Works-Cited-List Entries

Works cited: a quick guide, core elements.

Each entry in the list of works cited is composed of facts common to most works—the MLA core elements. They are assembled in a specific order.

The concept of containers is crucial to MLA style. When the source being documented forms part of a larger whole, the larger whole can be thought of as a container that holds the source. For example, a short story may be contained in an anthology. The short story is the source, and the anthology is the container.

Practice Template

Learn how to use the MLA practice template to create entries in the list of works cited.

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What is mla style.

Building confidence in the information and ideas we share with one another is perhaps more important today than ever before, and for nearly a century it has been the driving principle behind MLA style, a set of standards for writing and documentation used by writers to find and evaluate information, alert their audience to the trustworthiness of their findings through citation, and shape the expression of their ideas in conversation with others. 

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MLA Handbook , 9th Edition

The ninth edition of the MLA Handbook , published in spring 2021, builds on the MLA's unique approach to documenting sources using a template of core elements—facts common to most sources, like author, title, and publication date—that allows writers to cite any type of work, from books, e-books, and journal articles in databases to song lyrics, online images, social media posts, dissertations, and more. With this focus on source evaluation as the cornerstone of citation, MLA style promotes the skills of information and digital literacy so crucial today. The new edition offers

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  • Revised, comprehensive, step-by-step instructions for creating a list of works cited in MLA format that are easier to learn and use than ever before
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / A Complete Guide to MLA 8th Edition

A Complete Guide to MLA 8th Edition

Key differences in mla 8th edition.

1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type

In previous editions of the MLA Handbook, researchers were required to locate the citation format for the source that they used. For example, if a magazine was used, researchers needed to locate the specific citation format for periodicals. Due to the various ways that information is now received, in books, websites, lectures, tweets, Facebook posts, etc, it has become unrealistic for MLA to create citation formats for every source type. Now, there is one standard, universal format that researchers can use to create their citations.

2. Inclusion of “containers” in citations.

Containers are the elements that “hold” the source. For example, if a television episode is watched on Netflix, Netflix is the container. Both the title of the source and its container are included in a MLA 8th edition citation.

3. The ability to use pseudonyms for author names

It is now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in place of authors’ names.

@WSJ. “Generation X went from the most successful in terms of homeownership rates in 2004 to the least successful by 2015.” Twitter , 8 Apr. 2016, 4:30 p.m., www.twitter.com/WSJ/status/718532887830753280

4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to magazine and journal article citations.

In MLA 7, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to the volume and issue numbers.

Example of a journal article citation in MLA 7th Edition:

DelGuidice, Margaux. “When a Leadership Opportunity Knocks, Answer!” Library Media Connection 30.2 (2011): 48-49. Print

An example of a journal article citation in MLA 8th edition:

DelGuidice, Margaux. “When a Leadership Opportunity Knocks, Answer!” Library Media Connection , vol. 30, no. 2, 2011, pp. 48-49.

5. Inclusion of URLS

In previous versions of the MLA handbook, it was up to the discretion of the instructor whether URLs should be included in a citation. In MLA 8, it is highly recommended to include a URL in the citation. Even if it becomes outdated, it is still possible to trace the information online from an older URL.

Omit “https://” or “https://” from the URL when including it in a MLA 8th edition citation.

6. Omitting the publisher from some source types

It is not necessary to include the publisher for periodicals or for a web site when the name of the site matches the name of the publisher. For periodicals, the name of the publisher is generally insignificant.

7. Omitting the city of publication

In previous versions of the MLA handbook, researchers included the city where the publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and the city of publication can often be omitted.

Only include the city of publication if the version of the source differs when published in a different country (Example: British editions of books versus versions printed in the United States).

Features that have not changed, and are the same as MLA 7:

  • The overall principles of citing and plagiarism
  • The use of in-text citations and works cited pages

——————————————————————————————————————————

How to Format an MLA 8 Works Cited List

The purpose of a Works Cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project. Showcasing the sources that were used allows others to locate the original sources themselves. In addition, a Works Cited list gives credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for a project.

Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. The last page of a research paper, the final slide of a presentation, and the last screen of a video are all appropriate places to display a Works Cited list.

Each source is displayed in a special format, called a citation. This guide explains how to create citations for the Works Cited page.

When starting to build your Works Cited page, start by consulting your list of core elements. Remember, your core elements are:

  • Title of source
  • Title of container
  • Other contributors
  • Publication date

Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation, which is typically the last name of the author.

When there are two or more sources with the same author, only include the author’s name in the first citation. In the second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in place of the author’s name, followed by a period.

Sparks, Nicholas. Dear John . Grand Central, 2007, p. 82.

– – -. A Walk to Remember . Warner, 1999.

If the individual is someone other than an author, such as a director or an editor, follow the three hyphens with a comma. Then, include the role of the individual after the comma. Place the citations in alphabetical order by the title of the work when there are multiple works by one author.

Allen, Woody. Getting Even . Vintage, 1978.

– – -, director. Midnight in Paris. Sony Pictures Classics, 2011.

The only instance when it is acceptable to include an author’s name more than once in a Works Cited Page is when the author is a coauthor with another individual or team.

Patterson, James, and Chris Grabenstein. House of Robots . Little, Brown and Co., 2014.

Patterson, James, and Chris Tebbetts. Middle School: Get Me Out of Here. Little, Brown and Co., 2012.

When there is no author listed for a source, place it in alphabetical order by the title. Omit words such as A, An, and The. If the title begins with a number, write the number out in word form.

Twenty-Eight Days Later. Directed by Danny Boyle, produced by Alex Garland, Fox Searchlight Pictures, 2002.

Example of an MLA Eighth Edition Works Cited Page:

– – – . A Walk to Remember . Warner, 1999.

How to Format the Author’s Name in an MLA 8th Edition Citation:

The author’s name is generally the first piece of information included in an MLA 8th edition citation. Start with the author’s last name, follow it with a comma, and add the rest of the author’s name exactly as it appears on the source. Immediately following the author’s name is a period.

Sparks, Nicholas. Stine, R.L. Brown, Margaret Wise. Seuss, Dr.

When two authors are included on a source, add them into the citation in the order that they appear on the source. The first author’s name is in reverse order: Last name, comma, and then the rest of the name as it appears on the source. Follow it with a comma and add the word “and.” For the second author’s name, write it exactly as it appears on the source.

Pratchett, Terry, and Neil Gaiman. Mortenson, Greg, and David Oliver Relin.

When three or more authors share responsibility for a work, include only the first author’s name. Write the first author’s name in reverse order: Last name, comma, and then the rest of the name as it appears on the source. After the first author’s name, add a comma, and write et al. This is a latin term meaning “and others.”

White, Karen, et al. Chan, Danny Elizabeth, et al.

An author may not always be the person responsible for a source. Often times, others, such as an editor or a translator can play the leading role.

When citing an edited book in its entirety, add a comma at the end of the editor(s) names and add the role of individual.

Hage, Ghassan, editor. Nielson, Frank, and Rajendra Bhatia, editors. Ashraf, M., et al., editors.

If a translated text was used, place the translator’s name in the “other contributors” section of the citation.

Viripaev, Ivan. Illusions . Translated by Cazimir Liske, Faber and Faber, 2012.

However, if the focus of your research revolves around the translation itself, place the translator’s name as the leading name in the citation.

Eshleman, Clayton, and Lucas Klein, translators. Endure. By Bei Dao, Black Widow Press, 2011.

For other works, such as film and tv shows, the individual that was the main focus of your research should be the leading name in the citation. Add a comma after the name of the individual and add a description of their role.

Parker, Sarah Jessica, actress. Girls Just Wanna Have Fun. New World Pictures, 1985.

If the focus was on the whole film or television show, and not an individual, start the citation with the title.

Girls Just Wanna Have Fun. Directed by Alan Metter, performance by Sarah Jessica Parker, New World Pictures, 1985.

It is acceptable to use online usernames or social media handles as the author’s name.

@BilldeBlasio. “A union gathers its strength from its workers. So does a company. I commend @Verizon and its employees for coming to a tentative agreement.” Twitter, 1 June 2016, 8:30 a.m., www.twitter.com/BilldeBlasio/status/737964964066004992.

Companies and organizations can also produce sources. Start the citation with the name of the company or organization.

United States, Food and Drug Administration. National Food Safety Education Month – Myths and Facts. June 4, 2014, www.fda.gov/Food/ResourcesForYou/ucm368393.htm.

How to Format the Title in MLA 8

Titles of sources are included in the citation as they appear on the source. They are generally located on the front or top of the source. Include all words in the title and any subtitles as well.

Viorst, Judith. Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day. Atheneum, 1987.

If a subtitle is given, place a colon in between the title and the subtitle.

Sheff, David. Game Over: How Nintendo Conquered the World. Vintage Books, 1994.

When a title stands alone, meaning it is not part of a larger work, place the title in italics. If it is indeed part of a larger work, such as a short story in an anthology, or a chapter in an edited book, place the title in quotations and the title of the larger work in italics.

