake Shack locations with cheers and long lines. When Shake Shack went public on January 30, 2015, investors displayed a similar enthusiasm. Opening day investors bid up the $21 per share offering price by 118% to reach $45.90 at closing bell. By the end of May, investors were paying $92.86 per share. Students are asked if this price represented a realistic valuation of the enterprise and if not, what was Shake Shack truly worth? The case provides extensive information on Shake Shack’s marketing, competitors, operations and financials, allowing instructors to weave a wide variety of factors into a valuation of the company.

#10 - Searching for a Search Fund Structure

Faculty Supervision: AJ Wasserstein

This case considers how young entrepreneurs structure search funds to find businesses to take over. The case describes an MBA student who meets with a number of successful search fund entrepreneurs who have taken alternative routes to raising funds. The case considers the issues of partnering, soliciting funds vs. self-funding a search, and joining an incubator. The case provides a platform from which to discuss the pros and cons of various search fund structures.

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In this case, I've studied the internationally known home furnishing retailer, which is (IKEA) the largest furniture retailer in the world. The purpose of the case study is to analyze the objectives and strategies used by IKEA, analyze the company financially, SWOT analyzing and discuss major issue that the company faced.

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The paper is a case study for the different types of risks faced by IKEA as the company started its operations in China. How the risks were mitigated, avoided or accepted has been discussed.

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Strategic Management: Text and Cases, Tenth edition , written by authors Dess, McNamara, Eisner,and Lee continues its tradition of being readable, relevant, and rigorous. Its engaging writing style minimizes jargon to maximize readability.  It provides examples from management practice and societal themes including environmental sustainability, ethics, globalization, entrepreneurship, and data analytics to make the content relevant.  It draws on the latest research by management scholars and insights from executives to balance accessibility with rigor. 

They provide separate chapters on the role of intellectual assets in value creation (Ch. 4), entrepreneurial strategy and competitive dynamics (Ch. 8), and fostering entrepreneurship in established organizations (Ch. 12). This version includes the all the text and 38 cases.

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Gregory Dess

Gregory G. Dess is the Andrew R. Cecil Endowed Chair in Management at the University of Texas at Dallas. His primary research interests are in strategic management, organization–environment relationships, and knowledge management. He has published numerous articles on these subjects in both academic and practitioneroriented journals. He also serves on the editorial boards of a wide range of practitioner-oriented and academic journals. In August 2000, he was inducted into the Academy of Management Journal ’s Hall of Fame as one of its charter members. Professor Dess has conducted executive programs in the United States, Europe, Africa, Hong Kong, and Australia. During 1994 he was a Fulbright Scholar in Oporto, Portugal. In 2009, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Bern (Switzerland). He received his PhD in Business Administration from the University of Washington(Seattle) and a BIE degree from Georgia Tech.

Gerry McNamara

Gerry McNamara is a Professor of Management at Michigan State University. He received his PhD from the Carlson School of Management at the University of Minnesota. His research focuses on strategic decision making, organizational risk taking, and mergers and acquisitions. His research has been published in numerous journals, including the Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, Organization Science, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Journal of Management, and Journal of International Business Studies. His research on mergers and acquisitions has been abstracted in the New York Times, Bloomberg Businessweek, The Economist, and Financial Week. He is currently an Associate Editor for the Academy of Management Journal.

Alan Eisner

Alan B. Eisner is Professor of Management and Department Chair, Management and Management Science Department, at the Lubin School of Business, Pace University. He received his PhD in management from the Stern School of Business, New York University. His primary research interests are in strategic management, technology management, organizational learning, and managerial decision making. He has published research articles and cases in journals such as Advances in Strategic Management, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, International Journal of Technology Management, American Business Review, Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, and Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies. He is the former Associate Editor of the Case Association’s peer reviewed journal, The CASE Journal.

Seung-Hyun Lee

Seung-Hyun Lee is a Professor of strategic management and international business and the Area Coordinator of the Organization, Strategy, and International Management area at the Jindal School of Business, University of Texas at Dallas. His primary research interests lie on the intersection between strategic management and international business spanning from foreign direct investment to issues of microfinance and corruption. He has published in numerous journals including Academy of Management Review, Journal of Business Ethics, Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of Business Venturing, and Strategic Management Journal . He received his MBA and PhD from the Ohio State University.

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  • ISBN-13 978-3030070571
  • Edition Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2019
  • Publication date February 8, 2019
  • Language English
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From the back cover, about the author.

Andreas Biagosch worked for McKinsey & Company for more than 30 years. He is now member of several supervisory boards of large family firms and lectures at the Technical University of Munich.

Gunther Friedl is a Professor of Management Accounting at the Technical University of Munich and Dean of its Business School TUM School of Management.

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  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-3030070571
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a case study in strategic management

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Reskilling in the Age of AI

  • Jorge Tamayo,
  • Leila Doumi,
  • Sagar Goel,
  • Orsolya Kovács-Ondrejkovic,
  • Raffaella Sadun

a case study in strategic management

In the coming decades, as the pace of technological change continues to increase, millions of workers may need to be not just upskilled but re skilled—a profoundly complex societal challenge that will sometimes require workers to both acquire new skills and change occupations entirely. Companies have a critical role to play in addressing this challenge, but to date few have taken it seriously. To learn more about what their role will entail, the authors—members of a collaboration between the Digital Data Design Institute at Harvard’s Digital Reskilling Lab and the Boston Consulting Group’s Henderson Institute—interviewed leaders at some 40 organizations around the world that are investing in large-scale reskilling programs. In synthesizing what they learned, they became aware of five paradigm shifts that are emerging in reskilling: (1) Reskilling is a strategic imperative. (2) It is the responsibility of every leader and manager. (3) It is a change-management initiative. (4) Employees want to reskill—when it makes sense. (5) It takes a village. The authors argue that companies will need to understand and embrace these shifts if they hope to succeed in adapting dynamically to the rapidly evolving new era of automation and AI.

Five new paradigms for leaders—and employees

Idea in Brief

The situation.

New technologies can not only handle a growing number of repetitive and manual tasks but also perform sophisticated kinds of knowledge-based work—such as research, coding, and writing—that have long been considered safe from disruption.

The Challenge

To cope, many organizations are investing heavily in upskilling their workforces, but those efforts alone won’t be enough. In the coming decades millions of workers may need to be entirely reskilled—a profoundly complex societal challenge.

The Path Forward

Some companies have recently launched successful reskilling efforts. Five important paradigm shifts have emerged from their efforts that other companies will need to embrace if they hope to adapt to the new era of automation and AI.

Back in 2019 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development made a bold forecast. Within 15 to 20 years, it predicted, new automation technologies were likely to eliminate 14% of the world’s jobs and radically transform another 32%. Those were sobering numbers, involving more than 1 billion people globally—and they didn’t even factor in ChatGPT and the new wave of generative AI that has recently taken the market by storm.

Today advances in technology are changing the demand for skills at an accelerated pace. New technologies can not only handle a growing number of repetitive and manual tasks but also perform increasingly sophisticated kinds of knowledge-based work—such as research, coding, and writing—that have long been considered safe from disruption. The average half-life of skills is now less than five years, and in some tech fields it’s as low as two and a half years. Not all knowledge workers will lose their jobs in the years ahead, of course, but as they carry out their daily tasks, many of them may well discover that AI and other new technologies have so significantly altered the nature of what they do that in effect they’re working in completely new fields.

To cope with these disruptions, a number of organizations are already investing heavily in upskilling their workforces. One recent BCG study suggests that such investments represent as much as 1.5% of those organizations’ total budgets. But upskilling alone won’t be enough. If the OECD estimates are correct, in the coming decades millions of workers may need to be entirely reskilled—a fundamental and profoundly complex societal challenge that will require workers not only to acquire new skills but to use them to change occupations.

Companies have a critical role to play in addressing this challenge, and it’s in their best interests to get going on it in a serious way right now. Among those that have embraced the reskilling challenge, only a handful have done so effectively, and even their efforts have often been subscale and of limited impact, which leads to a question: Now that the need for a reskilling revolution is apparent, what must companies do to make it happen?