Hughes, Langston. “Red-Headed Baby.” The Oxford Book of American Short Stories, edited by Joyce Carol Oates, Oxford UP, 1992, pp. 365-370.

*The exception to this rule is when a title that is found in a larger work normally stands alone. In this case, both titles are written in italics, without quotation marks.

Kipling, Rudyard. The Jungle Book. The Complete Children’s Short Stories, Wordsworth Editions, 2004, pp. 1-128.

For newspaper, magazine, and journal articles, the title of the article is placed in quotation marks and the name of the source is placed in italics. The same rule applies to other forms as well. Episodes of television shows are placed in quotation marks and the name of the television series is placed in italics. In addition, song titles are placed in quotation marks and the album names are placed in italics directly afterwards. Articles on web sites are placed in quotation marks and the title of the web site is placed in italics.

Example of an MLA 8th edition citation for Periodicals:

Martinson, Nichole. “Can I Cut Through a Murky German Tale to Find Grandma?” Ancestry, vol. 27, no. 1, January/February 2009, p. 63.

Example of an MLA 8th edition citation for television shows:

“Brave New World.” Grey’s Anatomy, directed by Eric Stoltz, season 5, episode 4, ABC, October 16, 2008.

Example of an MLA 8th edition citation for songs:

Rufus Du Sol. “Take Me.” Atlas, Sweat It Out, 2013.

Example of an MLA 8th edition citation for websites:

Provenzano, Nicholas. “Project Based Learning and the Great Gatsby.” The Nerdy Teacher, May 3, 2016. www.thenerdyteacher.com/2016/05/project-based-learning-and-great-gatsby.html.

When citing something that doesn’t have a title, it is acceptable to include a brief description of the source. Only capitalize the first letter in the first word of the description. Do not italicize or place the description in quotation marks.

Example of an MLA 8th edition citation with no title:

Kirschner, Ariel. Purple diagonal stripes painting. King Townhouse, New York.

When citing posts on social media, such as a Tweet, the title is the full posting, placed in quotation marks. For e-mail messages, the subject of the message is used as the title and placed in italics.

Examples of an MLA 8th edition citation for tweets:

@BilldeBlasio. “A union gathers its strength from its workers. So does a company. I commend @Verizon and its employees for coming to a tentative agreement.” Twitter , 1 June 2016, 8:30 a.m., www.twitter.com/BilldeBlasio/status/737964964066004992.

Taparia, Neal. “Team Meeting Reminder for Tomorrow.” Received by Michele Kirschenbaum, 4 May 2016.

How to Format the Title of the Container in MLA 8

Titles do not always stand alone. They are often found in a larger whole, or a container. Here are some examples of containers:

A chapter is placed in a container, which is the book it sits in. A song is placed in a container, which is the album it is on A television episode is placed in a container, which is the name of the show An online article sits in a container, which is the website

It is important to include the title of the container as it provides necessary information to help the reader locate the information themselves.

When a source has a container, place the title of the work in quotation marks and add a period directly afterwards. For the container, place it in italics and add a comma.

Examples of MLA 8th edition citations with containers:

Kivisto, Peter. “Marxism after Marx.” Key Ideas in Sociology, 3rd ed., 2011, pp. 28-33.

Rihanna. “Don’t Stop the Music.” Good Girl Gone Bad, track 3, Def Jam, 2007.

“Walk of Punishment.” Game of Thrones, season 3, episode 3, HBO, 14 Apr. 2013.

Ferlazzo, Larry. “Statistic of the Day: Many Students are Chronically Absent.” Larry Ferlazzo’s Websites of the Day, 10 June 2016, www.larryferlazzo.edublogs.org/2016/06/10/statistic-of-the-day-many-students-are-chronically-absent/.

There are instances when a source can sit in more than one container. It is possible to have two containers.

Here are some examples:

For a scholarly article, the first container is the title of the journal, the second container is the title of the database. For a television show watched online, the first container is the title of the show, the second container is the title of the web site that the show was watched on.

It is necessary to include information about both containers.

When formatting a citation with two containers, use the following template:

Author. Title of source. Title of first container, Other contributors, Version, Numbers, Publisher, Publication date, Location. Title of second container, Other contributors, Version, Numbers, Publisher, Publication Date, Location.

If any parts of the above citation are irrelevant to the reader, omit them from the citation.

Examples of MLA 8th edition citations for sources with two containers:

Rossetti, Christina. “Caterpillar.” The Random House Book of Poetry for Children: A Treasury of 572 Poems for Today’s Child, Random House, 1982, p. 76. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=zLF_sKMUYS8C&lpg=PP1&dq=poetry&pg=PA76#v=onepage&q=poetry&f=false.

In the above example, “Caterpillar” is the title of the poem, The Random House Book of Poetry for Children: A Treasury of 572 Poems for Today’s Child is the first container, and Google Books is the second container.

Notice that the title of the source is placed in quotation marks, while the titles of the first and second containers are placed in italics.

Here are a few more examples:

Stemmer, John, et al. “Investigating the Relationship of Library Usage to Student Outcomes.” College & Research Libraries, vol. 7, no. 3, May 2016, pp. 359-375. ERIC, dx.doi.org/10.5860/crl.77.3.359

Alesso. “Tear the Roof Up.” Forever , 2015, track 4. Spotify, open.spotify.com/track/2ze8tFyaI1W6db1pJBWBGq

How to Format Other Contributors in MLA 8:

While it is generally just the author of a work that is included in a citation, there can be times when there are other contributors that can be included, especially when their work played a large role in your research. “Other contributors” can include directors, performers, editors, translators, and many other roles.

When including another contributor in a citation, first include the role of that individual, add the word “by” and then place their name in standard form (First name Last name).

Some possible examples of contributors include phrases such as:

translated by directed by produced by illustrated by

Examples of MLA 8th edition citations for sources with more than one contributor:

“Daddy’s Home.” Full House, performance by Bob Saget, season 1, episode 6, ABC, 30 Oct. 1987.

Baum, L. Frank. “The Wizard of Oz.” Audible, narrated by Anne Hathaway, Audible Studios, 8 Mar. 2012, www.audible.com/pd?asin=B007BR5KZA&action_code=AUDORWS0424159DCE

Bessen, James, and Alessandro Nuvolari. “Knowledge Sharing Among Investors: Some Historical Perspectives.” Revolutionizing Innovation: Users, Communities, and Open Innovation, edited by Dietmar Harhoff and Karim R. Lakhani, MIT Press, 2016, pp. 135-156. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=RMqrCwAAQBAJ&lpg=PP1&dq=edited%20book&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false.

It is acceptable to include more than one contributor. In fact, it is acceptable to include many contributors if they all played an important part in your research. . You may want to include a performer and a director, or an editor and a translator, or two performers.

Titanic. Directed by James Cameron, performance by Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet, Paramount Pictures, 1997.

Puff Daddy and the Family. “Victory.” No Way Out, performance by The Notorious B.I.G and Busta Rhymes, Bad Boy, 1997, Track 2.

How to Format the Version in MLA 8:

Sources can be released in different versions, or forms. For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition. A song can have an extended version or a radio edit. A movie can have an unrated or an uncut version. It is important to communicate to the reader which version was used to help them locate the exact source themselves.

For books, the version can often be found on the front cover or on the verso page. If it is a numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation “ed.” for edition.

If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation.

Examples of MLA 8 edition citations for sources with various versions:

Weinberger, Norman M. “The Auditory System and Elements of Music” The Psychology of Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMC&lpg=PP1&dq=psychology&pg=PR6#v=onepage&q=psychology&f=false.

JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008.

How to Format Numbers in MLA 8:

There are times when sources are given a number. For example, a print encyclopedia, which is part of a set, often has a volume number. In addition, lengthy books are sometimes split into a few volumes. Comic books, magazines, and journal issues are often given a volume number AND an issue number. Television episodes are often numbered, as well as their seasons, too.

If a book is given a volume number, it can generally be found on the spine, cover, or on the title page. Comic books, magazines, and journals often have their volume number and issue number printed on the front cover. For television show episodes and seasons, this information can usually be found on the packaging or by clicking on the information while watching the show.

For volume numbers, use the abbreviation “vol.” and for issue numbers, use the abbreviation “no” in the citation.

Examples of MLA 8 edition citations for sources that are numbered:

Fillipponi, Piero, and Herta T. Freitag. “For an Arbitrary Argument.” Applications of Fibonacci Numbers, Edited by G. E. Bergum, et al., vol. 4, Springer Science and Business Media, 1990, pp. 91-98. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=bszoCAAAQBAJ&lpg=PR1&dq=volume%20numbers&pg=PR5#v=onepage&q=volume%20numbers&f=false.

Sadler, Philip M., and Gerhard Sonnert. “Understanding Misconceptions: Teaching and Learning in Middle School Physical Science.” American Educator, vol. 40, no. 1, American Federation of Teachers, 2016, pp. 26-32.

Kanigher, Robert. “Stone Slayer.” Wonder Woman, illustrated by Harry G. Peter, vol. 1, no. 65, DC Comics, April 1954.