In our work at the Digital Data Design Institute at Harvard’s Digital Reskilling Lab and the BCG Henderson Institute we have been studying this question in depth, and as part of that effort we interviewed leaders at almost 40 organizations around the world that are investing in large-scale reskilling programs. During those interviews we discussed common challenges, heard stories of early success, and discovered that many of those companies are thinking in important new ways about why, when, and how to reskill. In synthesizing what we’ve learned, we’ve become aware of five paradigm shifts that are emerging in reskilling—shifts that companies will need to understand and embrace if they hope to succeed in adapting dynamically to the rapidly evolving era of automation and AI.

In this article we’ll explore those shifts. We’ll show how some companies are implementing them, and we’ll review the unexpected challenges they’ve encountered and the promising wins they’ve achieved.

[   1   ] Reskilling Is a Strategic Imperative

During times of disruption, when many jobs are threatened, companies have often turned to reskilling to soften the blow of layoffs, assuage feelings of guilt about social responsibility, and create a positive PR narrative. But most of the companies we spoke with have moved beyond that narrow approach and now recognize reskilling as a strategic imperative. That shift reflects profound changes in the labor market, which is increasingly constrained by the aging of the working population, the emergence of new occupations, and an increasing need for employees to develop skills that are company-specific. Against this backdrop effective reskilling initiatives are critical, because they allow companies to build competitive advantage quickly by developing talent that is not readily available in the market and filling skills gaps that are instrumental to achieving their strategic objectives—before and better than their competitors do.

In recent years several major companies have embraced this approach. Infosys, for example, has reskilled more than 2,000 cybersecurity experts with various adjacent competencies and capability levels. Vodafone aims to draw from internal talent to fill 40% of its software developer needs. And Amazon, through its Machine Learning University, has enabled thousands of employees who initially had little experience in machine learning to become experts in the field.

The average half-life of skills is now less than five years, and in some tech fields it’s as low as two and a half years. For millions of workers, upskilling alone won’t be enough.

Some companies now consider reskilling a core part of their employee value proposition and a strategic means of balancing workforce supply and demand. At those companies employees are encouraged to reskill for roles that appeal to them. Mahindra & Mahindra, Wipro, and Ericsson have policies, tools, and IT platforms that promote reskilling resources and available jobs—as does McDonald’s, where restaurant employees have access to an app called Archways to Opportunity that maps skills learned on the job to career paths within the company and in other industries.

Finally, some companies are using reskilling to tap into broader talent pools and attract candidates who wouldn’t otherwise be considered for open positions. ICICI Bank—headquartered in Mumbai and employing more than 130,000 people—runs an intense, academy-like reskilling program that prepares graduates, often from diverse backgrounds, for frontline managerial jobs. The program reskills some 2,500 to 4,000 employees each year. CVS used a similar approach during the Covid-19 pandemic to hire, train, and onboard people (some of them laid-off hospitality workers) to create capacity for its critical vaccine and testing services.

[   2   ] Reskilling Is the Responsibility of Every Leader and Manager

Traditionally, reskilling is considered part of the overall corporate-learning function. When that’s the case, responsibility for the design and implementation of the program is often siloed within HR, and its failure or success is measured very narrowly—in terms of the number of trainings delivered, the cost per learner, and similar training-specific metrics. According to a recent BCG report, only 24% of polled companies make a clear connection between corporate strategy and reskilling efforts. Reskilling investments need a profound commitment from HR leaders, of course, but unless the rest of the organization understands the strategic relevance of those investments, it’s very hard to obtain the relentless and distributed effort that such initiatives require to succeed.

At most of the organizations where we interviewed, reskilling initiatives are visibly championed by senior leaders, often CEOs and chief operating officers. They work hard to articulate for the rest of the company the connection between reskilling and strategy and to ensure that leadership and management teams understand their shared responsibility for implementing these programs. For example, as part of its ongoing digital transformation, Ericsson has developed a multiyear strategy devoted to upskilling and reskilling. The effort involves systematically defining critical skills connected to strategy, which correspond to a variety of accelerator programs, skill journeys, and skill-shifting targets—most of them dedicated to transforming telecommunications experts into AI and data-science experts. The company considers this a high-priority, high-investment project and has made it part of the objectives and key results that executives review quarterly. In just three years Ericsson has upskilled more than 15,000 employees in AI and automation.

a case study in strategic management

Matching and integrating reskilled employees.