“Thirsty Bird.” Orange is the New Black, directed by Jodie Foster, season 2, episode 1, Netflix, 6 June 2014.

How to Format the Publisher in MLA 8:

The publisher is the company that was responsible for making the work available. There are numerous publishing companies that are responsible for the creation and the release of books, movies, television shows, and other sources. Web sites are often published by many different types of organizations and companies, such as museums or government agencies.

To locate the publisher of a book, look at the bottom of the title page or on the verso page. For films and television shows, the publisher can often be found on the packaging or in the credits. For web sites, the name of publisher is often next to the copyright symbol at the bottom of the page.

Here are some examples of how to include the publisher in an MLA 8 edition citation:

How to cite a book in MLA 8:

Grissom, Kathleen. The Kitchen House. Touchstone, 2010.

Touchstone is the name of the publisher for the book.

There are times when it is not necessary to include the publisher in a citation. For web sites, when the name of the site matches the name of the publisher, omit the publisher from the citation. This prevents the same information from being displayed twice in a citation. Also, it is not necessary to include the publisher for any magazines, periodicals, or journals. Often, the name of those sources match the name of the publisher.

Example of how to cite an article on a blog in MLA 8 (when the publisher matches one of the other components of the citation)

Chan, Magdalene. “Volunteering with NYC Department for the Aging.” New York Public Library, 29 June 2016, www.nypl.org/blog/2016/06/29/volunteering-nyc-dfta.

In the above example, the New York Public Library is the name of the web site, but also the name of the organization responsible for publishing the content. Therefore, New York Public Library was only included once in the citation.

How to Format the Publication Date in MLA 8:

The publication date, which is the date that the source was released, is a necessary component of an MLA 8 edition citation. Including this information helps the reader locate the specific source that was used, as often times there are numerous versions of sources that are released at different times.

When including the date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to how the date should be input into the citation. For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the date is placed in one citation, the same format should be used in the other citations in your project.

Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations.

Examples: Jan. Sept. Nov.

In addition, sometimes the day and month might not be featured on a source. Include the information that is readily available.

Example of how to cite a movie in MLA 8:

Ratatouille. Directed by Brad Bird, Pixar, June 29, 2007.

How to Format the Location in MLA 8:

It’s often helpful to include the exact location of where you found your information so that the reader can locate it themselves. For example, let’s say that you used a quote from a book in your project. If the reader wanted to find the quote for themselves, it would be helpful to include the page number in the citation. Or, if you were to use a cover story from a magazine, including the page ranges helps the reader easily find the information. Additionally, web site addresses are extremely helpful to include.

When including a page or page range in your citation, use the abbreviation p. when including information about one page, and use pp. when including a page range.

When including web site addresses in a citation, omit the https:// or https:// of the citation, since the reader can assume that the beginning of the address includes that information.

Here are some examples of MLA 8 edition citations that include locations:

Mohr, Nicholasa. El Bronx Remembered: A Novella and Stories. Harper Trophy, 1975, p. 87.

Szabo, Liz. “Zika Could Hit People in Poverty Hardest.” USA Today, 30 June 2016, www.usatoday.com/story/news/2016/06/30/zika-could-hit-people-poverty-hardest/86358782/.

Since the following citation has two containers (the book itself and Google Books) there are two locations included, a page range and a web site address:

Kipling, Rudyard. The Jungle Book. Everyman’s Library, 1994, pp. 27-28. Google Books, www.books.google.com/books?id=Y3xXkWyQZggC&lpg=PP1&dq=the%20jungle%20book&pg=PA4#v=onepage&q=the%20jungle%20book&f=false.

How to Create In-Text Citations in MLA 8:

The overall purpose of in-text citations is to allow the reader to briefly see where the direct quote or paraphrase came from, and to be able to identify it later on, as a full citation, in the works cited list.

As stated in the first part of this guide, when using a direct quote or paraphrase, place an in-text citation after the borrowed information. Generally the in-text citation is found immediately following the direct quote or paraphrase, but it is acceptable to insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for a natural pause while reading.

In-text citations are generally made up of two items: the author’s last name and the page number. If there isn’t an author, use the first item in the full citation entry. Place the name of the author (or the first item found in the full citation entry) and the page number in parentheses. Do not include any commas in between the two pieces of information.

Example on an in-text citation found in the body of a project:

“Professor McGonagall’s voice trembled as she went on. ‘That’s not all. They’re saying he tried to kill the Potter’s son, Harry. But – he couldn’t. He couldn’t kill that little boy. No one knows why, or how, but they’re saying that when he couldn’t kill Harry Potter, Voldemort’s power somehow broke – and that’s why he’s gone” (Rowling 22).

In the works cited list, found at the end of the project, readers will be able to see the full citation in its entirety, and will be able to locate the source for themselves.

The full citation, on the works cited page, will look like this:

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. Scholastic, 1999, p. 22.

How to format in-text citations for two authors:

When there are two authors, or coauthors, add both names to the in-text citation, with the word and between the two names.

(Johnson and Selleck 44)

How to format in-text citations for three authors or more:

For three or more authors, include the last name of the first author listed on the source. After the first author’s last name, place et al. afterwards. This is a Latin term which means “and others.”

Example of an in-text citation for three or more authors:

(Chan et al. 134)

How to format an in-text citation for corporate authors: When adding an in-text citation for corporate authors, place the name of the corporation or organization in parentheses, followed by the page number. If there is a common abbreviation in the name of the corporation, it is acceptable to use the abbreviated term:

Examples of in-text citations with corporate authors:

(American Lung Association 14) (Penn. Dept. of Motor Vehicles 62)

When an author’s name is not listed in the full citation, use the title in the in-text citation. It is acceptable to shorten or abbreviate the title. If the title starts with A, An, or The, exclude it from the in-text citation and include the first main word.

Full title: A Tree Grows in Brooklyn

In-Text citation: ( Tree Grows in Brooklyn )

Full title: Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone

In-Text citation: ( Harry Potter )

How to format page numbers in in-text citations:

For page numbers, use the same style that the source uses. If a source is numbered using Roman numerals, in the in-text citation, use Roman numerals for the page number.

(Franklin IV)

(Wall Street Journal B8)

When it comes to e-books, it can be difficult to determine the page number. Furthermore, the page number on one type of e-reader, such as a Kindle, might differ on another e-reader, like a Nook. Exclude page numbers from in-text citations if the page numbers differ across devices. Only include the page number from an e-book if it is consistent with other readers. It is acceptable to use a chapter number or division number if it is stable across devices.

(Rowling ch. 1)

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The complete guide to mla & citations, what you’ll find in this guide.

This page provides an in-depth overview of MLA format. It includes information related to MLA citations, plagiarism, proper formatting for in-text and regular citations, and examples of citations for many different types of sources.

Looking for APA? Check out the Citation Machine’s guide on APA format . We also have resources for Chicago citation style as well.

How to be a responsible researcher or scholar

Putting together a research project involves searching for information, disseminating and analyzing information, collecting information, and repurposing information. Being a responsible researcher requires keeping track of the sources that were used to help develop your research project, sharing the information you borrowed in an ethical way, and giving credit to the authors of the sources you used. Doing all of these things prevents plagiarism.

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism is the act of using others’ information without giving credit or acknowledging them. There are many examples of plagiarism. Completely copying another individual’s work without providing credit to the original author is a very blatant example of plagiarism. Plagiarism also occurs when another individual’s idea or concept is passed off as your own. Changing or modifying quotes, text, or any work of another individual is also plagiarism. Believe it or not, you can even plagiarize yourself! Reusing a project or paper from another class or time and saying that it’s new is plagiarism. One way to prevent plagiarism is to add citations in your project where appropriate.

What is a Citation?

A citation shows the reader of your project where you found your information. Citations are included in the body of a project when you add a quote to your project. Citations are also included in the body when you’re paraphrasing another individual’s information. These citations in the body of a research paper are called in-text citations. They are found directly next to the information that was borrowed and are very brief to avoid causing distraction while reading a project. These brief citations include the last name of the author and a page number. Scroll down for an in-depth explanation and examples of MLA in-text citations.

In-text citations provide us with a brief idea as to where you found your information, though they usually don't include the title and other components. Look on the last page of a research project to find complete citations.

Complete citations are found on what MLA calls a works-cited list, which is sometimes called an MLA bibliography. All sources that were used to develop a research project are found on the works-cited list. Complete citations are also created for any quotes or paraphrased information used in the text. Complete citations include the author’s name, the title, publisher, year published, page numbers, URLs, and a few other pieces of information.

Looking to create your citations in just a few clicks? Need an MLA format website or book citation? Visit Citation Machine.net! Our Citation Machine MLA generator, which is an MLA citation website, will create all of your citations in just a few clicks. Click here to see more styles .

Why Does it Matter?

Citing your sources is an extremely important component of your research project. It shows that you’re a responsible researcher and that you located appropriate and reputable sources that support your thesis or claim. In addition, if your work ends up being posted online or in print, there is a chance that others will use your research project in their own work!

Scroll down to find directions on how to create citations.

How the Modern Language Association Helps You Become a Responsible Researcher

What is mla format.