Employees need to be matched with new jobs. Our interview data shows that if destination roles are clearly described in advance, employees become more interested in reskilling because new career trajectories become apparent to them, and the reskilling itself becomes more effective because it’s more position-specific. Once in their new jobs, reskilled employees need several kinds of support to integrate successfully: help with learning new work norms and culture, building networks, and developing soft skills. Here coaching and mentoring can be particularly effective tools. Amazon has demonstrated leadership in this area: It runs a variety of mentoring programs for reskilled employees, among them a buddy system, part of its Grow Our Own Talent program, that connects previous and current program participants. The company also provides career coaching for employees who are making particularly difficult transitions, such as from warehouse worker to software developer.

[   4   ] Employees Want to Reskill—When It Makes Sense

Many of the companies we spoke with mentioned that one of their biggest challenges was simply persuading employees to embark on reskilling programs. That’s understandable: Reskilling requires a lot of effort and can set a major life change in motion, and the outcome isn’t guaranteed. The OECD reports that only a very small fraction of workers typically take part in standard training programs, and those who do are often the ones who need them the least.

But workers may be more willing to engage in reskilling than prior data suggests. BCG data shows , for example, that 68% of workers are aware of coming disruptions in their fields and are willing to reskill to remain competitively employed. The key to success in this domain, our interviews suggest, is to treat workers respectfully and make the benefits of their participation in reskilling initiatives clear. As one of our interviewees explains, “The secret to scaling up reskilling programs is to design a product your employees actually like.”

So how can organizations do that? We have several suggestions.

Treat employees as partners.

Because reskilling programs are often associated with organizational disruption and job loss—or at least job change—leaders often avoid talking openly about the rationale for the programs and the opportunities they present. But employees are more likely to participate if they understand why the programs are being implemented and have had a role in creating them. Aware of this, several of the companies we spoke with made a point of being honest and clear about why they were creating reskilling programs and involving workers early. One large auto manufacturer, for example, told its diesel engineers that because of changes in the automobile industry, it had less and less need for their skills; it presented its program as a way of ensuring that they would have new jobs and job security in the years ahead. The companies also told us that in designing and implementing reskilling programs, it’s critical to align with worker councils and unions early on and to involve them in advocating for the programs.

Design programs from the employee point of view.

Reskilling programs require participants to make a major investment of time. So it’s important to try to reduce the risk, cost, and effort involved and to provide (almost) guaranteed outcomes. Amazon allows employees in its Career Choice program to pursue everything from bachelor’s degrees to certificates—and covers all costs in advance. That has proved to be a key factor in scaling up the program, which has already had more than 130,000 participants. CVS, for its part, uses an effective “train in place” model for new employees.

Dedicate adequate time and attention to the task.

Because reskilling involves occupational change, it usually requires intensive learning, which is possible only if employees have the time and mental space they need to succeed. To that end, four times a year Vodafone dedicates days during which employees may devote themselves entirely to learning and personal development. Bosch goes even further: To help traditional engineers at the company earn degrees and get training in emerging fields, its Mission to Move program covers the cost of tuition and time spent learning for as much as two days a week for a whole year. It even gives participants days off before exams to prepare.

a case study in strategic management

Naturally, providing employees the time and space for skilling can be harder in industries where most workers are hourly or shift-based. Iberdrola, a renewable energy company, faced this challenge as it digitized. Because it was embracing new technologies, the company realized it would need to reskill 3,300 employees in various hourly roles. Its leaders got the job done by working closely with frontline managers to ensure that operations weren’t disrupted by workers’ taking time off for training. The company considered all training hours to be work hours and paid employees for them accordingly.

[   5   ] Reskilling Takes a Village

Companies have tended to think of reskilling as an organization-level challenge, believing that they have to do the job by and for themselves. But many of the companies where we interviewed have recognized that reskilling takes place in an ecosystem in which a number of actors have roles to play. Governments can incentivize reskilling investments by means of funds, policies, and public programs; industry can team up with academia to develop new skill-building techniques; and NGOs can play a role in connecting corporate talent needs with disadvantaged and marginalized talent groups. Coalitions of companies may be more effective at the reskilling challenge than single organizations are.

When designing reskilling programs for the rapidly evolving era of AI and automation, companies need to harness the potential of this wider ecosystem. We’ve identified several ways in which they can do so.

Consider industry partnerships.

Instead of thinking of themselves as competitors for a limited talent pool, companies can team up to conduct joint training efforts, which may significantly attenuate some of the challenges outlined above. For example, industry-wide skill taxonomies would provide a useful infrastructure and could in some cases help companies pool the knowledge and resources needed to invest in certain types of capabilities, such as cutting-edge AI skills, which are so new that individual organizations may not yet have the knowledge or the capacity to develop solutions on their own. Industry coalitions could also reassure participants that their investments in learning might open up broader future opportunities.

The Technology in Finance Immersion Programme, offered by the Institute of Banking and Finance Singapore, a nonprofit industry association, is a case in point. The program aims to build up an industry pipeline of capabilities in key technology areas, with participation from all major banks, insurance players, and asset managers in the country, to meet the talent needs of the financial services sector. Similarly, within the European Union a variety of stakeholders have formed the Automotive Skills Alliance, which is dedicated to the “re-skilling and up-skilling of workers in the automotive sector.”

Partner with nonprofits to reach diverse talent.

Many reskilling nonprofits work with populations that are underrepresented in the workforce. By teaming up with these nonprofits, companies can significantly expand access to talent and employment opportunities in ways that benefit both parties, often at low cost. Some of the ongoing reskilling efforts we learned of in our research involve corporate partnerships with such innovative entities as OneTen (which helps Black workers in the United States), Year Up (which helps disadvantaged youths in the United States), Joblinge (which helps disadvantaged youths in Germany), and RISE 2.0 (a BCG program that helps workers in Singapore without a digital background move into digital roles). Year Up stands out among these initiatives for its careful use of statistical techniques to study the impact of its training on participants. Since 2011 the program has placed more than 40,000 young people in corporate roles and internships that would have been inaccessible to them without the reskilling support and network it provided. The program has an 80% placement rate at more than 250 participating companies.

Partner with local colleges and training providers.

Companies have a lot to gain by teaming up with educational institutions in their reskilling efforts. Examples of such partnerships include the UK-government-funded Institutes of Technology, which bring together colleges and major employers to provide practical technical training for workers without tech backgrounds, in ways that allow companies to quickly react to new technologies and meet rapidly evolving skills needs; and BMW’s collaboration with the German Federal Employment Agency and the Association of German Chambers of Industry and Commerce, which supports the transition to electric vehicles with reskilling programs aimed at industrial electricians.

Many companies have an intuitive understanding of the need to embrace the reskilling paradigm shifts discussed in this article, and some, admirably, have already made tremendous commitments to doing so. But their efforts are hampered by two important limitations: a lack of rigor when it comes to the measurement and evaluation of what actually works, and a lack of information about how to generalize and scale up the demonstrably successful features of reskilling programs. To adapt in the years ahead to the rapidly accelerating pace of technological change, companies will have to develop ways to learn—in a systematic, rigorous, experimental, and long-term way—from the many reskilling investments that are being made today. Only then will the reskilling revolution really take off.