The Modern Language Association is an organization that was created to develop guidelines on everything language and literature related. They have guidelines on proper grammar usage and research paper layouts. In addition, they have English and foreign language committees, numerous books and journal publications, and an annual conference. They are not connected with this guide, but the information here reflects the association’s rules for formatting papers and citations.

What are citations?

The Modern Language Association is responsible for creating standards and guidelines on how to properly cite sources to prevent plagiarism. Their style is most often used when writing papers and citing sources in the liberal arts and humanities fields. “Liberal arts” is a broad term used to describe a range of subjects including the humanities, formal sciences such as mathematics and statistics, natural sciences such as biology and astronomy, and social sciences such as geography, economics, history, and others. The humanities focuses specifically on subjects related to languages, art, philosophy, religion, music, theater, literature, and ethics.

Believe it or not, there are thousands of other types of citation styles. While this citation style is most often used for the liberal arts and humanities fields, many other subjects, professors, and schools prefer citations and papers to be styled in MLA format.

What’s the difference between a bibliography and a works-cited list?

Great question. The two terms cause a lot of confusion and are consistently misused not only by students but educators as well! Let’s start with what the two words mean.

A bibliography displays the sources the writer used to gain background knowledge on the topic and also research it in-depth. Before starting a research project, you might read up on the topic in websites, books, and other sources. You might even dive a bit deeper to find more information elsewhere. All of these sources you used to help you learn about the topic would go in an MLA format bibliography. You might even include other sources that relate to the topic.

A works-cited list displays all of the sources that were mentioned in the writing of the actual paper or project. If a quote was taken from a source and placed into a research paper, then the full citation goes on the works-cited list.

Both the works-cited list and bibliography go at the end of a paper. Most teachers do not expect students to hand in both a bibliography AND a works-cited list. Teachers generally expect to see a works-cited list, but sometimes erroneously call it a bibliography. If you’re not sure what your teacher expects, a page in MLA bibliography format, a works-cited list, or both, ask for guidance.

Why do we use this MLA style?

These specific guidelines and standards for creating citations were developed for numerous reasons. When scholars and researchers in literature, language, and numerous other fields all cite their sources in the same manner, it makes it easier for readers to look at a citation and understand the different components of a source. By looking at an MLA citation, we can see who the author is, the title of the source, when it was published, and other identifiable pieces of information.

Imagine how difficult it would be to understand the various components of a source if we didn’t all follow the same guidelines! Not only would it make it difficult to understand the source that was used, but it would also make it difficult for readers to locate it themselves. This streamlined process aides us in understanding a researcher’s sources.

How is the new version different than previous versions?

This citation style has changed dramatically over the past couple of years. The MLA Handbook is currently in its 9th edition.

The new version expands upon standards previously set in the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook, including the core elements. The structure of citations remains the same, but some formatting guidance and terminology have changed.

  • DOI numbers are now formatted as https://doi.org/xx.xxxx/xxx.xxxx.xxxx
  • Seasons in publishing daters are lowercased: spring 2020
  • The term “optional elements” is now “supplemental elements”
  • “Narrative in-text citations” are called “citations in prose”

In addition, new information was added on the following:

  • Hundreds of works-cited-list entries
  • MLA formatting for papers
  • Punctuation, spelling, and other mechanics of prose
  • Chapter on inclusive language
  • Notes (bibliographic and content)

For more information on MLA 9, click here .

A Deeper Look at Citations

What do they look like.

There are two types of citations. The first is a full, or complete, citation. These are found at the end of research projects. These citations are usually listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names and include all of the information necessary for readers to be able to locate the source themselves.

Full citations are generally placed in this MLA citation format:

%%Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title, roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a DOI, URL, or page range).

There are times when additional information is added into the full citation.

Not sure how to transfer the information from your source into your citation? Confused about the term, “containers”? See below for information and complete explanations of each citation component.

The second type of citation, called an “in-text citation,” is included in the main part, or body, of a project when a researcher uses a quote or paraphrases information from another source. See the next section to find out how to create in-text citations.

What are in-text citations?

As stated above, in-text citations are included in the main part of a project when using a quote or paraphrasing a piece of information from another source. We include these types of citations in the body of a project for readers to quickly gain an idea as to where we found the information.

These in-text citations are found directly next to the quote or paraphrased information. They contain a small tidbit of the information found in the regular MLA citation. The regular, or complete, citation is located at the end of a project, on the works-cited list.

Here’s what a typical in-text citation looks like:

In the book The Joy Luck Club, the mother uses a vast amount of Chinese wisdom to explain the world and people’s temperaments. She states, “Each person is made of five elements…. Too much fire and you have a bad temper...too little wood and you bent too quickly...too much water and you flowed in too many directions” (Tan 31).

This specific in text citation, (Tan 31), is called an MLA parenthetical citation because the author’s name is in parentheses. It’s included so the reader sees that we are quoting something from page 31 in Tan’s book. The complete, regular citation isn’t included in the main part of the project because it would be too distracting for the reader. We want the reader to focus on our work and research, not get caught up on our sources.

Here’s another way to cite in the text:

In Tan’s novel The Joy Luck Club, the mother uses a vast amount of Chinese wisdom to explain the world and people’s temperaments. She states, “Each person is made of five elements... Too much fire and you have a bad temper... too little wood and you bent too quickly... too much water and you flowed in too many directions" (31).

If the reader would like to see the source’s full information, and possibly locate the source themselves, they can refer to the last part of the project to find the regular citation.

The regular citation, at the end of the project looks like this:

%%Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club. Penguin, 1989, p. 31.

Notice that the first word in the full citation (Tan) matches the “Tan” used in the body of the project. It’s important to have the first word of the full citation match the term used in the text. Why? It allows readers to easily find the full citation on the works-cited list.

If your direct quote or paraphrase comes from a source that does not have page numbers, it is acceptable to place a line number (use line or lines), paragraph number (use the abbreviation par. or pars.), sections (sec. or secs.), or chapters (ch. or chs.). Only use these other terms if they are actually labeled on the source. If it specifically says on the source, “Section 1,” for example, then it is acceptable to use “sec. 1” in the in-text citation.

If there are no numbers to help readers locate the exact point in the source, only include the author’s last name.

To determine how to create in-text citations for more than one author, no authors, or corporate authors, refer to the “Authors” section below.

More about quotations and how to cite a quote:

  • Use quotes from outside sources to help illustrate and expand on your own points. The majority of your paper should be your own writing and ideas.
  • Include the quote exactly as you found it. It is okay to use only certain words or phrases from the quote, but keep the words (spelling and capitalization) and punctuation the same.
  • It is acceptable to break up a direct quote with your own writing.

Example from a movie:

Dorothy stated, "Toto," then looked up and took in her surroundings, "I’ve a feeling we’re not in Kansas anymore" ( Wizard of Oz ).
  • The entire paper should be double-spaced, including quotes.
  • If the quote is longer than four lines, it is necessary to make a block quote. Block quotes show the reader that they are about to read a lengthy amount of text from another source.
  • Start the quote on the next line, half an inch from the left margin.
  • Do not use any indents at the beginning of the block quote.
  • Only use quotation marks if there are quotation marks present in the source.
  • If there is more than one paragraph in the block quote, indent the beginning of the paragraphs after the first one an additional half an inch from the left margin.
  • Add your in-text citation after the final period of the block quote. Do not add an additional period after the parenthetical citation.

While his parents sat there in surprise, Colton went onto say:

“Cause I could see you,” Colon said matter-of-factly. “I went up and out of my body and I was looking down and I could see the doctor working on my body. And I saw you and Mommy. You were in a little room by yourself, praying; and Mommy was in a different room, and she was praying and talking on the phone.” (Burpo xxi)

How to create a paraphrase:

As stated above, the majority of your paper should be your own writing and ideas. It’s acceptable to include quotes, but they shouldn’t crowd your paper. If you’re finding that you’re using too many quotes in your paper, consider adding paraphrases. When you reiterate a piece of information from an outside source in your own words, you create a paraphrase.

Here’s an example:

Readers discover in the very first sentence of Peter Pan that he doesn’t grow up (Barrie 1).

What paraphrases are:

  • Recycled information in the paper writer’s own words and writing style.
  • They’re still references! Include an in-text citation next to the paraphrased information.

What paraphrases are not:

  • A copy and pasted sentence with a few words substituted for synonyms.

Confused about whether footnotes and endnotes should be used?

Footnotes and endnotes are completely acceptable to use in this style. Use a footnote or endnote if:

  • Adding additional information will help the reader understand the content. This is called a content note .
  • You need to cite numerous sources in one small section of your writing. Instead of clogging up a small paragraph with in-text citations (which could cause confusion for the reader), include a footnote or endnote. This is called a bibliographic note .

Keep in mind that whether you choose to include in-text citations or footnotes/endnotes, you need to also include a full reference on the MLA format works-cited list.

Content note example:

Even Maurice Sendak’s work (the mastermind behind Where the Wild Things Are and numerous other popular children’s picture books) can be found on the banned books list. It seems as though nobody is granted immunity. 1

  • In the Night Kitchen ’s main character is nude on numerous pages. Problematic for most is not the nudity of the behind, but the frontal nudity.