  • JT Jorge Tamayo is an assistant professor in the Strategy Unit at Harvard Business School.
  • LD Leila Doumi is a PhD candidate in the Strategy Unit at Harvard Business School.
  • SG Sagar Goel is a managing director and partner at Boston Consulting Group, Singapore, and a fellow at the BCG Henderson Institute.
  • OK Orsolya Kovács-Ondrejkovic is an associate director at Boston Consulting Group, Zurich, and an ambassador at the BCG Henderson Institute.
  • Raffaella Sadun is the Charles E. Wilson Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School.

a case study in strategic management

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Sample Case Study On Strategic Management

Type of paper: Case Study

Topic: Supply Chain , SWOT , Audit , Reduction , Niche , Marshall

Published: 03/20/2020



Strategic management refers to the process of initializing and implementation of particular goals by the top executive in relation to the specific attributes of both the internal and external milieu. Strategist management is always guided by the market trends of various products. A comparison is done with the sales trend and increase of market niche of the competing companies (Macdonald, 2008). This essay seeks to examine the SWOT analysis and strategic management tactics of MacDonald. As a point of departure, the MacDonald, various companies always seek to be at the top and this compels them to seek ways of helping them to climb the ladder. This includes the all the process of the SWOT analysis.

The Macdonald Company has an intensive chain of managerial staff who works according the hierarchy of command. This way all the necessary information is channeled tot the top without any element of distortion. This contributes to apt strategic plan and tactic, which helps a company to move towards another level in term of planning and execution. The other strength attributed to the Macdonald Company involves the marketing channels (Macdonald, 2008). The company has extensive online a physical marketing channels, which enable it to market its’ know the expansiveness of its market nature and the clients’ preferences. This helps the management to make decisions concerning branding in order to meet the client’s needs.

The company has serious loophole in its distribution channels, which leads to inefficient distribution of its products and this leads to the shrinking of the market niche


MacDonald’s company has immense market opportunities with which it can expand its, operations. Having an intensive marketing and distribution channels, it is a head of its competitor, which are in still establishing the channels.

The biggest threat to the MacDonald’s company is the Starbucks, which is creeping slowly into the market, and with its strategic positioning in the market, it likely to take up the market niche presently occupied by the MacDonald (Macdonald & Marshall, 2010).

The General Management Picture of the Macdonald’s strategies

Macdonald is a leading company in food production in the USA. To ensure proper and efficient service delivery to customers MacDonald company management employs multi-faced strategies to protect consumers from poor services and exploitation. Thus, the strategies employed include auditing strategy, human resource strategy, cost reduction strategy, brand control strategy and marketing strategy Concerning the auditing strategy MacDonald’s company utilizes it to ensure transparency and accountability in funds management and as well as eliminating the poor regulations that not of beneficial significance to customers and the company in general (MacDonald & Newcomen Society in North America, 2007). The auditing strategy sometimes involves embracing of hard business strategies including employees taking pay reductions and facilitation of consumer choices throughout the supply chains in operation. The human resource reduction carries out demographic research across its wide range of customers to discover customer behaviors concerning tastes and preferences the preferred methods of purchase in the various supply chains. This makes the management of the possible adjustment mechanisms in order to comply with the customer demands. Additionally, cost reduction is as well another strategy that is considered by the MacDonald’s company, primarily to determine new techniques and technological advancements that can process the food products faster and efficiently with an aim of reducing the related costs of production. Furthermore, the brand control strategy is as well employed in this company to come up with new and attention-grabbing forms of brands that can replace the old ones to ensure that they look appealing to customers whenever they set their eyes on these products. This is strategy is purely concerned with new designs and models that conform to diverse market dynamisms (MacDonald & Newcomen Society in North America, 2007). Ultimately, MacDonald’s company utilizes the marketing strategy. This one deals with the numerous ways in which the employees try to the best of their potential to advertise and supply these processed food products to diverse market outlets, which prefer these products. In addition this strategy endeavors to explore new market ventures to diversify their marketability.

MacDonald, E. F., & Newcomen Society in North America. (2007). Money isn't everything: The story of the E.F. MacDonald Company. New York: Newcomen Society in North America. Macdonald, K., & Marshall, S. (2010). Fair trade, corporate accountability and beyond: Experiments in globalizing justice. Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate. Macdonald, S. (1998). Information for innovation: Managing change from an information perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.


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  • 2023 news releases

ACA Advanced Level exam results published

Author: ICAEW

Published: 25 Aug 2023


In total, 5,516 students sat exams in July, and achieved the following pass rates:

  • Case Study: 82.7%
  • Corporate Reporting: 83.7%
  • Strategic Business Management: 88.5%

The Level 7 Accountancy Professional apprentices, who sat the Case Study exam, obtained an 86.4% pass rate.