Work Cited:

%%Sendak, Maurice. In The Night Kitchen. Harper Collins, 1996.

Bibliographic note example:

Dahl had a difficult childhood. Both his father and sister passed away when he was a toddler. He was then sent away by his mother to boarding school (de Castella). 1

  • Numerous books, such as Matilda, James and the Giant Peach, and The BFG, all feature characters with absent or difficult parents.

MLA Works Cited:

Include 4 full citations for: de Castella’s article, Matilda, James and the Giant Peach, and The BFG .

Don’t forget to create full, or regular citations, and place them at the end of your project.

If you need help with in-text and parenthetical citations, CitationMachine.net can help. Our MLA citation generator is simple and easy to use!

Common Knowledge: What Is It and How Will It Affect My Writing?

Footnotes, endnotes, references, proper structuring. We know it’s a lot. Thankfully, you don’t have to include a reference for EVERY piece of information you add to your paper. You can forget about including a reference when you share a piece of common knowledge.

Common knowledge is information that most people know. For example, these are a few facts that are considered common knowledge:

  • The Statue of Liberty is located in New York City
  • Tokyo is the capital of Japan
  • Romeo and Juliet is a play written by William Shakespeare
  • English is the language most people speak in England
  • An elephant is an animal

We could go on and on. When you include common knowledge in your paper, omit a reference. One less thing to worry about, right?

Before you start adding tons of common knowledge occurrences to your paper to ease the burden of creating references, we need to stop you right there. Remember, the goal of a research paper is to develop new information or knowledge. You’re expected to seek out information from outside sources and analyze and distribute the information from those sources to form new ideas. Using only common knowledge facts in your writing involves absolutely zero research. It’s okay to include some common knowledge facts here and there, but do not make it the core of your paper.

If you’re unsure if the fact you’re including is common knowledge or not, it doesn’t hurt to include a reference. There is no such thing as being overly responsible when it comes to writing and citing.

Wikipedia - Yay or Nay?

If you’re wondering whether it’s okay to use Wikipedia in your project, the answer is, it depends.

If Wikipedia is your go-to source for quick information on a topic, you’re not alone. Chances are, it’s one of the first websites to appear on your results page. It’s used by tons of people, it’s easily accessible, and it contains millions of concise articles. So, you’re probably wondering, “What’s the problem?”

The issue with Wikipedia is that it’s a user-generated site, meaning information is constantly added and modified by registered users. Who these users are and their expertise is somewhat of a mystery. The truth is anyone can register on the site and make changes to articles.

Knowing this makes some cringe, especially educators and librarians, since the validity of the information is questionable. However, some people argue that because Wikipedia is a user-generated site, the community of registered users serve as “watchdogs,” ensuring that information is valid. In addition, references are included at the bottom of each article and serve as proof of credibility. Furthermore, Wikipedia lets readers know when there’s a problem with an article. Warnings such as “this article needs clarification,” or “this article needs references to prove its validity” are shared with the reader, thus promoting transparency.

If you choose to reference a Wikipedia article in your research project, and your teacher or professor says it’s okay, then you must reference it in your project. You would treat it just as you would with any other web source.

However, you may want to instead consider locating the original source of the information. This should be fairly easy to do thanks to the references at the bottom of each article.

Specific Components of a Citation

This section explains each individual component of the citation, with examples for each section for full citations and in-text citations.

Name of the author

The author’s name is usually the first item listed in the MLA citation. Author names start with the last name, then a comma is added, and then the author’s first name (and middle name if applicable) is at the end. A period closes this information.

Here are two examples of how an author’s name can be listed in a full citation:

Twain, Mark.

Poe, Edgar Allan.

For in-text:

(Author’s Last name page number) or Author’s Last name... (page).

Wondering how to format the author’s name when there are two authors working jointly on a source? When there are two authors that work together on a source, the author names are placed in the order in which they appear on the source. Place their names in this format:

Author 1’s Last Name, First name, and Author 2’s First Name Last Name.

Here are two examples of how to cite two authors:

Clifton, Mark, and Frank Riley.

Paxton, Roberta J., and Michael Jacob Fox.

(Author 1’s Last name and Author 2’s Last name page number) or Author 1’s Last name and Author 2’s Last name... (page).

There are many times when three or more authors work together on a source. This often happens with journal articles, edited books, and textbooks.

To cite a source with three or more authors, place the information in this format:

Author 1’s Last name, First name, et al.

As you can see, only include the first author’s name. The other authors are accounted for by using “et al.” In Latin, et al. is translated to “and others.” If using the Citation Machine citation generator, this abbreviation is automatically added for you.

Here’s an example of a citation for three or more authors:

%%Warner, Ralph, et al. How to Buy a House in California. Edited by Alayna Schroeder, 12th ed., Nolo, 2009.

(Author 1’s Last name et al. page number)

Is there no author listed on your source? If so, exclude the author’s information from the citation and begin the citation with the title of the source.

For in-text: Use the title of the source in parentheses. Place the title in italics if the source stands alone. Books and films stand alone. If it’s part of a larger whole, such as a chapter in an edited book or an article on a website, place the title in quotation marks without italics.

( Back to the Future )

(“Citing And Writing”)

Other in-text structures:

Authors with the same last name in your paper? MLA essay format requires the use of first initials in-text in this scenario.

Ex: (J. Silver 45)

Are you citing more than one source by the same author? For example, two books by Ernest Hemingway? Include the title in-text.

Example: (Hemingway, For Whom The Bell Tolls 12).

Are you citing a film or song? Include a timestamp in the format of hours:minutes:seconds. ( Back to the Future 00:23:86)

Was the source found on social media, such as a tweet, Reddit, or Instagram post? If this is the case, in an MLA format paper, you are allowed to start the citation with the author’s handle, username, or screen name.

Here is an example of how to cite a tweet:

%%@CarlaHayden. “I’m so honored to talk about digital access at @UMBCHumanities. We want to share the @libraryofcongress collection.” Twitter , 13 Apr. 2017, 6:04 p.m., twitter.com/LibnOfCongress/status/852643691802091521.

While most citations begin with the name of the author, they do not necessarily have to. Quite often, sources are compiled by editors. Or, your source may be done by a performer or composer. If your project focuses on someone other than the author, it is acceptable to place that person’s name first in the citation. If you’re using the MLA works cited generator at Citation Machine.net, you can choose the individual’s role from a drop-down box.

For example, let’s say that in your research project, you focus on Leonardo DiCaprio’s performances as an actor. You’re quoting a line from the movie Titanic in your project, and you’re creating a complete citation for it in the works-cited list.

It is acceptable to show the reader that you’re focusing on Leonardo DiCaprio’s work by citing it like this in the MLA works-cited list:

%%DiCaprio, Leonardo, performer. Titanic . Directed by James Cameron. Paramount, 1997.

Notice that when citing an individual other than the author, place the individual’s role after their name. In this case, Leonardo DiCaprio is the performer.

This is often done with edited books, too. Place the editor’s name first (in reverse order), add a comma, and then add the word editor.

If you’re still confused about how to place the authors together in a citation, the tools at CitationMachine.net can help! Our website is easy to use and will create your citations in just a few clicks!

Titles and containers

The titles are written as they are found on the source and in title form, meaning the important words start with a capital.

Here’s an example of a properly written title:

Practical Digital Libraries: Books, Bytes, and Bucks.

Wondering whether to place your title in italics or quotation marks? It depends on whether the source sits by itself or not. If the source stands alone, meaning that it is an independent source, place the title in italics. If the title is part of a larger whole, place the title of the source in quotation marks and the source it is from in italics.

When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in their entirety, these titles are written in italics.

However, when citing part of a source, such as an article on a website, a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an article in a scholarly journal, the part is written with quotation marks and then the titles of the sources that they are found in are written in italics.

Here are some examples to help you understand how to format titles and their containers.

To cite Pink Floyd’s entire album, The Wall , cite it as:

%%Pink Floyd. The Wall. Columbia, 1979.

To cite one of the songs on Pink Floyd’s album in MLA formatting, cite it as:

%%Pink Floyd. “Another Brick in the Wall (Part I).” The Wall, Columbia, 1979, track 3.

To cite a fairy tale book in its entirety, cite it as:

%%Colfer, Chris. The Land of Stories. Little Brown, 2016.

To cite a specific story or chapter in the book, cite it as:

%%Colfer, Chris. “Little Red Riding Hood.” The Land of Stories, Little Brown, 2016, pp. 58-65.

More about containers

From the section above, you can see that titles can stand alone, or they can sit in a container. Many times, sources can sit in more than one container. Wondering how? When citing an article in a scholarly journal, the first container is the journal. The second container? It’s the database that the scholarly journal is found in. It is important to account for all containers, so readers are able to locate the exact source themselves.

When citing a television episode, the first container is the name of the show and the second container is the name of the service that it could be streaming on, such as Netflix .

If your source sits in more than one container, the information about the second container is found at the end of the citation.

Use the following format to cite your source with multiple containers :

%%Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title, roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). Title of Second Container, roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the date the second container was published, location.

If the source has more than two containers, add on another full section at the end for each container.

Not all of the fields in the citation format above need to be included in your citation. In fact, many of these fields will most likely be omitted from your citations. Only include the elements that will help your readers locate the source themselves.

Here is an example of a citation for a scholarly journal article found in a database. This source has two containers: the journal itself is one container, and the site it sits on is the other.

%%Zanetti, Francois. “Curing with Machine: Medical Electricity in Eighteenth-Century Paris.” Technology and Culture, vol. 54, no. 3, July 2013, pp. 503-530. Project Muse, muse.jhu.edu/article/520280.

If you’re still confused about containers, the Citation Machine MLA cite generator can help! MLA citing is easier when using the tools at CitationMachine.net.

Other contributors

Many sources have people besides the author who contribute to the source. If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation.

To include another individual in the citation, after the title, place the role of the individual, the word “by,” and then their name in standard order.

If the name of the contributor comes after a period, capitalize the first letter in the role of the individual. If it comes after a comma, the first letter in the role of the individual is lowercased.

Here’s an example of a citation for a children’s book with the name of the illustrator included:

%%Rubin, Adam. Dragons Love Tacos. Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, 2012.

The names of editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and narrators can often be found in this part of the citation.

If the source that you’re citing states that it is a specific version or edition, this information is placed in the “versions” section of the citation.

When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral. Also, abbreviate the word “edition” to “ed.”

Here is an example of a citation with a specific edition:

%%Koger, Gregory. “Filibustering and Parties in the Modern State.” Congress Reconsidered, edited by Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Oppenheimer, 10th ed., CQ Press, 2013, pp. 221-236. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=b7gkLlSEeqwC&lpg=PP1&dq=10th%20edition&pg=PR6#v=onepage&q=10th%20edition&f=false.

Many sources have numbers associated with them. If you see a number different than the date, page numbers, or editions, include this information in the “numbers” section of the citation. For MLA citing, this includes volume and/or issue numbers (use the abbreviations vol. and no.), episode numbers, track numbers, or any other numbers that will help readers identify the specific source that you used. Do not include ISBN (International Standard Book Numbers) in the citation.

It is important to include the name of the publisher (the organization that created or published the source), so that readers can locate the exact source themselves.

Include publishers for all sources except periodicals. Also, for websites, exclude this information when the name of the publisher matches the name of the website. Furthermore, the name of the publisher is often excluded from the citation for second containers, since the publisher of the second container is not necessarily responsible for the creation or production of the source’s content.

Publication dates

Publication dates are extremely important to include in citations. They allow the reader to understand when sources were published. They are also used when readers are attempting to locate the source themselves.

Dates can be written in MLA in one of two ways. Researchers can write dates as:

Day Mo. Year

Mo. Day, Year

Whichever format you decide to use, use the same format for all of your citations. If using the Citation Machine citation generator, the date will be formatted in the same way for each citation.

While it isn’t necessary to include the full date for all source citations, use the amount of information that makes the most sense to help your readers understand and locate the source themselves.

Wondering what to do when your source has more than one date? Use the date that is most applicable to your research.

The location generally refers to the place where the readers can find the source. This includes page ranges, URLs, DOI numbers, track numbers, disc numbers, or even cities and towns.

You can usually leave out http:// or https:// from URLs unless you want to hyperlink them. For DOIs, use http:// or https:// before the DOI: https://doi.org/xx.xxxx/xxx.xxxx.xxxx .

For page numbers, when citing a source found on only one page, use p.

Example: p. 6.

When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. and then add the page numbers.

Example: pp. 24-38.

Since the location is the final piece of the citation, place a period at the end. When it comes to URLs, many students wonder if the links in citations should be live or not. If the paper is being shared electronically with a teacher and other readers, it may be helpful to include live links. If you’re not sure whether to include live links or not, ask your teacher or professor for guidance.

Looking for an online tool to do the work for you? Citation Machine citing tools could help! Our site is simple (and fun!) to use.

Need some more help? There is further good information here .

Common Citation Examples

ALL sources use this format:

%%Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title, roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). *Title of Second Container, roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the second container’s publisher, the date the second container was published, location.

*If the source does not have a second container, omit this last part of the citation.

Remember, the Citation Machine MLA formatter can help you save time and energy when creating your citations. Check out our MLA Citation Machine pages to learn more.

  • Journal Articles

How to Format a Paper

When it comes to formatting your paper or essay for academic purposes, there are specific MLA paper format guidelines to follow.

  • Use paper that is 8½-by-11 inch in size. This is the standard size for copier and printer paper.
  • Use high quality paper.
  • Your research paper or essay should have a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, left, and right sides of the paper.
  • While most word processors automatically format your paper to have one-inch margins, you can check or modify the margins of your paper by going to the “Page setup” section of your word processor.

Which font is acceptable to use?

  • Use an easily readable font, specifically one that allows readers to see the difference between regular and italicized letters.
  • Times New Roman, Arial, and Helvetica are recommended options.
  • Use 12-point size font.

Should I double-space the paper, including citations?

  • Double-space the entire paper.
  • There should be a double space between each piece of information in the heading.
  • Place a double space between the heading and the title.
  • Place a double space between the title and the beginning of the essay.
  • The works-cited list should be double-spaced as well. All citations are double-spaced.

Justification & Punctuation

  • Text should be left-justified, meaning that the text is aligned, or flush, against the left margin.
  • Indents signal to the reader that a new concept or idea is about to begin.
  • Use the “tab” button on your keyboard to create an indent.
  • Add one space after all punctuation marks.

Heading & Title

  • Include a proper heading and title
  • The heading should include the following, on separate lines, starting one inch from the top and left margins:
  • Your full name
  • Your teacher or professor’s name
  • The course number
  • Dates in the heading and the body of your essay should be consistent. Use the same format, either Day Month Year or Month Day, Year throughout the entire paper
  • Examples: 27 July 2017 or July 27, 2017
  • The title should be underneath the heading, centered in the middle of the page, without bold, underlined, italicized, or all capital letters.

Page numbers

  • Number all pages, including the very first page and the works-cited list.
  • Place page numbers in the top right corner, half an inch from the top margin and one inch from the right margin.
  • Include your last name to the left of the page number. Example: Jacobson 4

Here’s an example to provide you with a visual:

The image shows an example of the first page of an MLA paper that is formatted using guidelines described above under the heading How to Format a Paper.

If you need help with sentence structure or grammar, check out our paper checker. The paper checker will help to check every noun , verb , and adjective . If there are words that are misspelled or out of place, the paper checker will suggest edits and provide recommendations.

  • If a citation flows onto the second line, indent it in half an inch from the left margin (called a “hanging indent”).
  • For more information on the works-cited list, refer to “How to Make a Works Cited Page,” which is found below.

How to Create a Title Page

According to the Modern Language Association’s official guidelines for formatting a research paper, it is unnecessary to create or include an individual title page, or MLA cover page, at the beginning of a research project. Instead, follow the directions above, under “Heading & Title,” to create a proper heading. This heading is featured at the top of the first page of the research paper or research assignment.

If your instructor or professor does in fact require or ask for an MLA title page, follow the directions that you are given. They should provide you with the information needed to create a separate, individual title page. If they do not provide you with instructions, and you are left to create it at your own discretion, use the header information above to help you develop your research paper title page. You may want to include other information, such as the name of your school or university.

How to Make a Works Cited Page

The MLA Works Cited page is generally found at the end of a research paper or project. It contains a list of all the citations of sources used for the research project. Follow these directions to format the works-cited list to match the Modern Language Association’s guidelines.

  • The “Works Cited” page has its own page at the end of a research project.
  • Include the same running head as the rest of the project (Your last name and then the page number). The “Works Cited” page has the final page number for the project.
  • Name the page “Works Cited,” unless your list only includes one citation. In that case, title it in MLA “Work Cited.”
  • The title of the page (either “Works Cited” or “Work Cited”) is placed one inch from the top of the page, centered in the middle of the document.
  • Double space the entire document, even between the title of the page and the first citation.
  • Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation (usually the last name of the author or the first word in the title if the citation does not include the author’s name. Ignore “A,” “An,” and “The” if the title begins with these words.)
  • If there are multiple citations by the same author, place them in chronological order by the date published.
  • Also, instead of writing the author’s name twice in both citations, use three hyphens.

%%Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. Random House, 2009.

%%---. Gather Together in My Name. Random House, 1974.

  • All citations begin flush against the left margin. If the citation is long and rolls onto a second or third line, indent the lines below the first line half an inch from the left margin. This is called a “hanging indent.” The purpose of a hanging indent is to make the citations easier to read. If you’re using our MLA citation machine, we’ll format each of your references with a hanging indent for you.

%%Wai-Chung, Ho. “Political Influences on Curriculum Content and Musical Meaning: Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, 1949-1997.” Journal of Historical Research in Music Education, vol. 22, no. 1, 1 Oct. 2000, pp. 5-25. Periodicals Index Online, search-proquest-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/pio/docview/1297849364/citation/6B70D633F50C4EA0PQ/78?accountid=35635.