Will Holt, ICAEW Managing Director for Education and Training, said:

“Congratulations to all ICAEW students who passed exams in this session, and an additional well done to those who earned a subject order of merit.

“We wish all our students every success in their journey to becoming ICAEW Chartered Accountants.”


International subject orders of merit.

First place and the Whinney prize

  • Madeleine Finn, London (KPMG LLP)

Corporate Reporting

First place and the Quilter prize

  • Henry Wilson, Tonbridge (PwC LLP)

Strategic Business Management

First place and the Walton prize

  • Charlotte Hart, Dorking (Mazars LLP)

Notes to editors:

Contact: ICAEW media office [email protected] or 07812 493 812

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    a case study in strategic management


  1. Process of strategic planning

  2. Strategic engagement video case study

  3. Strategic management

  4. Importance of Strategic Management

  5. Strategic Management Part 3

  6. Strategic Management


  1. PDF Cases in Strategic Management

    Cases help substitute for on-the-job experience by (1) giving you broader exposure to a variety of industries, organizations, and strategic problems; (2) forcing you to assume a managerial role (as opposed to that of just an onlooker); (3) providing a test of how to apply the tools and techniques of strategic management; and (4) asking you to co...

  2. Strategy Case Studies

    The mission of the MIT Sloan School of Management is to develop principled, innovative leaders who improve the world and to generate ideas that advance management practice. Find Us MIT Sloan School of Management 100 Main Street Cambridge, MA 02142 617-253-1000

  3. Case Selections

    Case studies featuring Black protagonists. Curated: August 03, 2020 Managing Your Organization Leading in a Time of Crisis How companies and governments have responded to major disasters....

  4. Case Studies in Strategic Management

    Case Studies in Strategic Management Home Book Editors: Gunther Friedl, Andreas Biagosch Merges theoretical knowledge, strategic thinking and specific analysis with practical business decisions Presents a new approach to case studies applied at the TUM School of Management


    32 CHAPTER FOUR TWO MINI-CASE STUDIES Because the essence of strategic management entails the integration of numerous management and decision proc- esses around a strategic framework that sets the direction for moving into the future in a deliberate manner, it can be helpful to have an overview of how given organizations tie the various ...

  6. Organizational strategy and its implications for strategic studies: A

    Modern strategic studies usually focuses on state-centred, conflict-ridden scenarios. Conversations in strategic studies exist in a silo and interact little, if at all, with one of the more dynamic areas in the study of strategy - modern management studies and, more specifically, organisational strategy.

  7. Case Studies in Strategic Management

    Course catalog MGMT 499 Case Studies in Strategic Management This advanced course uses the case study approach to develop systems and techniques for analyzing the internal strengths and weaknesses of diverse organizations and the external environments in which they operate.

  8. Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases, 4th Edition

    Students enjoy the concise and approachable style of Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases, 4e. Written in an accessible Harvard Business Review style with lots of practical examples and strategy tools, this course engages students with an easy-to-understand learning experience to strategic management concepts that will help students succeed in todays workplace. The newest edition of ...

  9. Case Studies in Strategic Management [Book]

    Case Studies in Strategic Management. by Sanjay Mohapatra. Released June 2011. Publisher (s): Pearson India. ISBN: 9788131759844. Read it now on the O'Reilly learning platform with a 10-day free trial. O'Reilly members get unlimited access to books, live events, courses curated by job role, and more from O'Reilly and nearly 200 top ...

  10. Strategic planning, strategy map and management control: a case study

    Findings. This study puts forward four propositions. The formal strategic planning process creates an application environment for the strategy map and balanced scorecard (BSC), making it easier for an enterprise to adopt these tools. The combination of the strategy map and formal strategic planning helps to build the logical relationship ...

  11. Top 40 Most Popular Case Studies of 2017

    Headlines Top 40 Most Popular Case Studies of 2017 Case Study Research & Development (CRDT) | December 19, 2017 We generated a list of the 40 most popular Yale School of Management case studies in 2017 by combining data from our publishers, Google analytics, and other measures of interest and adoption.