  • MLA “Works Cited” pages can be longer than one page. Use as many pages as necessary. If you have only one source to cite, do not place the one citation below the text of your paper. In MLA, a “Work Cited” page is still created for that individual citation.

Here’s a sample paper to give you an idea of what an MLA paper could look like. Included at the end is an MLA “Works Cited” page example.

The image shows the first page of an example MLA paper that is formatted using guidelines described under the heading How to Format a Paper.

Looking to add a relevant image, figure, table, or musical score to your paper? Here’s the easy way to do it, while following guidelines set forth by the Modern Language Association:

  • Place the image, figure, table, or music close to where it’s mentioned in the text.
  • Provide source information and any additional notes directly below the image, figure, table, or music.

For tables:

  • Label the table as “Table” followed by an arabic numeral such as “1.” Table 1 is the table closest to the beginning of the paper. The next table mentioned in the text would be Table 2, and so on.
  • Create a title for the table and place it below the label. Capitalize all important words.
  • The label (Table 1) and the title should be flush against the left margin.
  • Double-space everything.

Example of formatting a table in MLA format.

  • A figure can be a map, photograph, painting, pie chart, or any other type of image.
  • Create a label and place it below the figure. The figure first mentioned in the text of the project is either “Figure 1” or “Fig 1.” Though figures are usually abbreviated to “Fig.” Choose one style and use it consistently. The next mentioned figure is “Figure 2” or “Fig. 2.”, and so on.
  • Place a caption next to the label. If all of the source information is included in the caption, there isn’t a need to replicate that information in the works-cited list.

Example of formatting a figure in MLA format.

MLA Final Checklist

Think you’re through? We know this guide covered a LOT of information, so before you hand in that assignment, here’s a checklist to help you determine if you have everything you need:

_ Are both in-text and full citations included in the project? Remember, for every piece of outside information included in the text, there should be a corresponding in-text citation next to it. Include the full citation at the end, on the “Works Cited” page.

_ Are all citations, both in-text and full, properly formatted in MLA style? If you’re unsure, try out our citation generator!

_ Is your paper double-spaced in its entirety with one inch margins?

_ Do you have a running header on each page? (Your last name followed by the page number)

_ Did you use a font that is easy to read?

_ Are all citations on the MLA format works-cited list in alphabetical order?

Our plagiarism checker scans for any accidental instances of plagiarism. It scans for grammar and spelling errors, too. If you have an adverb , preposition , or conjunction that needs a slight adjustment, we may be able to suggest an edit.

Common Ways Students Accidentally Plagiarize

We spoke a bit about plagiarism at the beginning of this guide. Since you’re a responsible researcher, we’re sure you didn’t purposely plagiarize any portions of your paper. Did you know students and scholars sometimes accidentally plagiarize? Unfortunately, it happens more often than you probably realize. Luckily, there are ways to prevent accidental plagiarism and even some online tools to help!

Here are some common ways students accidentally plagiarize in their research papers and assignments:

1. Poor Paraphrasing

In the “How to create a paraphrase” section towards the top of this page, we share that paraphrases are “recycled information, in the paper writer’s own words and writing style.” If you attempt to paraphrase a few lines of text and it ends up looking and sounding too close to the original author’s words, it’s a poor paraphrase and considered plagiarism.

2. Incorrect Citations

If you cite something incorrectly, even if it’s done accidentally, it’s plagiarism. Any incorrect information in a reference, such as the wrong author name or the incorrect title, results in plagiarism.

3. Forgetting to include quotation marks

When you include a quote in your paper, you must place quotation marks around it. Failing to do so results in plagiarism.

If you’re worried about accidental plagiarism, try our Citation Machine Plus essay tool. It scans for grammar, but it also checks for any instances of accidental plagiarism. It’s simple and user-friendly, making it a great choice for stress-free paper editing and publishing.

Updated June 15, 2021

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Wendy Ikemoto. Michele Kirschenbaum has been an awesome school librarian since 2006 and is an expert in citing sources. Wendy Ikemoto has a master’s degree in library and information science and has been working for Citation Machine since 2012.

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what is a mla citation example

Citation and Plagiarism

  • Why Cite Your Sources
  • Citing in MLA Style
  • Citing Business Resources in APA
  • Citing in Chicago/Turabian Style
  • Citation Management Tools
  • Plagiarism and Turnitin

Citing AI Tools

Apa style guide citation example, mla style guide citation example, chicago style guide citation example, uo's student code and plagiarism, additional resources.

First steps

  • Before submitting any work that has been aided or generated by generative AI, always check with your instructor whether tools like ChatGPT can be used for your assignment. If they can, double check to see whether your instructor has provided any guidelines on how the generative AI tools can be used
  • Make sure you always verify and evaluate the sources cited by generated AI tools, as generative AI tools can create fake or inaccurate citations

How to cite AI generated content

The following format is appropriate for attribution (although students must check with their instructors to ensure this is sufficient):

  • AI tool and version
  • Prompt/s or instructions

More information

Check out the  Student and Faculty Guide for using Generative AI LibGuide to learn:

Basic information about generative AI (including what generative AI is and what some examples of generative AI tools are)

Responsible use and best practices in using generative AI (including what to consider if you're going to be using a generative AI tool to create content for an assignment)

Avoiding plagiarism (including how to cite content created by generative AI)

Finding generative AI tools to use in research, teaching, and learning (including what to consider when picking a tool

Here are some guidelines for referencing AI-generated content in APA style:

Provide in-text citations that include the name of the AI tool, its owner, and the year of publication. This includes citing direct quotations and paraphrases, as well as how you used the tool for tasks like editing, generating ideas and data processing. 

Provide further details of how you used the tool in a reference list, appendix, annotated bibliography or similar. Include the prompt you provided and what the generated text offered. If you are unsure of how to cite something, include a note in your text that describes how you used a certain tool. 

Author. (Date).  Name of tool  (Version of tool) [Large language model]. URL

OpenAI. (2023).  ChatGPT  (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].  https://chat.openai.com/chat

In-Text Citation Example:

(OpenAI, 2023)

  • APA Style Guide on Citing Generative AI

Here are some guidelines for referencing AI-generated content in MLA style:

  • Provide in-text citations of direct quotations and/or paraphrased content
  • When citing in MLA, AI-generated content is viewed as a source with no author, so you'll use the title of the source in your in-text citations, and in your reference list. The title you choose should be a brief description of the AI-generated content, such as an abbreviated version of the prompt you used. 
  • If you are able to create a shareable link to the chat transcript, include that instead of the tool's URL.

Format: "Description of chat" prompt.  Name of AI tool,  version of AI tool, Company, Date of chat, URL.

Example: 

"Examples of harm reduction initiatives" prompt.  ChatGPT,  23 Mar. version, OpenAI, 4 Mar. 2023, chat.openai.com/chat.

("Examples of harm reduction")

  • MLA Style Guide on Citing Generative AI

  Here are some guidelines for referencing AI-generated content in Chicago style:

  • Treat the AI tool as the author of the content.
  • If possible, describe the prompt used to generate the content in the text. If you are unable to do so,  include that information in a footnote or endnote.
  • The date used in your citation will be the date the content was generated.
  • A numbered footnote or endnote   might look like this:

Format: 1. Author, Title, Publisher, Date, url for the tool.  

Example (if information about the prompt has been included within the text of your paper):

1. Text generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI, March 7, 2023, https://chat.openai.com/chat. 

Example (including information about the prompt):

1. ChatGPT, response to "Explain how to make pizza dough from common household ingredients," OpenAI, March 7, 2023, https://chat.openai.com/chat. 

  • Chicago Style Guide on Citing Generative AI

UO's  Student Conduct Code  states that the use of material taken from any source—whether directly quoted, paraphrased, or otherwise adapted—must be attributed to that source. Please reference it to stay up to date with how the university approaches student use.

What is Plagiarism? 

Presenting another’s material as one’s own, including using another’s words, results, processes or ideas, in whole or in part, without giving appropriate credit. Plagiarism is contingent on the content of the submitted work product, regardless of whether the unattributed material was included intentionally or unintentionally. The use of material taken from any source—whether directly quoted, paraphrased, or otherwise adapted—must be attributed to that source. Plagiarism and Generative Artificial I ntelligence

Plagiarism also includes the submission of material generated by others. This may include:

Artificial intelligence (AI) content generators and generative AI tools such as ChatGPT

Websites with a question-and-answer feature, such as Course Hero, Chegg, and Bing, and

Assistance from tutors or online language translators that results in unoriginal work

  • << Previous: Plagiarism and Turnitin
  • Last Updated: Mar 29, 2024 8:58 AM
  • URL: https://researchguides.uoregon.edu/citing-plagiarism

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

MLA General Format 

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Welcome to the Purdue OWL

This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

MLA Style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and citing research in writing. MLA Style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages. 

Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstrating accountability to their source material. Most importantly, the use of MLA style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the purposeful or accidental uncredited use of source material produced by other writers. 

If you are asked to use MLA format, be sure to consult the  MLA Handbook  (9th edition). Publishing scholars and graduate students should also consult the  MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing  (3rd edition). The  MLA Handbook  is available in most writing centers and reference libraries. It is also widely available in bookstores, libraries, and at the MLA web site. See the Additional Resources section of this page for a list of helpful books and sites about using MLA Style.

Paper Format

The preparation of papers and manuscripts in MLA Style is covered in part four of the  MLA Style Manual . Below are some basic guidelines for formatting a paper in  MLA Style :

General Guidelines

  • Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper.
  • Double-space the text of your paper and use a legible font (e.g. Times New Roman). Whatever font you choose, MLA recommends that the regular and italics type styles contrast enough that they are each distinct from one another. The font size should be 12 pt.
  • Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks (unless otherwise prompted by your instructor).
  • Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides.
  • Indent the first line of each paragraph one half-inch from the left margin. MLA recommends that you use the “Tab” key as opposed to pushing the space bar five times.
  • Create a header that numbers all pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor may ask that you omit the number on your first page. Always follow your instructor's guidelines.)
  • Use italics throughout your essay to indicate the titles of longer works and, only when absolutely necessary, provide emphasis.
  • If you have any endnotes, include them on a separate page before your Works Cited page. Entitle the section Notes (centered, unformatted).

Formatting the First Page of Your Paper

  • Do not make a title page for your paper unless specifically requested or the paper is assigned as a group project. In the case of a group project, list all names of the contributors, giving each name its own line in the header, followed by the remaining MLA header requirements as described below. Format the remainder of the page as requested by the instructor.
  • In the upper left-hand corner of the first page, list your name, your instructor's name, the course, and the date. Again, be sure to use double-spaced text.
  • Double space again and center the title. Do not underline, italicize, or place your title in quotation marks. Write the title in Title Case (standard capitalization), not in all capital letters.
  • Use quotation marks and/or italics when referring to other works in your title, just as you would in your text. For example:  Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas  as Morality Play; Human Weariness in "After Apple Picking"
  • Double space between the title and the first line of the text.
  • Create a header in the upper right-hand corner that includes your last name, followed by a space with a page number. Number all pages consecutively with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.), one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor or other readers may ask that you omit the last name/page number header on your first page. Always follow instructor guidelines.)

Here is a sample of the first page of a paper in MLA style:

This image shows the first page of an MLA paper.

The First Page of an MLA Paper

Section Headings

Writers sometimes use section headings to improve a document’s readability. These sections may include individual chapters or other named parts of a book or essay.

MLA recommends that when dividing an essay into sections you number those sections with an Arabic number and a period followed by a space and the section name.

MLA does not have a prescribed system of headings for books (for more information on headings, please see page 146 in the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing , 3rd edition). If you are only using one level of headings, meaning that all of the sections are distinct and parallel and have no additional sections that fit within them, MLA recommends that these sections resemble one another grammatically. For instance, if your headings are typically short phrases, make all of the headings short phrases (and not, for example, full sentences). Otherwise, the formatting is up to you. It should, however, be consistent throughout the document.

If you employ multiple levels of headings (some of your sections have sections within sections), you may want to provide a key of your chosen level headings and their formatting to your instructor or editor.

Sample Section Headings

The following sample headings are meant to be used only as a reference. You may employ whatever system of formatting that works best for you so long as it remains consistent throughout the document.

Formatted, unnumbered:

Level 1 Heading: bold, flush left

Level 2 Heading: italics, flush left

Level 3 Heading: centered, bold

Level 4 Heading: centered, italics

Level 5 Heading: underlined, flush left

IMAGES

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  4. MLA 8th Edition

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  5. Two Types of Citation

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  2. Learn more about the MLA Citation Style! 📚

  3. MLA: In-Text Citations 2/3

  4. MLA Citation Video for Books

  5. MLA In-Text Citation Format

  6. Getting Started on an Essay

COMMENTS

  1. MLA Citation Examples

    MLA Citation Examples. MLA citing is easier when you have visuals and examples to take a peek at. That's why we've put together a list of the most common source types that students and scholars reference. If you're trying to reference a book, newspaper article, website, or tweet, you'll find the structures you need to get on the right ...

  2. MLA Formatting and Style Guide

    MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

  3. MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

    In-text citations: Author-page style. MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number (s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the ...

  4. MLA Format

    MLA format is a widely used citation style for academic papers. Learn how to format your title page, header, and Works Cited page with our free template and examples. Watch our 3-minute video to see how easy it is to apply MLA rules to your document.

  5. MLA In-text Citations

    MLA in-text citation examples. MLA is the second most popular citation style (Smith and Morrison 17-19). According to Smith and Morrison, MLA is the second most popular citation style (17-19). APA is by far "the most used citation style in the US" (Moore et al. 74), but it is less dominant in the UK (Smith 16).

  6. Student's Guide to MLA Style (2021)

    The nine core elements of MLA citations. 1. Author. Begin each source entry with the name of the author (s) or creator (s). The name of the first author is always inverted (Last name, First name). When a source has two authors, the second author's name is shown in the normal order (First name Last name).

  7. Citations by Format

    Citations by Format. Entries in the works-cited list are created using the MLA template of core elements—facts common to most sources, like author, title, and publication date. To use the template, evaluate the work you're citing to see which elements apply to the source. Then, list each element relevant to your source in the order given on ...

  8. MLA Sample Works Cited Page

    Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

  9. Using MLA Format

    Get started with MLA style. Learn how to document sources, set up your paper, and improve your teaching and writing. Document Sources Works Cited Quick Guide Learn how to use the MLA format template. Digital Citation Tool Build citations with our interactive template. In-Text Citations Get help with in-text citations. Endnotes and Footnotes Read our …

  10. Works Cited: A Quick Guide

    The concept of containers is crucial to MLA style. When the source being documented forms part of a larger whole, the larger whole can be thought of as a container that holds the source. For example, a short story may be contained in an anthology. The short story is the source, and the anthology is the container.

  11. MLA Works Cited

    Formatting the Works Cited page. The Works Cited appears at the end of your paper. The layout is similar to the rest of an MLA format paper:. Title the page Works Cited, centered and in plain text (no italics, bold, or underline).

  12. MLA Style

    With this focus on source evaluation as the cornerstone of citation, MLA style promotes the skills of information and digital literacy so crucial today. The new edition offers. New chapters on grammar, punctuation, capitalization, spelling, numbers, italics, abbreviations, and principles of inclusive language.

  13. MLA Sample Paper

    MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics; MLA Formatting Lists MLA Formatting Quotations; MLA Endnotes and Footnotes; MLA Works Cited Page: Basic Format; MLA Works Cited Page: Books; MLA Works Cited Page: Periodicals; MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications) MLA Works Cited: Other Common Sources; MLA Additional Resources; MLA ...

  14. A Complete Guide to MLA 8th Edition

    Key differences in MLA 8th Edition. 1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type. In previous editions of the MLA Handbook, researchers were required to locate the citation format for the source that they used. For example, if a magazine was used, researchers needed to locate the specific citation format for periodicals.

  15. How to Cite a Website in MLA

    If a source has no author, start the MLA Works Cited entry with the source title.Use a shortened version of the title in your MLA in-text citation.. If a source has no page numbers, you can use an alternative locator (e.g. a chapter number, or a timestamp for a video or audio source) to identify the relevant passage in your in-text citation. If the source has no numbered divisions, cite only ...

  16. Citation Machine®: MLA Format & MLA Citation Generator

    These citations are usually listed in alphabetical order by the author's last names and include all of the information necessary for readers to be able to locate the source themselves. Full citations are generally placed in this MLA citation format: %%Last name of the author, First name of the author. "Source's Title.".

  17. How to Cite a Journal Article in MLA

    MLA in-text citation. (Eve and Street 84) If an article has three or more authors, include only the first author's name, followed by " et al. ". MLA journal citation: 3+ authors. MLA format. Author last name, First name, et al. " Article Title .". Journal Name, vol. Volume, no. Issue, Month Year, Page range.

  18. Research Guides: Citation and Plagiarism: Citing Generative AI

    Here are some guidelines for referencing AI-generated content in MLA style: Provide in-text citations of direct quotations and/or paraphrased content; When citing in MLA, AI-generated content is viewed as a source with no author, so you'll use the title of the source in your in-text citations, and in your reference list.

  19. MLA Formatting and Style Guide

    Overview of how to create MLA in-text citations and reference lists In-Text Citations. Resources on using in-text citations in MLA style. ... Resources on writing an MLA style works cited page, including citation formats. Basic Format Basic guidelines for formatting the works cited page at the end of an MLA style paper Books Periodicals

  20. General Format

    MLA General Format. MLA Style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and citing research in writing. MLA Style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages. Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstrating accountability ...

  21. How to Cite a Book in MLA

    Citing a book chapter. Use this format if the book's chapters are written by different authors, or if the book is a collection of self-contained works (such as stories, essays, poems or plays).A similar format can be used to cite images from books or dictionary entries.If you cite several chapters from the same book, include a separate Works Cited entry for each one.