  12. (PDF) Strategic Management Case Studies

    July 2001 · Venugopal Ramachandran In this paper, Venugopal presents new directions in strategic management based on insights from literature and case studies. He introduces a term called...

  13. Case study: The Boeing company strategic analysis

    ... The new set of values introduced after the crisis inspired the employees and uplifted their enthusiasm in to bringing back the lost image. The company's newly implemented strategy mainly...

  14. Strategic Management: Theory & Cases: An Integrated Approach

    Based on real-world practices and current thinking in the field, the eleventh edition of STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT features an increased emphasis on the changing global economy and its role in strategic management. The high-quality case study program contains 31 cases covering small, medium, and large companies of varying backgrounds.Important ...

  15. TAPESTRY: A Strategic Management Case Study

    Abstract. This is a secondary source case that describes in detail the firm Tapestry, the first New York-based house of modern luxury lifestyle brands with a portfolio including Coach New York ...

  16. Strategic Management Case study & analysis

    The purpose of the case study is to analyze the objectives and strategies used by IKEA, analyze the company financially, SWOT analyzing and discuss major issue that the company faced.

  17. PDF Short Introduction to Strategic Management

    MBA course in Strategic Management, and he is Associate Dean of the MBA Program. He has held positions as Vice President at Citibank/ Citicorp Investment Bank, London, Senior Vice President at Unibank A/S, ... as well as suggestions for further study. Written by a team of experts from the world's leading business schools, these books are ...

  18. Strategic Management: Text and Cases

    Get the 10e of Strategic Management: Text and Cases by Gregory Dess, Gerry McNamara, Alan Eisner, Seung-Hyun Lee and G.T. Lumpkin Textbook, eBook, and other options. ISBN 9781260075083. ... Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, and Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies. He is the former Associate Editor of the Case ...

  19. Case Studies in Strategic Management: How Executive Input Enables Case Studies in Strategic Management: How Executive Input Enables Students' Development (Management for Professionals): 9783030070571: Friedl, Gunther, Biagosch, Andreas: Books Books › Business & Money › Finance Enjoy fast, FREE delivery, exclusive deals and award-winning movies & TV shows with Prime

  20. How to Write a Case Study in Strategic Management

    Below you will find the simplest strategic management case study writing tips, which will help you cope with this challenge successfully. Define the Topic and the Style of Your Case Study. If you want to complete a well-analyzed case study in strategic management, you will have to brainstorm the best topic for the research. Doubtless, your ...

  21. Strategic Management Case Studies

    STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Sort By Position Page: 1 2 3 4 5 Show 15 per page Negotiating over Goods and Service Tax (GST) Regime — A Triumph of Pragmatism AUTHOR (S) : Dr. Prashant Chaudhary, Assistant Professor, Symbiosis Skills and Professional University, Pune PUBLISHED DATE: 04/01/2021 PUBLISHER: ET CASES

  22. Reskilling in the Age of AI

    In synthesizing what they learned, they became aware of five paradigm shifts that are emerging in reskilling: (1) Reskilling is a strategic imperative. (2) It is the responsibility of every leader ...

  23. Strategic Management Case Study Example

    Strategic management refers to the process of initializing and implementation of particular goals by the top executive in relation to the specific attributes of both the internal and external milieu. Strategist management is always guided by the market trends of various products. A comparison is done with the sales trend and increase of market ...

  24. Case Study: Strategic Management (600 Words)

    Case Study: Strategic Management Category:, Last Updated: Essay type: Pages: Download Strategic Management seeks to carefully coordinate and integrate the different cross-functional activities of a company to achieve defined long-term goals.

  25. ACA Advanced Level exam results published

    ICAEW students have today (FRIDAY 25 AUGUST 2023) received the results of their July 2023 ACA Advanced Level exams. In total, 5,516 students sat exams in July, and achieved the following pass rates: Case Study: 82.7%. Corporate Reporting: 83.7%. Strategic Business Management: 88.5%. The Level 7 Accountancy Professional apprentices, who sat the ...